Latin/Adjectives 2 Lesson 1

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Salvēte omnēs! Welcome back to Latin for Wikiversity. Here you can peruse a new lesson in Latin, in a simple format. If you would like to catch up, you can find a directory of lessons, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at the links on the right.

Last lesson, it became clear that there needs to be another series of adjective lessons, beyond just the basics. If you want to review those basics, here are the previous adjective lessons: Adjectives Lesson 1 and Adjectives Lesson 2

There are two main kinds of adjectives: 1st/2nd declension adjectives such as bonus, bona, bonum; and 3rd declension adjectives such as gravis, grave. The endings we’ll see in today’s lesson will be the same for the most part; some irregular adjectives of the 1st/2nd declension have -ius endings in the gen. s. and -i endings in the dat. s. Some 3rd declension adjectives have 1 or 3 endings for the nom. s. instead of the usual 2. Most adjectives can be turned into adverbs, which we’ll look at more in a future lesson.

New Vocabulary

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Latin English Audio (Classical) Notes
dūrus, a, um hard, harsh, unrefined  
laetus, a, um happy, glad, joyful  
also fēlix, beātus
plēnus, a, um full w. gen. or abl.
prīmus, a, um first, the first
usually of a series of more than two
pūblicus, a, um public, belonging to the people/state  
secundus, a, um second (of a series of more than two), following, favorable, successful
sōlus, a, um alone, only gen. s. sōlius, dat. s. sōlī
tertius, a, um third
tōtus, a, um whole, all of gen. s. tōtius, dat. s. tōtī
tardus, a, um slow
tūtus, a, um safe
celer, celeris, celere
vēlōx, vēlōcis
citus, a, um
quick, fast, swift
levis, e light (in weight), of little importance
mollis, e gentle, soft, pleasant

New Sentences

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Latin English Notes
Hic est prīmus elephantus quem vīdī. This is the first elephant that I have seen.
Lūcia omnium discipulōrum prīma stat, Mārcus secundus, et Paula tertia. Lucia stands first of all the students, Marcus second, and Paula third.
Illa est secunda pars. That is the second part.
Ventī secundī erant. The winds were favorable. Secundus is related to sequor, meaning following, and thus, the winds were coming from behind, which is favorable for sailing. We sometimes see proeliō secundō meaning “in a battle with a favorable outcome ... for my side”
Tertiā hōrā est. It is three o-clock/ the third hour.
Gāius solus labōrat. Gaius is working alone.
Tōtam noctem expectāvērunt. They waited for the whole night.
Tōtum oppidum adest. The whole town is here/ is present.
Pōculum plēnum aquae (aquā) est. The cup is full of water.
Urbs plēna hominum (hominibus) est. The city is full of people.
Līberī tūtī sunt. The children are safe.
Charta levis, sed liber gravis est. The paper is light, but the book is heavy.
Rēs non est gravis/magna, sed levis. The subject is not important, but trivial.
Ferrum dūrum, sed lāna mollis est. Iron is hard, but wool is soft.
Illō tempore, vīta dūra erat. At that time, life was hard.
Mulier est mollis. The woman is gentle kind, pleasant, etc.; mulier is said to be derived from the comparative form of mollis, thus mollior meaning softer or weaker.
Puella fortis et laeta erat. The girl was strong and happy.
Lepus celer, sed testūdō tarda est. The hare is fast, but the turtle is slow.
Avis celeris celeriter volat. The swift bird flies swiftly. note f. form of celer
Computātrum meum tardum est. My computer is slow.
Rēs pūblica the republic, the public affair, the state, the commonwealth
hortus pūblicus a park, a public garden
Ad hortum pūblicum ībō. I will go to the park.
Molle erat ambulāre in hortō pūblicō. It was pleasant to walk in the park.
tēla tōtius terrae world wide web lit. web of the whole earth
Ēvangelium secundum Mārcum The gospel according to Mark secundum here is a preposition/adverb
Sōlī Deō glōria. Glory to God alone. Demonstrating the irregular dat. s. ending of solus
Prīmum, nōn nocēre. First of all, do no harm. Hippocrates. Though this is the adverb form.


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In the next lessons we’ll continue adding adjectives, and introduce the idea of comparative and superlative adjectives.

Valēte et bonam fortūnam!