WikiJournal of Medicine/Dyslexia
WikiJournal of Medicine
Open access • Publication charge free • Public peer review • Wikipedia-integrated
Dyslexia is a heterogeneous disorder, which means that not all people with dyslexia have the same signs, symptoms, underlying deficits, or functional impairment. Children and adults with dyslexia exhibit higher rates of comorbid conditions such as developmental language disorders; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and difficulties with motor coordination, mental calculation, concentration, and personal organization, but these are not, by themselves, markers of dyslexia. Dyslexia manifests on a continuum of severity—it is a dimensional disorder. People with this disorder have a normal desire to learn.
Dyslexia is believed to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors, and their interaction. Dyslexia often runs in families. Dyslexia that develops subsequent to a traumatic brain injury, stroke, or dementia is usually called acquired dyslexia. The underlying mechanisms of dyslexia are problems within the brain's language processing. Dyslexia is diagnosed through a series of tests of memory, spelling, and reading skills. Dyslexia is separate from reading difficulties caused by hearing or vision problems or by insufficient teaching or opportunity to learn.
Treatment involves adjusting teaching methods to meet the person's needs. While not curing the underlying problem, it may decrease the degree or impact of symptoms. Treatments targeting vision are not effective. Dyslexia is the most common learning disability and occurs in all areas of the world. It affects 3–7% of the population, however, up to 20% of the general population may have some degree of symptoms.
Dyslexia was clinically described by Oswald Berkhan in 1881, but the term dyslexia was coined in 1883 by Rudolf Berlin, an ophthalmologist in Stuttgart. He used the term to refer to the case of a young boy who had severe difficulty learning to read and write, despite showing typical intelligence and physical abilities in all other respects. In 1896, W. Pringle Morgan, a British physician from Seaford, East Sussex, published a description of a reading-specific learning disorder in a report to the British Medical Journal titled "Congenital Word Blindness". The distinction between phonological versus surface types of dyslexia is only descriptive, and without any etiological assumption as to the underlying brain mechanisms. However, studies have alluded to potential differences due to variation in performance.
Signs and symptoms
In early childhood, symptoms that correlate with a later diagnosis of dyslexia include delayed onset of speech and a lack of phonological awareness. A common myth closely associates dyslexia with mirror writing and reading letters or words backwards. These behaviors are seen in many children as they learn to read and write, and are not considered to be defining characteristics of dyslexia.
School-age children with dyslexia may exhibit signs of difficulty in identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting the number of syllables in words–both of which depend on phonological awareness. They may also show difficulty in segmenting words into individual sounds or may blend sounds when producing words, indicating reduced phonemic awareness. Difficulties with word retrieval or naming things is also associated with dyslexia.:647 People with dyslexia are commonly poor spellers, a feature sometimes called dysorthographia or dysgraphia, which depends on orthographic coding.
Problems persist into adolescence and adulthood and may include difficulties with summarizing stories, memorization, reading aloud, or learning foreign languages. Adults with dyslexia can often read with good comprehension, though they tend to read more slowly than others without a learning difficulty and perform worse in spelling tests or when reading nonsense words–a measure of phonological awareness.
Dyslexia often co-occurs with other learning disorders, but the reasons for this comorbidity have not been clearly identified. These associated disabilities include:
- Dysgraphia: A disorder involving difficulties with writing or typing, sometimes due to problems with eye–hand coordination; it also can impede direction- or sequence-oriented processes, such as tying knots or carrying out repetitive tasks. In dyslexia, dysgraphia is often multifactorial, due to impaired letter-writing automaticity, organizational and elaborative difficulties, and impaired visual word forming, which makes it more difficult to retrieve the visual picture of words required for spelling.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A disorder characterized by problems sustaining attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively. Dyslexia and ADHD commonly occur together. Approximately 15% or 12–24% of people with dyslexia have ADHD; and up to 35% of people with ADHD have dyslexia.
- Auditory processing disorder: A listening disorder that affects the ability to process auditory information. This can lead to problems with auditory memory and auditory sequencing. Many people with dyslexia have auditory processing problems, and may develop their own logographic cues to compensate for this type of deficit. Some research suggests that auditory processing skills could be the primary shortfall in dyslexia.
- Developmental coordination disorder: A neurological condition characterized by difficulty in carrying out routine tasks involving balance, fine-motor control, kinesthetic coordination, difficulty in the use of speech sounds, problems with short-term memory, and organization.
Researchers have been trying to find the neurobiological basis of dyslexia since the condition was first identified in 1881. For example, some have tried to associate the common problem among people with dyslexia of not being able to see letters clearly to abnormal development of their visual nerve cells.
Modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), have shown a correlation between both functional and structural differences in the brains of children with reading difficulties. Some people with dyslexia show less electrical activation in parts of the left hemisphere of the brain involved with reading, such as the inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and the middle and ventral temporal cortex. Over the past decade, brain activation studies using PET to study language have produced a breakthrough in the understanding of the neural basis of language. Neural bases for the visual lexicon and for auditory verbal short-term memory components have been proposed, with some implication that the observed neural manifestation of developmental dyslexia is task-specific (i.e., functional rather than structural). fMRIs of people with dyslexia indicate an interactive role of the cerebellum and cerebral cortex as well as other brain structures in reading.
The cerebellar theory of dyslexia proposes that impairment of cerebellum-controlled muscle movement affects the formation of words by the tongue and facial muscles, resulting in the fluency problems that some people with dyslexia experience. The cerebellum is also involved in the automatization of some tasks, such as reading. The fact that some children with dyslexia have motor task and balance impairments could be consistent with a cerebellar role in their reading difficulties. However, the cerebellar theory has not been supported by controlled research studies.
Research into potential genetic causes of dyslexia has its roots in post-autopsy examination of the brains of people with dyslexia. Observed anatomical differences in the language centers of such brains include microscopic cortical malformations known as ectopias, and more rarely, vascular micro-malformations, and microgyrus—a smaller than usual size for the gyrus. The previously cited studies and others suggest that abnormal cortical development, presumed to occur before or during the sixth month of fetal brain development, may have caused the abnormalities. Abnormal cell formations in people with dyslexia have also been reported in non-language cerebral and subcortical brain structures. Several genes have been associated with dyslexia, including DCDC2 and KIAA0319 on chromosome 6, and DYX1C1 on chromosome 15.
The contribution of gene–environment interaction to reading disability has been intensely studied using twin studies, which estimate the proportion of variance associated with a person's environment and the proportion associated with their genes. Both environmental and genetic factors appear to contribute to reading development. Studies examining the influence of environmental factors such as parental education and teaching quality have determined that genetics have greater influence in supportive, rather than less optimal, environments. However, more optimal conditions may just allow those genetic risk factors to account for more of the variance in outcome because the environmental risk factors have been minimized.
As environment plays a large role in learning and memory, it is likely that epigenetic modifications play an important role in reading ability. Measures of gene expression, histone modifications, and methylation in the human periphery are used to study epigenetic processes; however, all of these have limitations in the extrapolation of results for application to the human brain.
The orthographic complexity of a language directly affects how difficult it is to learn to read it.:266 English and French have comparatively "deep" phonemic orthographies within the Latin alphabet writing system, with complex structures employing spelling patterns on several levels: letter-sound correspondence, syllables, and morphemes.:421 Languages such as Spanish, Italian and Finnish have mostly alphabetic orthographies, which primarily employ letter-sound correspondence—so-called "shallow" orthographies—which makes them easier to learn for people with dyslexia.:266 Logographic writing systems, such as Chinese characters, have extensive symbol use; and these also pose problems for dyslexic learners.
Most people who are right-hand dominant have the left hemisphere of their brain specialize more in language processing. In terms of the mechanism of dyslexia, fMRI studies suggest that this specialization may be less pronounced or even absent in cases with dyslexia. Additionally, anatomical differences in the corpus callosum, the bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres, have been linked to dyslexia via different studies.
Data via diffusion tensor MRI indicate changes in connectivity or in gray matter density in areas related to reading/language. Finally, the left inferior frontal gyrus has shown differences in phonological processing in people with dyslexia. Neurophysiological and imaging procedures are being used to ascertain phenotypic characteristics in people with dyslexia thus identifying the effects of certain genes.
Dual route theory
The dual-route theory of reading aloud was first described in the early 1970s. This theory suggests that two separate mental mechanisms, or cognitive routes, are involved in reading aloud.:373 One mechanism is the lexical route, which is the process whereby skilled readers can recognize known words by sight alone, through a "dictionary" lookup procedure.:450 The other mechanism is the nonlexical or sublexical route, which is the process whereby the reader can "sound out" a written word.:450 This is done by identifying the word's constituent parts (letters, phonemes, graphemes) and applying knowledge of how these parts are associated with each other, for example, how a string of neighboring letters sound together. The dual-route system could explain the different rates of dyslexia occurrence between different languages (e.g., the consistency of phonological rules in the Spanish language could account for the fact that Spanish-speaking children show a higher level of performance in non-word reading, when compared to English-speakers).
Dyslexia is a heterogeneous, dimensional learning disorder that impairs accurate and fluent word reading and spelling. Typical—but not universal—features include difficulties with phonological awareness; inefficient and often inaccurate processing of sounds in oral language (phonological processing); and verbal working memory deficits.
Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, subcategorized in diagnostic guides as a learning disorder with impairment in reading (ICD-11 prefixes "developmental" to "learning disorder"; DSM-5 uses "specific"). Dyslexia is not a problem with intelligence. Emotional problems often arise secondary to learning difficulties. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke describes dyslexia as "difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), spelling, and/or rapid visual-verbal responding".
The British Dyslexia Association defines dyslexia as "a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling" and is characterized by "difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speed". Phonological awareness enables one to identify, discriminate, remember (working memory), and mentally manipulate the sound structures of language—phonemes, onsite-rime segments, syllables, and words.
Principles of Assessment
- Strive for a multidisciplinary team approach involving the child's parent(s) and teacher(s); school psychologist; pediatrician; and, as appropriate, speech and language pathologist (speech therapist); and occupational therapist.
- Possess a thorough familiarity with typical ages children reach various general developmental milestones (write first name; draw a square), and domain-specific milestones, such as phonological awareness (recognize rhyming words; identify the initial sounds in words).
- Avoid over-reliance on tests. Careful observation of the child in the school and home environments, and sensitive, comprehensive parental interviews are just as important as tests. 
- Take advantage of the empirically supported "response to intervention" (RTI) approach, which "... involves monitoring the progress of a group of children through a programme of intervention rather than undertaking a static assessment of their current skills. Children with the most need are those who fail to respond to effective teaching, and they are readily identified using this approach."
Assessment instruments (tests)
There are a wide range of tests that are used in clinical and educational settings to evaluate the possibility that a person might have dyslexia. If initial testing suggests that a person might have dyslexia, such tests are often followed up with a full diagnostic assessment to determine the extent and nature of the disorder. Some tests can be administered by a teacher or computer; others require specialized training and are given by psychologists. Some test results indicate how to carry out teaching strategies. Because a variety of different cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and environmental factors all could contribute to difficultly learning to read, a comprehensive evaluation should consider these different possibilities. These tests and observations can include:
- General measures of cognitive ability, such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, or Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. Low general cognitive ability would make reading more difficult. Cognitive ability measures also often try to measure different cognitive cognitive processes, such as verbal ability, nonverbal and spatial reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. There are different versions of these tests for different age groups. Almost all of these require additional training to give and score correctly, and are done by psychologists. According to Mather and Schneider (2015), a confirmatory profile and/or pattern of scores on cognitive tests confirming or ruling-out reading disorder has not yet been identified.
- Screening or evaluation for mental health conditions: Parents and teachers can complete rating scales or behavior checklists to gather information about emotional and behavioral functioning for younger people. Many checklists have similar versions for parents, teachers, and younger people old enough to read reasonably well (often 11 years and older) to complete. Examples include the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. All of these have nationally representative norms, making it possible to compare the level of symptoms to what would be typical for the younger person's age and biological sex. Other checklists link more specifically to psychiatric diagnoses, such as the Vanderbilt ADHD Rating Scales or the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Screening uses brief tools that are designed to catch cases with a disorder, but they often get false positive scores for people who do not have the disorder. Screeners should be followed up by a more accurate test or diagnostic interview as a result. Depressive disorders and anxiety disorders are two-three times higher in people with dyslexia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is more common, as well.
- Review of academic achievement and skills: Average spelling/reading ability for a dyslexic is a percentage ranking <16, well below normal. In addition to reviewing grades and teacher notes, standardized test results are helpful in evaluating progress. These include group administered tests, such as the Iowa Tests of Educational Development, that a teacher may give to a group or whole classroom of younger people at the same time. They also could include individually administered tests of achievement, such as the Wide Range Achievement Test, or the Woodcock-Johnson (which also includes a set of achievement tests). The individually administered tests again require more specialized training.
Screening procedures seek to identify children who show signs of possible dyslexia. In the preschool years, a family history of dyslexia, particularly in biological parents and siblings, predicts an eventual dyslexia diagnosis better than any test. In primary school (ages 5–7), the ideal screening procedure consist of training primary school teachers to carefully observe and record their pupils' progress through the phonics curriculum, and thereby identify children progressing slowly.:93–94 When teachers identify such students they can supplement their observations with screening tests such as the Phonics screening check used by United Kingdom schools during Year One.
In the medical setting, child and adolescent psychiatrist M. S. Thambirajah emphasizes that "[g]iven the high prevalence of developmental disorders in school-aged children, all children seen in clinics should be systematically screened for developmental disorders irrespective of the presenting problem/s." Thambirajah recommends screening for developmental disorders, including dyslexia, by conducting a brief developmental history, a preliminary psychosocial developmental examination, and obtaining a school report regarding academic and social functioning.
Through the use of compensation strategies, therapy and educational support, individuals with dyslexia can learn to read and write. There are techniques and technical aids that help to manage or conceal symptoms of the disorder. Reducing stress and anxiety can sometimes improve written comprehension. For dyslexia intervention with alphabet-writing systems, the fundamental aim is to increase a child's awareness of correspondences between graphemes (letters) and phonemes (sounds), and to relate these to reading and spelling by teaching how sounds blend into words. Reinforced collateral training focused on reading and spelling may yield longer-lasting gains than oral phonological training alone. Early intervention can be successful in reducing reading failure.
There is some evidence that the use of specially-tailored fonts may help with dyslexia. These fonts, which include Dyslexie, OpenDyslexic, and Lexie Readable, were created based on the idea that many of the letters of the Latin alphabet are visually similar and may, therefore, confuse people with dyslexia. Dyslexie and OpenDyslexic both put emphasis on making each letter more distinctive in order to be more easily identified. The benefits, however, might largely be due to the added spacing between words. In terms of music and any possible positive effects on people with dyslexia, until now there is currently no evidence or data showing that music education significantly improves the reading skills of adolescents with dyslexia.
Dyslexic children require special instruction for word analysis and spelling from an early age. While there are fonts that may help people with dyslexia better understand writing, this might simply be due to the added spacing between words. The prognosis, generally speaking, is positive for individuals who are identified in childhood and receive support from friends and family. The New York educational system (NYED) indicates "a daily uninterrupted 90 minute block of instruction in reading", furthermore "instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary development, reading fluency" so as to improve the individuals reading ability.
The percentage of people with dyslexia is unknown, but it has been estimated to be as low as 5% and as high as 17% of the population. While it is diagnosed more often in males, some believe that it affects males and females equally.
There are different definitions of dyslexia used throughout the world, but despite significant differences in writing systems, dyslexia occurs in different populations. Dyslexia is not limited to difficulty in converting letters to sounds, and Chinese people with dyslexia may have difficulty converting Chinese characters into their meanings. The Chinese vocabulary uses logographic, monographic, non-alphabet writing where one character can represent an individual phoneme.
The phonological-processing hypothesis attempts to explain why dyslexia occurs in a wide variety of languages. Furthermore, the relationship between phonological capacity and reading appears to be influenced by orthography.
Most currently available dyslexia research relates to alphabetic writing systems, and especially to European languages. However, substantial research is also available regarding people with dyslexia who speak Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, or other languages. The outward expression of individuals with reading disability and regular poor readers is the same in some respects.
As is the case with any disorder, society often makes an assessment based on incomplete information. Before the 1980s, dyslexia was thought to be a consequence of education, rather than a neurological disability. As a result, society often misjudges those with the disorder. There is also sometimes a workplace stigma and negative attitude towards those with dyslexia. If the instructors of a person with dyslexia lack the necessary training to support a child with the condition, there is often a negative effect on the student's learning participation.
- This article is about developmental dyslexia, i.e., dyslexia that begins in early childhood, as opposed to acquired dyslexia. Acquired dyslexia occurs subsequent to neurological insult, such as traumatic brain injury or stroke. People with acquired dyslexia exhibit some of the signs or symptoms of developmental disorder, but acquired dyslexia is a substantially different condition, generally requiring different assessment strategies and different treatment approaches than developmental dyslexia.
- Oxford English Dictionary. 3rd ed. "dyslexia, n. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2012 ("a learning disability specifically affecting the attainment of literacy, with difficulty esp. in word recognition, spelling, and the conversion of letters to sounds, occurring in a child with otherwise normal development, and now usually regarded as a neurodevelopmental disorder with a genetic component.")
- Woollams, Anna M. (2014-01-19). "Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 369 (1634): 20120398. doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0398. ISSN 0962-8436. PMID 24324241. PMC PMC3866427. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0398.
- Sir Jim Rose, Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia and Literacy Difficulties (An independent report from Sir Jim Rose to the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families, 2009).
- Webster's Third New International Dictionary. "dyslexia, noun". Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1961, rev. 2016 ("a variable often familial learning disability involving difficulties in acquiring and processing language that is typically manifested by a lack of proficiency in reading, spelling, and writing").
- Longe, Jacqueline L., ed. "Dyslexia". Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. 3rd ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, 2006. ISBN 9781414403687 ("Dyslexia is a learning disorder characterized by problems in processing words into meaningful information. This is most strongly reflected in difficulty in learning to read.")
- Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M.; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J. (May 2016). "Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory". Journal of Learning Disabilities 49 (3): 272–281. doi:10.1177/0022219414547221. PMID 25124507. https://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/43639/1/Moll_Cognitive.pdf.
- "Dyslexia - Symptoms". nhs.uk. 15 August 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- Moura, Octávio; Pereira, Marcelino; Alfaiate, Cláudia; Fernandes, Eva; Fernandes, Boavida; Nogueira, Susana; Moreno, Joana; Simões, Mário R. (March 2017). "Neurocognitive functioning in children with developmental dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Multiple deficits and diagnostic accuracy". Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 39 (3): 296–312. doi:10.1080/13803395.2016.1225007. PMID 27617883.
- Araujo, Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz Campos (2012). "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia: a history of overlap". Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 70 (2): 83-84. doi:10.1590/S0004-282X2012000200001.
- Sexton, Chris C.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Bell, Jill A.; Classi, Peter M. (November 2012). "The Co-occurrence of Reading Disorder and ADHD: Epidemiology, Treatment, Psychosocial Impact, and Economic Burden". Journal of Learning Disabilities 45 (6): 538–564. doi:10.1177/0022219411407772. PMID 21757683.
- Fletcher, Jack M. (July 2009). "Dyslexia: The evolution of a scientific concept". Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 15 (4): 501–508. doi:10.1017/S1355617709090900. PMID 19573267. PMC 3079378. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079378/. "... international epidemiological studies have shown that dyslexia is dimensional and exists as the lower end of a normal continuum of reading ability"
- Snowling, Margaret J. (January 2013). "Early identification and interventions for dyslexia: a contemporary view". Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs 13 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1111/j.1471-3802.2012.01262.x. PMID 26290655. PMC 4538781. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4538781/. "In short, dyslexia is not a clear-cut diagnostic category. Rather, in keeping with other neurodevelopmental disorders that affect learning, it can be thought of as the behavioural outcome of a multiple risk factors, both genetic and environmental. It is also increasingly recognised that dyslexia co-occurs with other disorders; in particular, many children with dyslexia have language impairments, symptoms of inattention, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and problems of motor coordination. This nuanced view of dyslexia as a dimension that has continuities and comorbidities with other disorders has significant implications for contemporary theory and practice. (p. 4 of author's copy on PMC) (citations omitted)"
- "NINDS Dyslexia Information Page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. National Institutes of Health. 11 September 2015. Archived from the original on 27 July 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Thompson, Paul A.; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Gooch, Debbie; Hayiou‐Thomas, Emma; Snowling, Margaret J. (2015). "Developmental dyslexia: predicting individual risk". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 56 (9): 976–987. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12412. ("Dyslexia is a specific learning disorder which runs in families; the consensus view for many years has been that it is the behavioral outcome of an underlying phonological deficit.").
- "What are reading disorders?". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F. (May 2012). "Developmental dyslexia". Lancet 379 (9830): 1997–2007. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60198-6. PMID 22513218. PMC 3465717. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3465717/.
- "How are reading disorders diagnosed?". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "What are common treatments for reading disorders?". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Handler, SM; Fierson, WM; Section on, Ophthalmology; Council on Children with, Disabilities; American Academy of, Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and, Strabismus; American Association of Certified, Orthoptists (March 2011). "Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision.". Pediatrics 127 (3): e818–56. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3670. PMID 21357342.
- Umphred, Darcy Ann; Lazaro, Rolando T.; Roller, Margaret; Burton, Gordon (2013). Neurological Rehabilitation. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-323-26649-9. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109173020/https://books.google.com/books?id=lVJPAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA383.
- Kooij, J. J. Sandra (2013). Adult ADHD: Diagnostic assessment and treatment (3rd ed.). London: Springer. p. 83. doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-4138-9. ISBN 9781447141389. Archived from the original on 30 April 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160430012545/https://books.google.com/books?id=JM_awX-mSPoC&pg=PA83.
- "How many people are affected by/at risk for reading disorders?". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Berkhan O (1917). "Über die Wortblindheit, ein Stammeln im Sprechen und Schreiben, ein Fehl im Lesen". Neurologisches Centralblatt 36: 914–27. https://books.google.com/?id=DmEsAQAAIAAJ&dq=editions%3AUCALB3248710&q=Wortblindheit#search_anchor.
- Berlin, Rudolf. [No title.] Medicinisches Correspondenzblatt des Württembergischen Ärztlichen Landesvereins [Correspondence Sheet of the Württemberg Medical Association] 53 (1883): 209.
- Webster's Third New International Dictionary. "History and Etymology for dyslexia", s.v. "dyslexia, noun". Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1961, rev. 2016.
- "Über Dyslexie". Archiv für Psychiatrie 15: 276–278. 1884.
- Annual of the Universal Medical Sciences and Analytical Index: A Yearly Report of the Progress of the General Sanitary Sciences Throughout the World. F. A. Davis Company. 1888. p. 39. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109200623/https://books.google.com/books?id=5_IhAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA39.
- Ramus, Franck; Altarelli, Irene (2014). "Developmental Dyslexia". In Brooks, Patricia; Vera, Kempe. Encyclopedia of language development. SAGE. p. 130. doi:10.4135/9781483346441.n43. ISBN 9781483346434. https://books.google.com/?id=mvfSAwAAQBAJ&pg=PR30.
- Mishra, Srikanta K. (October 2014). "Medial efferent mechanisms in children with auditory processing disorders.". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8: 860. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00860. PMID 25386132. PMC 4209830. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4209830/.
- Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Ruscio, John; Beyerstein, Barry L. (15 September 2011). 50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology: Shattering Widespread Misconceptions about Human Behavior. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-1-4443-6074-5. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109130327/https://books.google.com/books?id=8DlS0gfO_QUC&pg=PT88. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Dyslexia and Related Disorders" (PDF). Alabama Dyslexia Association. International Dyslexia Association. January 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- Miller, Stephanie; Bussman Gillis, Marjorie (2014). "The Language Puzzle: Connecting the Study of Linguistics with a Multisensory Language Instructional Programme in Foreign Language Learning". In Peer, Lindsay; Reid, Gavin. Multilingualism, Literacy and Dyslexia: A Challenge for Educators. Routledge. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-136-60899-5. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109204808/https://books.google.com/books?id=-aoABAAAQBAJ&pg=PA219.
- Shaywitz, Sally E.; Shaywitz, Bennett A. (2013). "Making a Hidden Disability Visible: What Has Been Learned from Neurobiological Studies of Dyslexia". In Swanson, H. Lee; Harris, Karen R.; Graham, Steve. Handbook of Learning Disabilities (2nd ed.). Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-4625-0856-3. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://books.google.com/books?id=oakQfUuutVwC&pg=PA647.
- Jarrad, Lum (October 2013). "Procedural learning is impaired in dyslexia: evidence from a meta-analysis of serial reaction time studies". Research of Developmental Disabilities 34 (10): 3460–76. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.07.017. PMID 23920029. PMC 3784964. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784964/.
- Nicolson, R. I.; Fawcett, A. J. (September 2009). "Dyslexia, dysgraphia, procedural learning and the cerebellum". Cortex 47 (1): 117–27. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2009.08.016. PMID 19818437.
- Phillips, Lindsey A.; Clark, Elaine (2 January 2007). "Dysgraphia". In Reynolds, Cecil R.; Fletcher-Janzen, Elaine. Encyclopedia of Special Education. John Wiley & Sons. p. 771. doi:10.1002/9780470373699.speced0706. ISBN 978-0-471-67798-7.
- "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder". NIH: National Institute of Mental Health. March 2016. Archived from the original on 23 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- Comer, Ronald (2011). Psychology Around Us. RR Donnelley. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-471-38519-6. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160604000711/https://books.google.com/books?id=ySIc1BcPJu8C&pg=RA1-PA233.
- Germanò, E; Gagliano, A; Curatolo, P (2010). "Comorbidity of ADHD and Dyslexia". Developmental Neuropsychology 35 (5): 475–493. doi:10.1080/87565641.2010.494748. PMID 20721770. http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/260009__925867416.pdf.
- Baumgaertel, Anna; Blaskey, Lisa; Antia, Smita X. (2008). "Disruptive Behavior Disorders". In Fatemi, S. Hossein; Clayton, Paula J.. The Medical Basis of Psychiatry (3rd ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 308. doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-252-6_18. ISBN 978-1-59745-252-6. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109101234/https://books.google.com/books?id=RJOy1vy2RKQC&pg=PA308.
- Capellini, Simone Aparecida (2007). Neuropsycholinguistic Perspectives on Dyslexia and Other Learning Disabilities. Nova Publishers. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-60021-537-7. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109113545/https://books.google.com/books?id=uiEaMQVwyzYC&pg=PA94.
- Moore, D. R. (July 2011). "The diagnosis and management of auditory processing disorder". Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 42 (3): 303–8. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2011/10-0032). PMID 21757566.
- Pammer, Kristen (January 2014). "Brain mechanisms and reading remediation: more questions than answers.". Scientifica 2014: 802741. doi:10.1155/2014/802741. PMID 24527259. PMC 3913493. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3913493/.
- Law, J (2014). "relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8: 482. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00482. PMID 25071512. PMC 4078926. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4078926/.
- Susan J. Pickering (2012). "Working Memory in Dyslexia". In Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan E.. Working Memory and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-135-42134-2. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://books.google.com/books?id=IoXidOBdNpMC&pg=PA29.
- Lyytinen, Heikki; Erskine, Jane; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Guttorm, Tomi; Hintikka, Sini; Hamalainen, Jarmo et al. (2008). "Early Identification and Prevention of Dyslexia: Results from a Prospective Follow-up Study of Children at Familial Risk for Dyslexia". In Reid, Gavin; Fawcett, Angela J.; Manis, Frank et al.. The SAGE Handbook of Dyslexia. SAGE Publications. p. 127. doi:10.4135/9780857020987.n7. ISBN 978-1-84860-037-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=937rqz4Ryc8C&pg=PA127.
- Stein, John (2014). "Dyslexia: the Role of Vision and Visual Attention". Current Developmental Disorders Reports 1 (4): 267–80. doi:10.1007/s40474-014-0030-6. PMID 25346883. PMC 4203994. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4203994/.
- Whitaker, Harry A. (2010). Concise Encyclopedia of Brain and Language. Elsevier. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-08-096499-7. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109173223/https://books.google.com/books?id=GNcDiRV2jJQC&pg=PA180.
- Price, cathy (16 August 2012). "A Review and Synthesis of the first 20 years of Pet and fMRI studies of heard Speech, Spoken Language and Reading". NeuroImage 62 (2): 816–847. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.04.062. PMID 22584224.
- Sharifi, S (May 2014). "Neuroimaging essentials in essential tremor: a systematic review.". NeuroImage: Clinical 5: 217–231. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.05.003. PMID 25068111. PMC 4110352. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4110352/.
- Brandler, William (February 2014). "The genetic relationship between handedness and neurodevelopmental disorders". Trends in Molecular Medicine 20 (2): 83–90. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2013.10.008. PMID 24275328. PMC 3969300. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3969300/.
- Cain, Kate (2010). Reading development and difficulties (1st ed.). TJ International. p. 134. ISBN 9781405151559. https://books.google.com/?id=FT6RALjOr9QC&pg=PA134&dq=cerebellar+theory+of+dyslexia#v=onepage&q=cerebellar%20theory%20of%20dyslexia&f=false. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Levav, Itzhak (2009). Psychiatric and Behavioral Disorders in Israel: From Epidemiology to Mental health. Green Publishing. p. 52. ISBN 9789652294685. https://books.google.com/?id=W2RzffMnpg8C&pg=PA52&dq=cerebellar+theory+of+dyslexia#v=onepage&q=cerebellar%20theory%20of%20dyslexia&f=false. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Stein, John (2012). "The Neurobiological Basis of Dyslexia: The Magnocellular Theory". The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 941–43. doi:10.1002/9781118432501.ch45. ISBN 978-1-4443-3040-3. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109200538/https://books.google.com/books?id=UEWVqdNFL4cC&pg=PA941.
- Benitez, A (November 2010). "Neurobiology and neurogenetics of dyslexia". Neurology (In Spanish) 25 (9): 563–81. doi:10.1016/j.nrl.2009.12.010. PMID 21093706.
- Kere, Julia (September 2014). "The molecular genetics and neurobiology of developmental dyslexia as model of a complex phenotype". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 452 (2): 236–43. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.07.102. PMID 25078623.
- Newbury, Dianne (2012). "The genetics of developmental disorders". In Marshall, Chloë R.. Current Issues in Developmental Disorders. Psychology Press. pp. 53–56. doi:10.4324/9780203100288-10. ISBN 978-1-136-23067-7. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109103320/https://books.google.com/books?id=jHqYP39rI40C&pg=PA53.
- Galaburda, Albert M. (2013). "Dyslexia: Advances in Cross-level Research". In Rosen, Glenn D.. The Dyslexic Brain: New Pathways in Neuroscience Discovery. Psychology Press. p. 342. ISBN 978-1-134-81550-0. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109143349/https://books.google.com/books?id=ZHBxBEekGSkC&pg=PA342.
- Friend, A; Defries, J. C.; Olson, R. K. (November 2008). "Parental Education Moderates Genetic Influences on Reading Disability". Psychological Science 19 (11): 1124–30. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02213.x. PMID 19076484. PMC 2605635. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2605635/.
- Taylor, J.; Roehrig, A. D.; Hensler, B. Soden; Connor, C. M.; Schatschneider, C. (2010). "Teacher Quality Moderates the Genetic Effects on Early Reading". Science 328 (5977): 512–4. doi:10.1126/science.1186149. PMID 20413504. PMC 2905841. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2905841/.
- Pennington, Bruce F.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Rosenberg, Jenni; Barnard, Holly; Smith, Shelley D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Friend, Angela; Defries, John C. et al. (January 2009). "Gene × Environment Interactions in Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". Developmental Psychology 45 (1): 77–89. doi:10.1037/a0014549. PMID 19209992. PMC 2743891. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2743891/.
- Roth, Tania L.; Roth, Eric D.; Sweatt, J. David (September 2010). "Epigenetic regulation of genes in learning and memory". Essays in Biochemistry 48 (1): 263–74. doi:10.1042/bse0480263. PMID 20822498.
- Smith, Shelley D. (2011-12). "Approach to epigenetic analysis in language disorders". Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 3 (4): 356–364. doi:10.1007/s11689-011-9099-y. ISSN 1866-1947. PMID 22113455. PMC 3261263. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3261263/.
- Paulesu, Eraldo; Brunswick, Nicola; Paganelli, Federica (2010). "Cross-cultural differences in unimpaired and dyslexic reading: Behavioral and functional anatomical observations in readers of regular and irregular orthographies". In Brunswick, Nicola; McDougall, Siné; de Mornay Davies, Paul. Reading and Dyslexia in Different Orthographies. Psychology Press. doi:10.4324/9780203858462-23. ISBN 9781135167813.
- Juel, Connie (2013). "The Impact of Early School Experiences on Initial Reading". Handbook of Early Literacy Research. Guilford Publications. ISBN 978-1-4625-1470-0. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://books.google.com/books?id=_chXAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA421.
- Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles (1 May 2012). "Annual Research Review: The nature and classification of reading disorders – a commentary on proposals for DSM-5". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 53 (5): 593–607. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02495.x. PMID 22141434. PMC 3492851. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492851/.
- Habib, Michael (2013). "Dyslexia". Pediatric Neurology Part I (in en). Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 111. pp. 229–235. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-52891-9.00023-3. ISBN 9780444528919. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444528919000233. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
- Schumacher, Johannes; Hoffmann, Per; Schmäl, Christine; Schulte‐Körne, Gerd; Nöthen, Markus M (2007). "Genetics of dyslexia: the evolving landscape". Journal of Medical Genetics 44 (5): 289–297. doi:10.1136/jmg.2006.046516. PMID 17307837. PMC 2597981. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2597981/.
- Pritchard, S. C.; Coltheart, M.; Palethorpe, S.; Castles, A. (October 2012). "Nonword reading: comparing dual-route cascaded and connectionist dual-process models with human data". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 38 (5): 1268–88. doi:10.1037/a0026703. PMID 22309087.
- Eysenck, Michael; Keane, Mark T. (2013). Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook (6th ed.). Psychology Press. doi:10.4324/9781315000114. ISBN 978-1-134-44046-7. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109123837/https://books.google.com/books?id=U-IF8PAa_jIC&pg=PA373.
- Felton, Rebecca H. (2012). "The Development of Reading Skills in Poor Readers: Educational Implications". In Hulme, Charles; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Snowling, Margaret J.. Reading and Spelling: Development and Disorders. Routledge. p. 151. doi:10.4324/9780203053782-16. ISBN 978-1-136-49807-7. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109141419/https://books.google.com/books?id=MumCCKK4JR8C&pg=PT151.
- Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane (2011). "Prevalence and Reliability of Phonological, Surface, and Mixed Profiles in Dyslexia: A Review of Studies Conducted in Languages Varying in Orthographic Depth". Scientific Studies of Reading 15 (6): 498–521. doi:10.1080/10888438.2010.524463. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170830150246/https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00733553.
- Boada, Richard; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F. (2012). "Understanding the Comorbidity Between Dyslexia and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". Topics in Language Disorders 32 (3): 270. doi:10.1097/tld.0b013e31826203ac. "... Pennington proposed a multiple deficit model for complex disorders like dyslexia, hypothesizing that such complex disorders are heterogeneous conditions that arise from the additive and interactive effects of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors, which then lead to weaknesses in multiple cognitive domains."
- Pennington, B (September 2006). "From single to multiple deficit models of developmental disorders". Cognition 101 (2): 385–413. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2006.04.008. PMID 16844106.
- Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F. (28 March 2015). "Developmental Dyslexia". Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 11 (1): 283–307. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112842. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112842.
- Snowling, Margaret J. (2019). Dyslexia: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/actrade/9780198818304.001.0001. ISBN 9780192550422.
- "6A03.0 Developmental learning disorder with impairment in reading". International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 11th rev. (ICD-11) (Mortality and Morbidity Statistics). World Health Organization. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
- Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596. ISBN 9780890425541. OCLC 830807378. "Specific Learning Disorder with impairment in reading ... Dyslexia is an alternative term used to refer to a pattern of learning difficulties characterized by problems with accurate or fluent word recognition, poor decoding, and poor spelling abilities."
- FragaGonzález, Gorka; Karipidis, Iliana; Tijms, Jurgen (2018-10-19). "Dyslexia as a Neurodevelopmental Disorder and What Makes It Different from a Chess Disorder". Brain Sciences 8 (10): 189. doi:10.3390/brainsci8100189. ISSN 2076-3425. PMID 30347764. PMC 6209961. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6209961/.
- Campbell, Robert Jean (2009). Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. Oxford University Press. pp. 310–312. ISBN 978-0-19-534159-1. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109101113/https://books.google.com/books?id=kpIs03n1hxkC&pg=PA310.
- Phillips, Sylvia; Kelly, Kathleen; Symes, Liz (2013). Assessment of Learners with Dyslexic-Type Difficulties. SAGE. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4462-8704-0. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109093024/https://books.google.com/books?id=7ZDCAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA7.
- Stahl, Steven A.; Murray, Bruce A. (1994). "Defining phonological awareness and its relationship to early reading.". Journal of Educational Psychology 86 (2): 221–234. doi:10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.11.
- Rvachew, Susan; Ohberg, Alyssa; Grawburg, Meghann; Heyding, Joan (1 November 2003). "Phonological Awareness and Phonemic Perception in 4-Year-Old Children With Delayed Expressive Phonology Skills". American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 12 (4): 463–471. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2003/092). PMID 14658998.
- Brock, Stephen E.; Davis, John M.; Christo, Catherine (2009). Identifying, Assessing, and Treating Dyslexia at School. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 59. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-88600-8. ISBN 978-0-387-88600-8.
- Mather, Nancy; Wendling, Barbara J. (2012). Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0470927601.
- Reid, Gavin; Guise, Jennie (2017). The Dyslexia Assessment. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1472945082. ("... assessment for dyslexia includes more than tests; it involves comprehensive insights into the student's learning. This requires a full and comprehensive individual assessment as well as consideration of the environment and contextual factors.").
- Thambirajah, M. S. (2011). Developmental Assessment of the School-Aged Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Clinician's Guide. London: Jessica Kingsley. p. 74. ISBN 978-1849051811.
- Jimerson, Shane R.; Burns, Matthew K.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M. (2016). Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Science+Business Media. doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-7568-3. ISBN 978-1-4899-7568-3.
- Snowling, Margaret J. (2013). "Early identification and interventions for dyslexia: a contemporary view: Early identification and interventions for dyslexia: a contemporary view". Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs 13 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1111/j.1471-3802.2012.01262.x.
- "Tests for Dyslexia and Learning Disabilities". University of Michigan. Archived from the original on 13 March 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Peer, Lindsay; Reid, Gavin (2013). Introduction to Dyslexia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 35–40. doi:10.4324/9780203962695. ISBN 978-1-135-37290-3. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109134343/https://books.google.com/books?id=OTiAAAAAQBAJ&pg=PT35.
- "Screening and assessment". British Dyslexia Association. Archived from the original on 30 March 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- Fletcher, Jack (2009). "Dyslexia: the evolution of a scientific concept". Journal of International Neuropsychology Society 15 (4): 501–508. doi:10.1017/S1355617709090900. PMID 19573267. PMC 3079378. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079378/.
- Schulte-Körne, Gerd (October 2010). "The Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Dyslexia". Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 107 (41): 718–727. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2010.0718. ISSN 1866-0452. PMID 21046003. PMC 2967798. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967798/.
- Mather, N.; Schneider, D. (2014). "The use of intelligence tests in the diagnosis of specific reading disability". In Goldstein, Sam; Princiotta, Dana; Naglieri, Jack A.. Handbook of Intelligence: Evolutionary Theory, Historical Perspective, and Current Concepts (in en). Springer. pp. 415–433. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-1562-0_26. ISBN 9781493915620. https://books.google.com/?id=ylzEBQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Handbook+of+Intelligence:+Evolutionary+theory,+historical+perspective,+and+current+concepts#v=onepage&q=Handbook%20of%20Intelligence%3A%20Evolutionary%20theory%2C%20historical%20perspective%2C%20and%20current%20concepts&f=false. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Collett, Brent R.; Ohan, Jeneva L.; Myers, Kathleen M. (1 September 2003). "Ten-Year Review of Rating Scales. V: Scales Assessing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 42 (9): 1015–1037. doi:10.1097/01.CHI.0000070245.24125.B6. ISSN 0890-8567. PMID 12960702. https://jaacap.org/article/S0890-8567(09)60999-0/fulltext. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- Stone, Lisanne L; Janssens, Jan M A M; Vermulst, Ad A; Van Der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; Otten, Roy (20 February 2015). "The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: psychometric properties of the parent and teacher version in children aged 4–7". BMC Psychology 3 (1): 4. doi:10.1186/s40359-015-0061-8. ISSN 2050-7283. PMID 25815194. PMC 4364334. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4364334/.
- Swart, G. T. (NaN). "The Clinician's Guide To The Behavior Assessment System For Children". The Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review 14 (3): 90. ISSN 1716-9119. PMC 2542918. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2542918/.
- Birmaher, B.; Khetarpal, S.; Brent, D.; Cully, M.; Balach, L.; Kaufman, J.; Neer, S. M. (NaN). "The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristics". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36 (4): 545–553. doi:10.1097/00004583-199704000-00018. ISSN 0890-8567. PMID 9100430.
- Lindquist, E. F. (1953). The Iowa tests of educational development: how to use the test results; a manual for teachers and counselors (in en). Science Research Associates. https://books.google.com/?id=yOc9AAAAYAAJ&q=Iowa+Tests+of+Educational+Development&dq=Iowa+Tests+of+Educational+Development. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- Dell, Cindy Ann; Harrold, Barbara; Dell, Thomas (1 October 2008). "Test Review: Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide Range Achievement Test—Fourth Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. WRAT4 Introductory Kit (includes manual, 25 test/response forms [blue and green], and accompanying test materials): $243.00". Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 52 (1): 57–60. doi:10.1177/0034355208320076. ISSN 0034-3552.
- Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Ellison, Phyllis Anne Teeter (2009). Child Neuropsychology: Assessment and Interventions for Neurodevelopmental Disorders (in en) (2nd ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 119. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-88963-4. ISBN 9780387889634. https://books.google.com/books?id=NBGSF9Jyg6AC&pg=PT119#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- Letters and Sounds: Principles and Practice of High Quality Phonics, Ref: DFES-00281-2007 (00281-2007BKT-EN), Primary National Strategy, Department for Education and Skills (United Kingdom), 2007.
- "Phonics screening check: 2019 materials". United Kingdom Department for Education, Standards and Testing Agency. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Thambirajah, M. S. (2011). Developmental assessment of the school-aged child with developmental disabilities : a clinician's guide. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 9780857003256. OCLC 747410566. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/747410566.
- Bogon, Johana (October 2014). "TVA based assessment of visual attention functions in developmental dyslexia". Frontiers in Psychology 5: 1172. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01172. PMID 25360129. PMC 4199262. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199262/.
- White, Fiona; Mendez, Richard; Rieley, Rosanne (10 April 2012). "Preparing for Work: Dyslexic Undergraduates Making the Transition into Employment". Supporting Dyslexic Adults in Higher Education and the Workplace. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 112–122. doi:10.1002/9781119945000.ch12. ISBN 978-0-470-97479-7. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20131231081312/http://books.google.com/books?id=suc1o0hueowC&pg=PA115. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Schulte-Körne, G (October 2010). "The prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of dyslexia". Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 107 (41): 718–26. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2010.0718. PMID 21046003. PMC 2967798. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967798/.
- Lyytinen, Heikki; Erskine, Jane; Aro, Mikko; Richardson, Ulla (2009). "Reading and reading disorders". In Hoff, Erika. Blackwell Handbook of Language Development. Blackwell. pp. 454–474. doi:10.1002/9780470757833.ch22. ISBN 978-1-4051-9459-4. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109204820/https://books.google.com/books?id=PCy6c9hIL5YC&pg=PA454.
- van der Leij, Aryan (1 November 2013). "Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?". Dyslexia (Chichester, England) 19 (4): 241–255. doi:10.1002/dys.1466. ISSN 1099-0909. PMID 24133037.
- de Leeuw, Renske (December 2010). Special Font For Dyslexia? (in English, Dutch). University of Twente. p. 32. Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20111101034537/http://www.ilo.gw.utwente.nl/ilo/attachments/032_Masterthesis_Leeuw.pdf.
- Sawers, Paul (30 June 2011). "Dyslexie: A typeface for dyslexics". Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Marinus, E; Mostard, M; Segers, E; Schubert, TM; Madelaine, A; Wheldall, K (August 2016). "A Special Font for People with Dyslexia: Does it Work and, if so, why?". Dyslexia (Chichester, England) 22 (3): 233–44. doi:10.1002/dys.1527. PMID 27194598.
- Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Andriolo, Régis B; Yazigi, Latife; Ploubidis, George B; Brandão de Ávila, Clara Regina; Mari, Jair J (15 August 2012). "Music education for improving reading skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): CD009133. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009133.pub2. PMID 22895983.
- O’Hare, Anne (2010). "Dyslexia: what do paediatricians need to know?". Pediatrics and Child Health 20 (7): 338–343. doi:10.1016/j.paed.2010.04.004.
- "Response to Intervention Guidance - Minimum Requirements of a Response to Intervention Program (RtI) - Instruction Matched to Student Need: Special Education : P12 : NYSED". www.p12.nysed.gov. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Tasman, Allan; Kay, Jerald; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; First, Michael B.; Riba, Michelle (29 January 2015). Psychiatry, 2 Volume Set. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118845493. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20150906081853/https://books.google.com/books?id=6Rp0BgAAQBAJ.
- Protopapas, Athanassios (2013). "From temporal processing to developmental language disorders: mind the gap". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 369 (1634): 20130090. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0090. PMID 24324245. PMC 3866431. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3866431/.
- Zhao, Jing (November 2014). "The visual magnocellular-dorsal dysfunction in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia impedes Chinese character recognition.". Scientific Reports 4: 7068. doi:10.1038/srep07068. PMID 25412386. PMC 4238300. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4238300/.
- Wong, Simpson W. L.; Xiao, Moon X. Y.; Chung, Kevin K. H. (2012). "Issues of culture and language in developmental disorders: The case of dyslexia in Chinese learners". In Marshall, Chloë R.. Current Issues in Developmental Disorders. Psychology Press. p. 152. doi:10.4324/9780203100288-14. ISBN 978-1-136-23067-7. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109144200/https://books.google.com/books?id=5VK_TWsQ3N4C&pg=PA152.
- Garralda, Elena; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe (16 January 2012). Brain, Mind, and Developmental Psychopathology in Childhood. Jason Aronson. ISBN 9780765708663. https://books.google.com/?id=5ujeVaMa9U0C&pg=PA177.
- Navas, Ana Luiza Gomes Pinto; Ferraz, Érica de Cássia; Borges, Juliana Postigo Amorina; Navas, Ana Luiza Gomes Pinto; Ferraz, Érica de Cássia; Borges, Juliana Postigo Amorina (2014). "Phonological processing deficits as a universal model for dyslexia: evidence from different orthographies". CoDAS 26 (6): 509–519. doi:10.1590/2317-1782/20142014135. PMID 25590915.
- Reid, Gavin (2012). The Routledge Companion to Dyslexia. Routledge. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-136-61710-2. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170109205019/https://books.google.com/books?id=QrBQAmfXYooC&pg=PA16.
- Richlan, Fabio (May 2014). "Functional neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia; the role of orthographic depth". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8: 347. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00347. PMID 24904383. PMC 4033006. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4033006/.
- "Reading Difficulty and Disability" (PDF). report.nih.gov. NIH. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- de Berr, J (2014). "Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia". BMC Public Health 14: 77. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-77. PMID 24460949. PMC 3913008. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3913008/.
- Pino, Marco; Mortari, Luigina (1 November 2014). "The Inclusion of Students with Dyslexia in Higher Education: A Systematic Review Using Narrative Synthesis". Dyslexia (Chichester, England) 20 (4): 346–369. doi:10.1002/dys.1484. PMID 25293652. PMC 4253321. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253321/.
- Ramus, F; Altarelli, I; Jednoróg, K; Zhao, J; di Covella, LS (7 August 2017). "Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: pitfalls and promise.". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 84: 434–452. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.08.001. ISSN 1873-7528. PMID 28797557. http://dyslexiahelp.umich.edu/answers/faq. Retrieved 31 August 2017. This article is published ahead of print
- Alan Beaton (14 October 2004). Dyslexia, Reading and the Brain: A Sourcebook of Psychological and Biological Research. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-135-42275-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=wMR4AgAAQBAJ&pg=PP1.
- Thomas Richard Miles (4 August 2006). Fifty Years in Dyslexia Research. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-02747-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=8OywcklCBPkC&pg=PP1.
- Gavin Reid; Angela Fawcett (12 May 2008). Dyslexia in Context: Research, Policy and Practice. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-77801-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=szJZ1LDQv7YC&pg=PP1.
- Michael Thomson (18 March 2009). The Psychology of Dyslexia: A Handbook for Teachers with Case Studies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-74197-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=7Jbvue2kNdYC&pg=PP1.
- Gavin Reid (17 March 2011). Dyslexia (3rd ed.). A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4411-6585-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=EFh4kCrMbK4C&pg=PP1.
- Mark Selikowitz (2 July 2012). Dyslexia and Other Learning Difficulties. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-969177-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=K2xdsMJ1MWgC&pg=PP1.
- Andrew W. Ellis (25 February 2014). Reading, Writing and Dyslexia: A Cognitive Analysis. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-317-71630-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=EgXsAgAAQBAJ&pg=PP1.
- Julian G. Elliott; Elena L. Grigorenko (24 March 2014). The Dyslexia Debate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-11986-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=4lz2AgAAQBAJ&pg=PP1.
- Agnew, Susie; Stewart, Jackie; Redgrave, Steve (8 October 2014). Dyslexia and Us: A collection of personal stories. Andrews UK Limited. ISBN 978-1-78333-250-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=oXe6BAAAQBAJ&pg=PP1.
- Norton, Elizabeth S.; Beach, Sara D.; Gabrieli, John D. E. (1 February 2015). "Neurobiology of dyslexia". Current Opinion in Neurobiology 30: 73–78. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2014.09.007. ISSN 1873-6882. PMID 25290881. PMC 4293303. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4293303/.
- Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina et al. (15 July 2016). "Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children". Frontiers in Neuroscience 10: 324. doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00324. ISSN 1662-4548. PMID 27471442. PMC 4945653. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4945653/.
- Shao, Shanshan; Niu, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Kong, Rui; Wang, Jia; Liu, Lingfei; Luo, Xiu; Zhang, Jiajia et al. (28 July 2016). "Opposite Associations between Individual KIAA0319 Polymorphisms and Developmental Dyslexia Risk across Populations: A Stratified Meta-Analysis by the Study Population". Scientific Reports 6: 30454. doi:10.1038/srep30454. ISSN 2045-2322. PMID 27464509. PMC 4964335. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4964335/.
- Brewer, Carmen C.; Zalewski, Christopher K.; King, Kelly A.; Zobay, Oliver; Riley, Alison; Ferguson, Melanie A.; Bird, Jonathan E.; McCabe, Margaret M. et al. (11 October 2016). "Heritability of Non-Speech Auditory Processing Skills". European Journal of Human Genetics 24 (8): 1137–1144. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.277. ISSN 1018-4813. PMID 26883091. PMC 4872837. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872837/.
- Mascheretti, S.; De Luca, A.; Trezzi, V.; Peruzzo, D.; Nordio, A.; Marino, C.; Arrigoni, F. (3 January 2017). "Neurogenetics of developmental dyslexia: from genes to behavior through brain neuroimaging and cognitive and sensorial mechanisms". Translational Psychiatry 7 (1): e987. doi:10.1038/tp.2016.240. PMID 28045463. PMC 5545717. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5545717/.
- Fraga González, Gorka; Žarić, Gojko; Tijms, Jurgen; Bonte, Milene; van der Molen, Maurits W. (18 January 2017). "Contributions of Letter-Speech Sound Learning and Visual Print Tuning to Reading Improvement: Evidence from Brain Potential and Dyslexia Training Studies". Brain Sciences 7 (1): 10. doi:10.3390/brainsci7010010. PMID 28106790. PMC 5297299. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5297299/.
- Rudov, A; Rocchi, MB; Accorsi, A; Spada, G; Procopio, AD; Olivieri, F; Rippo, MR; Albertini, MC (October 2013). "Putative miRNAs for the diagnosis of dyslexia, dyspraxia, and specific language impairment.". Epigenetics 8 (10): 1023–9. doi:10.4161/epi.26026. ISSN 1559-2308. PMID 23949389. PMC 3891682. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3891682/.
- Vágvölgyi, R; Coldea, A; Dresler, T; Schrader, J; Nuerk, HC (2016). "A Review about Functional Illiteracy: Definition, Cognitive, Linguistic, and Numerical Aspects". Frontiers in Psychology 7: 1617. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01617. PMID 27891100. PMC 5102880. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5102880/.