Latin/Perfect Tense Lesson 3

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Salvēte omnēs! Welcome back to Latin for Wikiversity. Here you can peruse a new lesson in Latin, in a simple format. If you would like to catch up, you can find a directory of lessons, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at the links on the right.

The past two lessons have introduced several common perfect tense verbs. The nice thing about the perfect tense is that it is very regular, following the same rules even for irregular verbs. We’ll continue adding more verbs in today’s lesson. Remember that all perfect tense active verbs use the 3rd principal part as stem, and add the endings

ī, istī, it, imus, istis, ērunt.

The translation in English can be “subject verbed, subject has verbed, or subject did verb.” The most complicated part of the perfect tense is learning the 3rd principal parts of all the verbs, if you haven’t already. You will notice that with the verb and its variants, there are two acceptable forms for the perfect tense. In practical usage īvi was often shortened to īi and it appears both ways in the literature.

Verbs in This Lesson[edit | edit source]

Latin English Notes
clamō, 1 shout, cry, proclaim
doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus, 2 teach, inform
maneō, manēre, mānsī, mansurus, 2 remain, stay
terreō, 2 frighten, terrify
amittō, amittere, āmīsī, amissus, 3 lose, send away
capiō, capere, cēpī, captus, 3 (i-stem) take, catch, capture
currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus, 3 run, hurry
induō, induere, induī, indutus, 3 put on (clothing), dress in
abeō, abire, abīvī/abiī, abitum go away, leave, depart
adferō/affero, adferre, attulī, allātus bring to, deliver, carry
, ire, īvī/iī, itum go  
exeō, exire, exiī (exīvī), exitum go out, exit
ferō, ferre, tulī, latus bear, bring, carry
ineō, inire, iniī/inīvī, initus go into, begin, enter
volō, velle, voluī am willing, wish for, want

New Words[edit | edit source]

Latin English Notes
pugna, ae fight, battle
dolor, dolōris, m. pain, sorrow
trānseō, trānsīre, trānsīvī/transiī, transitus go across, go over, cross, pass
quamdiū, adv. how long?

New Sentences[edit | edit source]

Latin English Notes
Liberōs linguam Latinam docuī. I taught the children Latin.
Docuistī Gāium legere? Did you teach Gaius to read?
Sorōrem terruistī, et ea clāmāvit. You frightened your sister, and she shouted.
Librum amīsī. I lost the book.
Āmīsēruntne clāvēs? Did they lose the keys?
Paula calceōs induit. Paula put on her shoes.
Mārcus domum īvit / īit. Marcus went home.
Ad scholam īvimus / īimus. We went to school.
Lūcia abīit / abīvit. Lucia has gone away. Departed, left, “passed away”: if you want to make it clear, Lūcia ē vitā abīit.
Mīlitēs flūmen trānsīvērunt/trānsīerunt. The soldiers went across the river.
Hiems trānsīvit / trānsīit. Winter has passed.  
Sīc trānsit gloria mundī. Thus passes the glory of the world.
Ē raedā exīvī / exīi. I got out of the car.
Ex aedificiō exīverunt / exīerunt. They went out of the building.
Quis pugnam inīvit / inīit? Who started the fight?
Inīvistīne pugnam? Did you start the fight?
Scrībere epistulam voluī. I wanted to write a letter.
Vestimenta nova emere voluerunt. They wanted to buy new clothes.
Quamdiū ibi mānsistī? How long did you stay there? quam “how” + diū “for long time” = quamdiū
Lānam fēcit, domum mānsit. She spun her wool, she stayed at home. Epitaph of the ideal Roman woman.
Mārcus signum legiōnis tulit. Marcus bore/carried the standard of the legion.
Dolōrem fortiter tulistī. You bore the pain bravely.
Vīnum attulimus, sed pānem attulistis. We brought wine, but you brought bread.
Dolōrem tibi attulērunt. They brought trouble to you.
Novem mīlia passuum cucurrimus. We ran nine miles.
Puerī domum cucurrērunt. The boys ran home.
Lūcia celeriter cucurrit. Lucia ran quickly.
Arma cēpērunt. They took arms.
Graecia capta ferum victorem cēpit. Captured Greece has captured her savage captor. Horace: a reference to the fact that, while the Romans conquered the Greeks, the culture of the Greeks ultimately dominated the native culture of the Romans.

Practice[edit | edit source]

Practice and learn the words and phrases in this lesson
Step one First learn the words using this lesson:
Step two Next try learning and writing the sentencing using this:
Note that the Memrise stage covers the content for all lessons in each stage.
If you are skipping previous stages you may need to manually "ignore" the words in previous levels (use the 'select all' function)

In the next lesson we’ll continue with more verbs, including the slightly tricky deponent verbs. Valēte et bonam fortūnam!