WikiJournal of Medicine/Volume 10 Issue 1
WikiJournal of Medicine
Open access • Publication charge free • Public peer review • Wikipedia-integrated
VOLUME 10 (2023)
ISSUE 1Current issue
Extract of Laurus nobilis attenuates inflammation and epithelial ulcerations in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease
Authors: Robert A. Orlando, Natalie S. Correa
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are classified as chronic inflammatory disorders and typically require anti-inflammatory drug therapies, such as glucocorticoid regimens, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and biologics, aimed at reducing inflammation in the bowel wall. However, each of these therapies is accompanied by a list of possible serious side effects. Because of this, there remains an urgent need to identify new pharmacologic options to reduce or prevent the pro-inflammatory events of IBD while minimizing adverse side effects, and to make available more cost-effective treatment modalities. We have previously identified several herbal extracts that demonstrate potent bio-inhibitory activity of the innate immune response. In particular, Laurus nobilis (LN), or more commonly called bay laurel, demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory function by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB activation. Based upon our original in vitro findings, we have now examined the effects of this herbal extract on a murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of IBD. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained paraffin sections prepared from DSS treated animals show clear epithelial damage, including ulcerations, extensive neutrophil infiltration into the mucosal layer, and granuloma formation. Tissue from DSS treated animals that also received LN extract showed improved tissue morphology more closely resembling that from control animals. In addition, DSS treated mice with co-administration of LN extract showed a significant reduction in CD4+ antibody staining within the mucosal layer in colonic sections indicating reduced lymphocyte infiltration. Based on these findings, we believe that administration of LN extracts may be effective in reducing the intestinal epithelial damage seen in human IBD and warrants further investigation through clinical trials. [...]
Lay Summary: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), manifest as chronic inflammation and ulceration of tissues lining the digestive tract. CD involves inflammation of the deeper layers of the digestive tract, including both the small and large intestines, and less commonly, the upper digestive tract. UC involves inflammation along the lining of the colon and rectum. Steroid or biologic treatments for IBD are common, however, are limited due to significant side effects and/or prohibitive cost. In the present study, we provide evidence for use of the natural product, Laurus nobilis (bay leaf), as a safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy for IBD.
Authors: Emily Pender, Liana Kostak, Kelsey Sutton, Cody Naccarato, Angelina Tsai, Tammy Chung, Stacey Daughters
Substance Use Disorder (SUD) is understood as the persistent use of substances to the detriment of the individual's livelihood and wellness. SUD can have serious mental, physical, and social ramifications if not properly addressed. Though SUD can develop at any age, it is especially important to address in adolescents, given rising prevalence of certain substances (e.g. cannabis) in that age group and poor prognosis associated with early-onset SUD. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health show the lifetime use of illicit drugs in people ages 12-17 is 20.9%. The same survey found the rate of Substance Use Disorder in the past year for people ages 12-17 who used illicit drugs or alcohol to be 6.3% in 2020. [...]
This paper is intended for clinicians and lay people to gain a deeper understanding of SUD in adolescents, particularly relating to alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and opioids. Though alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine are the substances most commonly used by this age demographic nationally, opioid use – and resulting deaths – have been on the rise. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), opioids were connected to about 75% of the nearly 92,000 drug deaths in 2020. Beyond significant death rates in the general population, recent spikes in adolescent death rate tied to the synthetic opioid fentanyl – which held a relatively stable death rate from 2010 to 2019 until seeing a 94% increase from 2019 to 2020 and additional 20% increase to 2021 - warrants inquiry into opioids for this population. Each of these substances can have adverse, long-lasting effects on health if not managed properly, resulting in seriously compromised lifelong wellbeing. This article explores SUD prevalence and reviews diagnostic criteria in relation to adolescence, including a synopsis of changes in SUD classification between the DSM-IV and DSM-5 and discussion of ICD-11 and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) as a basis for research related to substance use. Effective assessment and consideration of co-occurring disorders are covered as well. Although the prognosis of SUD varies by an individual's environment and circumstances, a modal developmental course for SUD is discussed. Finally, a curated list of nationally recognized resources including hotlines, treatment locators, informational sites, and support groups is provided, along with tools to compile local resources. By addressing these aspects of adolescent SUD, the research team offers a broader view of its prevalence in the United States, key warning signs and comorbidities, and possible assessments and treatments for adolescents with SUD.
WikiJournal of Medicine
An open access journal with
no publication costs – About
On social media