Literature/1949/Ryle

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Ryle, Gilbert (1949). The Concept of Mind. University Of Chicago Press.

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w: Gilbert Ryle

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w: The Concept of Mind
  • The fundamental error ... is a category mistake made when philosophers talk about mind and matter as if they were "... terms of the same logical type."
  • A prospective student who visits a university and sees the library, the labs, the sports arena, may ask the tour guide, "But where is the university?", having supposed that it is a different place altogether. According to Ryle, the student fails to realize that "university" and "library" are terms that belong to different logical categories.
  • Ryle claims his purpose is to correct the logical geography of the knowledge that we already possess about mental powers and mental operations. Also, he declares that he is determining the logical cross-bearings of concepts. In so doing, he metaphorically compares such knowledge to the reading of a map. This activity displays the logic of the propositions that are used to communicate the concepts. Such logic is ... a spatial metaphor that reveals how propositions consistently precede and follow concepts.
w: Ghost in the machine

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Gradient-optical-illusion.svg
The shade of the bar looks invariant in isolation but variant in context, in (favor of) sharp contrast with the color gradient background, hence an innate illusion we have to reasonably interpret and overcome as well as the mirage. Such variance appearing seasonably from context to context may not only be the case with our vision but worldview in general in practice indeed, whether a priori or a posteriori. Perhaps no worldview from nowhere, without any point of view or prejudice at all!

Ogden & Richards (1923) said, "All experience ... is either enjoyed or interpreted ... or both, and very little of it escapes some degree of interpretation."

H. G. Wells (1938) said, "The human individual is born now to live in a society for which his fundamental instincts are altogether inadequate."