Latin/Verbs Present 3 Lesson 3
Salvēte omnēs! Welcome back to Latin for Wikiversity. Here you can peruse a new lesson in Latin, in a simple format. If you would like to catch up, you can find a directory of lessons, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at the links on the right.
We’re gradually adding more verbs in this set of lessons. This time, we’ll see some verbs that are frequently used with infinitives. Because we haven’t formally studied infinitives, the sentences for them will be basic, but we’ll have a more detailed lesson on infinitives soon. Also, we have some verbs that are used impersonally (only ever in 3rd person singular, with “it” as the assumed subject); they also tend to be used with infinitives and some have more complicated constructions. Dēbeō / oportet are used in much the same way to express necessity, so we're including examples of each. The English translation, like the Latin word order, can vary greatly. It won’t be possible to give every conceivable variation. This is where translation becomes more of an art than a science!
You have learned a good number of basic verb forms; Latin tends to expand on those basics by adding prepositional prefixes to the roots which change the meaning. For example, you have learned that the irregular verb eō (go). We can add prefixes and get abeō, adeō, exeō, ineō, pereō, redeō, trānseō; and the same goes for many other verbs. We’ll start gradually introducing them … once you recognize the base forms it will be fairly easy to understand the ones with prepositions added.
|natō, natāre, natāvī, natātus, 1||swim|
|secō, secāre, secuī, sectus, 1||cut, divide|
|dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus, 2||owe, ought, must, should||used with infinitive|
|licet, licēre, licuit, 2||it is permitted, it is allowed||with dative|
|oportet, oportēre, oportuit, 2||it behooves, it is necessary, it is right, must, ought||used with accusative + infinitive.|
|retineō, retinēre, retinuī, retentus, 2||hold back, keep, restrain|
|crēdō, crēdere, crēdidī, crēditus, 3||believe, trust, entrust|
|dīmittō, dīmittere, dīmīsī, dīmissus, 3||send away, dismiss, release|
|abeō, abīre, abiī (abīvī), abitum, irreg.||go away, leave, depart|
|exeō, exīre, exiī (exīvī), exitum, irreg.||go out, exit|
|Gāius exit.||Gaius goes out.|
|Omnēs exeunt.||Everyone goes out.|
|Nōn abītis.||You (pl.) aren’t going away.|
|Dē scholā abīmus.||We leave school.|
|Paula pānem secat.||Paula cuts the bread.|
|Mālum in quattuor partēs secās.||You cut the apple into four pieces.|
|Līberī in flūmine natant.||The children swim in the river.|
|In aquā frīgidā natō.||I swim in the cold water.|
|Sīc crēdō.||I believe so.|
|Mārcus mihi crēdit.||Marcus believes me.||Crēdō is frequently used with the dative; think “gives credence to me”.|
|Paulae crēditis.||You (pl.) trust Paula.|
|Līberī nōbīs crēdunt.||The children trust us.|
|Līberī in nōs crēdunt.||The children believe in us.||Crēdō is also frequently used with in + acc.|
|Māter puerōs dīmittit, sed puellās retinet.||Mother sends the boys away, but holds back the girls.|
|Vīgilēs pūblicī pīrātās retinent.||The policemen restrain the pirates.|
|Hic natāre nōn licet.||Swimming is not permitted here./It is not permitted to swim here.|
|Licetne mihi natāre?||Am I allowed to swim?|
|Licetne eīs abīre?||Are they allowed to go away?|
|Licetne nōbīs spectāre?||Is it permitted for us to watch?/May we watch?|
|Licetne mihi nunc abīre?||May I leave now?|
|Lūciae pecūniam dēbeō.||I owe Lucia money.|
Oportet nōs labōrāre.
|We must work.|
Oportet eum dormīre.
|He ought to sleep.|
|Dēbeō linguam Latīnam discere.
Oportet mē linguam Latīnam discere.
|I ought to learn Latin. / It is necessary for me to learn Latin.|
|Nunc dīmittis servum tuum.||Now you dismiss/release your servant.||Luke 2:29|
|Crēdō in Deum Patrem omnipotentem.||I believe in God the Father almighty.||Frst line of the Apostles' Creed.|
|Practice and learn the words and phrases in this lesson|
|Step one||First learn the words using this lesson:|
|Step two||Next try learning and writing the sentencing using this:|
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I hope you find this lesson helpful. We’ll continue with more verbs next week. Comments, corrections or questions are welcome if you have them. Bonam fortūnam vōbīs!