WikiJournal of Medicine is an open-access, free-to-publish, Wikipedia-integrated academic journal for Medical and Biomedical topics.
Wikiversity Journal of Medicine,
Wikipedia medical journal,
Free to publish,
Public peer review
The following paper advances our understanding of online volunteering in the medical context, through the study of Wikipedia volunteers who edit medical topics. It employs the Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI) model to study volunteers' motivations through a survey carried out in 2021 (N=74). It highlights the importance of the non-traditional VFI dimensions of "fun" and "ideology" which have not been adequately discussed in the context of medical volunteering. The findings also show that Wikipedia volunteers who edit medical topics are older, more gender-balanced, and better educated than typical Wikipedia volunteers from a decade ago. Many are medical professionals, and their significant involvement helps to explain the above-average quality of Wikipedia medical topics. Conversely, the study reveals the need for more experts to engage with Wikipedia. Lack of volunteers, in particular, experts, and inadequate support from professional institutions, are identified as main reasons for problems in Wikipedia's quality.
Objective. To determine such parameters of humoral immunity as the number of antibody-forming cells and the titer of antibodies in the blood under the action of the whole fraction of the secretome of xenogenic mesenchymal stem cells in mice with a normal immune status and mice with secondary immunodeficiency caused by the hydrocortisone acetate. [...]
Methods. The following methods were used in the study: isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow of cattle; culturing of isolated cells and obtaining a conditioned medium containing exometabolites with subsequent purification; modeling of secondary immunodeficiency in mice; setting up a test on mice to determine the number of antibody-forming cells in the spleen and hemagglutinin titers in blood serum; statistical data analysis. Results. A study of the impact of the secretome of xenogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the humoral arm of immunity in mice with a normal immune status showed a significant increase in the antibody-forming cells count compared with the control by 3.4-8.8 times when administered intramuscularly and by 4.2-5.4 times when administered subcutaneously (at the same time, in the group of the reference drug, the increase was four times), as well as an increase in the titer of hemagglutinins concerning the control by 25-95% when administered intramuscularly and 32-52% when administered subcutaneously (the reference drug Thymalin was at the control level). With intramuscular administration, a clear relationship was observed between the concentration of MSC secretome and the biological effect (high significant positive correlation: ρ = 0.99, p ≤ 0.05 for calculating AFC; ρ = 0.97, p ≤ 0.05 for HA titer). Lethality in the group of animals what administered only hydrocortisone acetate (HCA, positive control) was 100%. The use of the mesenchymal stem cells secretome increased the survival of animals by 50% by stimulating the formation of the required number of antibody-forming cells and antibody titer, except for the subcutaneous route of administration (at the level of immunized control, animals with a normal immune status). The reference drug showed a result at a level significantly lower than the immunized control. The antibody titer with the subcutaneous route of administration of secretion of MSCs was significantly lower than the immunized control but significantly higher concerning the reference drug. Conclusion. The administration of the secretome of xenogenic mesenchymal stem cells stimulated the humoral arm of immunity as same in mice with normal immune status as in mice with secondary immunodeficiency. The data obtained supplement the information on the introduction of live mesenchymal stem cells. Live allogeneic MSCs have a suppressive effect on B cells, while xenogenic MSCs cause a response on themselves. The secretome of xenogenic MSCs does not contain surface immunogenic molecules that are carried by living cells, but nevertheless increases the activity of the humoral component of immunity. The mechanisms of this effect require further study.
Steroidogenic routes to androgens have been discovered and characterized over the last two decades that fall outside the Δ4 and Δ5 "classical androgen pathways" to testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. There has been considerable investigation into these routes that has come with natural inconsistencies and overlap in naming that can make it difficult to discover information about them as might be needed in a clinical context. This expository review uses "alternative androgen pathways" to include what has been called the "backdoor" pathway to 5α-dihydrotestosterone, the 5α-dione pathway and pathways to 11-oxygenated steroids. A brief history of what led to the discovery of these pathways, basic information about the steroids and proteins involved in their biosynthesis as well as a summary of clinically significant findings is provided. PubChem CIDs for all steroids have been compiled to help authors avoid naming errors in their work. Modest suggestions for future work in these pathways are also given at the end. Patient comprehension and the clinical diagnosis of relevant conditions such as hyperandrogenism can be impaired by the lack of clear and consistent knowledge of alternative androgen pathways; the authors hope this review will accurately disseminate such knowledge to facilitate the beneficial treatment of such patients.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are classified as chronic inflammatory disorders and typically require anti-inflammatory drug therapies, such as glucocorticoid regimens, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and biologics, aimed at reducing inflammation in the bowel wall. However, each of these therapies is accompanied by a list of possible serious side effects. Because of this, there remains an urgent need to identify new pharmacologic options to reduce or prevent the pro-inflammatory events of IBD while minimizing adverse side effects, and to make available more cost-effective treatment modalities. We have previously identified several herbal extracts that demonstrate potent bio-inhibitory activity of the innate immune response. In particular, Laurus nobilis (LN), or more commonly called bay laurel, demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory function by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB activation. Based upon our original in vitro findings, we have now examined the effects of this herbal extract on a murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of IBD. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained paraffin sections prepared from DSS treated animals show clear epithelial damage, including ulcerations, extensive neutrophil infiltration into the mucosal layer, and granuloma formation. Tissue from DSS treated animals that also received LN extract showed improved tissue morphology more closely resembling that from control animals. In addition, DSS treated mice with co-administration of LN extract showed a significant reduction in CD4+ antibody staining within the mucosal layer in colonic sections indicating reduced lymphocyte infiltration. Based on these findings, we believe that administration of LN extracts may be effective in reducing the intestinal epithelial damage seen in human IBD and warrants further investigation through clinical trials. [...]
Lay Summary: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), manifest as chronic inflammation and ulceration of tissues lining the digestive tract. CD involves inflammation of the deeper layers of the digestive tract, including both the small and large intestines, and less commonly, the upper digestive tract. UC involves inflammation along the lining of the colon and rectum. Steroid or biologic treatments for IBD are common, however, are limited due to significant side effects and/or prohibitive cost. In the present study, we provide evidence for use of the natural product, Laurus nobilis (bay leaf), as a safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy for IBD.
Substance Use Disorder (SUD) is understood as the persistent use of substances to the detriment of the individual's livelihood and wellness. SUD can have serious mental, physical, and social ramifications if not properly addressed. Though SUD can develop at any age, it is especially important to address in adolescents, given rising prevalence of certain substances (e.g. cannabis) in that age group and poor prognosis associated with early-onset SUD. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health show the lifetime use of illicit drugs in people ages 12-17 is 20.9%. The same survey found the rate of Substance Use Disorder in the past year for people ages 12-17 who used illicit drugs or alcohol to be 6.3% in 2020. [...]
This paper is intended for clinicians and lay people to gain a deeper understanding of SUD in adolescents, particularly relating to alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and opioids. Though alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine are the substances most commonly used by this age demographic nationally, opioid use – and resulting deaths – have been on the rise. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), opioids were connected to about 75% of the nearly 92,000 drug deaths in 2020. Beyond significant death rates in the general population, recent spikes in adolescent death rate tied to the synthetic opioid fentanyl – which held a relatively stable death rate from 2010 to 2019 until seeing a 94% increase from 2019 to 2020 and additional 20% increase to 2021 - warrants inquiry into opioids for this population. Each of these substances can have adverse, long-lasting effects on health if not managed properly, resulting in seriously compromised lifelong wellbeing. This article explores SUD prevalence and reviews diagnostic criteria in relation to adolescence, including a synopsis of changes in SUD classification between the DSM-IV and DSM-5 and discussion of ICD-11 and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) as a basis for research related to substance use. Effective assessment and consideration of co-occurring disorders are covered as well. Although the prognosis of SUD varies by an individual's environment and circumstances, a modal developmental course for SUD is discussed. Finally, a curated list of nationally recognized resources including hotlines, treatment locators, informational sites, and support groups is provided, along with tools to compile local resources. By addressing these aspects of adolescent SUD, the research team offers a broader view of its prevalence in the United States, key warning signs and comorbidities, and possible assessments and treatments for adolescents with SUD.