Votian/Pronouns

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Pronouns [1][edit]

Paradigm[edit]

Inflection of pronouns and pointers
  Interrogative Distal demonstrative Proximal demonstrative Alternative Indefinite Negative Universal
Adverbs
manner ( instructive ) kui (ku, ko) how nī (nennī, kannī, Eastern Votic dialect: kannīG) so muitē̮   elsehow, in another way; (for nothing) kuilēB [2] [3] somehow
cause-purpose ( translative ) mihsi (missi, mihē̮   , minē-peräs̄ , Mati dialect: mi) why senē perässä (senperäs̄ ) therefor muite̮z otherwise; for no reason, for nothing misse Luuditsa dialect [4] [5] for some reason or other
time ( essive) ke̮nz (kē̮z, kē̮) when sīz (size̮   , siz) then nüD (nüttä, Jõgõperä dialect: nüt̄ ; para.iko) now muinā other times - long ago [6] kē̮zlēB [7] sometimes
direction ( allative and illative ) kuhē̮   where (to) sinne (Eastern Votic dialect: sinneG) there (to) tänne (Eastern Votic dialect: tänneG) here (to) muvvaлē̮   (mūvvaлē̮   , Luuditsa dialect: mujā) elsewhere (to) kuhē̮lēB [8] somewhere (to)
location ( adessive and inessive ) kuza where siällä there tǟllä (kassenna) here muvvaллa elsewhere kuzalēB [9] somewhere
ablative-direction ( ablative and elative ) kussa where (from) siältä there (from) tǟltä here (from) muvvaлta elsewhere (from) kussalēB [10] somewhere (from)
Numerals
Cardinals
Cardinal numeral ( singular nominative) mitō ~ mittoma how many sitō ~ sittoma that many mitō sitō quite many me̮ni some eb ̮ ühsīD none je̮ka ~ ke̮ikki every, all
Cardinal numeral ( singular genitive ) mittomā how many sittomā that many mittomā sittomā quite many me̮nē̮ some
Cardinal numeral ( singular partitive) me̮nta how many sittomā that many mittomā sittomā quite many me̮nta some
Ordinals
Ordinal numeral ( singular nominative) me̮ne̮iZ [11] which such
Nouns
Singular
Singular nominative mi(kä) what se that kase̮ this another, else mikälēB something eb ̮ mikäiD [12] nothing ke̮ikki everything
Singular partitive mitä what sitä that kasta this mūta another, else mitälēB something eb ̮ mitäiD nothing ke̮ikke̮a [13] everything
Singular genitive minē what senē that kazē̮ this another, else minelēB [14] something eb ̮ miz̆zeiD [15] nothing ke̮ikē̮ everything
Singular illative mihē ~ minēsē what sihē that kasē̮sē̮ this muhū [16] another, else mihelēB [17] something eb ̮ miheiD [18] nothing ke̮ikkē̮(sē̮) [19] everything
Singular inessive minezä  ? what senezä ~ sīnä that kaze̮za ~ kaze̮nna this mūza another, else minezälēB  ? something eb ̮ minezäiD  ? nothing ke̮ikke̮za [20] everything
Singular elative minessä what senessä ~ sītä that kaze̮ssa ~ kaze̮nna this mūssa another, else minessälēB  ? something eb ̮ minessäiD  ? nothing ke̮ike̮ssa everything
Singular allative millē what senelē ~ sille that kaze̮лē̮ this mūлē̮ another, else millelēB  ? something eb ̮ milleiD  ? nothing ke̮ike̮лē̮ everything
Singular adessive millä what senellä ~ sillä that kaze̮ллa this mūллa another, else millälēB  ? something eb ̮ milläiD  ? nothing ke̮ike̮ллa everything
Singular ablative miltä what seneltä ~ siltä that kaze̮лta this mūлta another, else miltälēB  ? something eb ̮ miltäiD  ? nothing ke̮ike̮лta everything
Singular translative mihsi what senessi that kaze̮ssi this mūssi another, else missilēB  ? something eb ̮ mihseiD  ? nothing ke̮ike̮ssi everything
Singular comitative minēkā what senēkā that kazē̮kā this mūkā another, else minēkalēB  ? something eb ̮ minēkaiD ~ eb ̮ miz̆zeit ̮kā  ? nothing ke̮ikē̮kā everything
Plural
Plural nominative miD what neD those kane̮D these mūD another ones mikälēB something eb ̮ mikäiD [21] nothing ke̮ikki ? everything
Plural partitive mitä what nītä those kane̮ita these muita another ones mitälēB something eb ̮ mitäiD nothing ke̮ikkia [22] everything
Plural genitive minē what ninnē those kane̮jē these mud́d́ē another ones minelēB [23] something eb ̮ miz̆zeiD [24] nothing ke̮ikkī [25] everything
Plural illative mihē ~ minēsē what nīsē  ? those kane̮isē̮  ? these muisē̮ [26] another ones mihelēB [27] something eb ̮ miheiD [28] nothing ke̮ikkīsē̮ [29] ? everything
Plural inessive minezä  ? what nīzä those kane̮iza these muiza another ones minezälēB  ? something eb ̮ minezäiD  ? nothing ke̮ikkiza [30] ? everything
Plural elative minessä what nīssä those kane̮issa these muissa another ones minessälēB  ? something eb ̮ minessäiD  ? [31] nothing ke̮ikkissa  ? everything
Plural allative millē what nīlē those kane̮iлē̮ these muiлē̮ another ones millelēB  ? something eb ̮ milleiD  ? nothing ke̮ikkiлē̮  ? everything
Plural adessive millä what nīllä those kane̮iллa these muiллa another ones millälēB  ? something eb ̮ milläiD  ? nothing ke̮ikkiллa  ? everything
Plural ablative miltä what nīltä those kane̮iлta these muiлta another ones miltälēB  ? something eb ̮ miltäiD  ? nothing ke̮ikkiлta  ? everything
Plural translative mihsi what nīssi those kane̮issi these muissi another ones missilēB  ? something eb ̮ mihseiD  ? nothing ke̮ikkissi  ? everything
Plural comitative minēkā what ninnēkā  ? those kane̮ikā  ? these mud́d́ēkā another ones minēkalēB  ? something eb ̮ minēkaiD ~ eb ̮ miz̆zeit ̮kā  ? nothing ke̮ikkīkā  ? everything
Adjectives
Singular
Singular nominative miltin [32] [33] what kind of seллain [34] [35] that kind of kammuga [36] [37] this kind of (? te̮ize̮̮ллain ) another kind of miltinlēB [38] some kind of eb ̮ mi·ltineiD  ? [39] [40] no kind of ke̮ike̮ллain [41] every kind of
Singular partitive miltissä what kind of seллaissa that kind of kammugā this kind of mūta another kind of miltissälēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ mi·ltissäiD  ? no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaissa every kind of
Singular genitive miltizē what kind of seллaizē̮ that kind of kammugā this kind of another kind of miltizelēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ mi·ltizeiD  ? no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaizē̮ every kind of
Singular illative miltisē(sē) what kind of seллaisē̮(sē̮) that kind of kammugāsē̮ this kind of muhū [42] another kind of miltiselēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ mi·ltiseiD  ? no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaisē̮(sē̮)  ? every kind of
Singular inessive miltizezä what kind of seллaize̮za that kind of kammugaza this kind of mūza another kind of miltizezälēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ mi·ltizezäiD  ? no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaize̮za every kind of
Singular elative miltizessä what kind of seллaize̮ssa that kind of kammugassa this kind of mūssa another kind of miltizessälēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ mi·ltizessäiD  ? no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaize̮ssa every kind of
Plural
Plural nominative miltizeD what kind of seллaize̮D that kind of kammugaD  ? this kind of mūD another kind of miltized ̮ lēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ mikäiD  ? [43] no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaize̮D every kind of
Plural partitive miltisītä what kind of seллaisīta that kind of kammugia this kind of muita another kind of miltisītälēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ mitäiD no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaisīta every kind of
Plural genitive miltisī(jē) what kind of seллaisī(jē) that kind of kammugiē this kind of mud́d́ē another kind of miltisilēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ miz̆zeiD [44] no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaisī(jē) every kind of
Plural illative miltisīsē what kind of seллaisīsē̮  ? that kind of kammugīsē̮  ? this kind of muisē̮ [45] another kind of miltisīselēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ miheiD [46] no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaisīsē̮ every kind of
Plural inessive miltisīzä what kind of seллaisīza that kind of kammugīza this kind of muiza another kind of miltisīzä lēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ minezäiD  ? no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaisīza every kind of
Plural elative miltisīssä what kind of seллaisīssa that kind of kammugīssa this kind of muissa another kind of miltisīssälēB  ? some kind of eb ̮ minessäiD  ? no kind of ke̮ike̮ллaisīssa every kind of
  • All the forms marked with ? are yet nothing but hypothetical constructions.


Declension[edit]

Numerals[edit]

mitō sitō - are declined like the XIII Declension: -m stems .[47]


me̮ne̮iZ - is declined like the kūvve̮iZ .[48] [49]


me̮ni - is declined like the X Declension: -e stems .

Cases of me̮ni may be used instead of those of me̮ne̮iZ .


paĺĺo ["many"] - is declined like the III Declension: -o stems .


vähǟ ["few"] - has no cases but instructive .

An adjective vähäin [" scarce "] - may be used instead it and declined like the XII Declension: -nen stems .


je̮ka [" each "] - is not declined.

An adjective je̮kain [" each "] - may be used instead it and declined like the XII Declension: -nen stems .


koko [" whole "] - is not declined.


Syntax[edit]

  • A simple descriptive question may be composed starting a sentence with an interrogative word. Often you may answer with one word or phrase [50].
    • kuhē̮ ke̮rjazit tširvē ? 'Where did you hide the ax?' Luuditsa dialect
    • sinne . 'Over there.'

You may answer with more informative words, than the general ones displayed in the table above.


  • mitō 'how many' (? <* mitton <* mittom <* mittoma) [51] [52]
    • mitō ussa "How many doors?"
    • mito entšiä, nī me̮nta end́ē māta, nī me̮nē̮ end́ē mā "How many persons (how many souls can feed themselves on it), so many plots of allotment (so many soul-plots) there are, plots of so many souls." Mati dialect
    • mittoma süöjɛä, sittoma luzikkā "How many eaters, so many spoons (are there)." Pummala dialect
    • mittomaлta sittomaлta on tšüzüttü "Quite many people were asked." Kattila dialect
    • ve̮ttaka sittömǟ silmiä ja mittömǟ miĺĺonia "Take so many eyes and many millions!" Jõgõperä dialect
    • me̮nta päivǟ e̮li, sitō päivǟ i ōtte̮li "How many days he spent there, as many days he was waiting."
    • me̮ni suv̆vāb jūvva ūsia munnē̮ "Some people like to eat fresh eggs." Mati dialect
    • me̮ne̮d bābuškat, tšed jumalā pitiväD, e̮livat ke̮лme̮t päivǟ sǖmättä "Some grannies, who believed in God, did not eat three days." Jõgõperä dialect
    • me̮nikkāl̄   pokoinikal̄   me̮nt entšiä idge̮p ǟleltä "Someone, who has passed away, will be mourned aloud by many people." Kattila dialect
    • kui me̮ne̮лt virstaлt tuлe̮B "Comes from miles away!" Lempola dialect
    • se pū me̮nī satoita vuosīta viez lieb e̮ллu "This tree seems to be laying in water several hundreds of years." Lempola dialect
    • tämä e̮li jo kui me̮ne̮z ̮ vē̮raZ "Who knows how many guests had came before her already." Lempola dialect


Exercises[edit]

  • 1. Compose questions and answers using the examples of the Syntax chapter.


See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 59-68, 73, 108-118
  2. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.276
  3. Potential-future : lēB
  4. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.327
  5. Translative: *mikse
  6. E. Adler, M. Leppik: Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v. 3; p. 340
  7. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.274
  8. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.274
  9. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.321
  10. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.319
  11. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.376
  12. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.1. p.178 Pummala dialect
  13. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.341 Mati dialect
  14. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.320 Luuditsa dialect
  15. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.319 Mati dialect
  16. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 46 (examples of I Declension: one syllable wovel stems )
  17. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.315 Mati dialect
  18. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.315 Pummala dialect
  19. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 51 (examples of VIII Conjugation: -e stems )
  20. Singular inessive
  21. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.1. p.178 Pummala dialect
  22. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.341-342 Mati dialect
  23. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.320 Luuditsa dialect
  24. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.319 Mati dialect
  25. Plural genitive : ke̮ikke̮+iten > ke̮ikkī ("everyone" plural genitive)
  26. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 47 (examples of I Declension: one syllable wovel stems )
  27. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.315 Mati dialect
  28. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.315 Pummala dialect
  29. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 51 (examples of VIII Conjugation: -e stems )
  30. Plural inessive
  31. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.319 migässäiDsä puissa ("(made) of some trees" singular instead of plural elative ) Itšäpäivä dialect
  32. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.323 Kattila dialect
  33. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 54 (examples of XII Declension: -nen stems )
  34. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.5. p.197 Luuditsa dialect
  35. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 54 (examples of XII Declension: -nen stems )
  36. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.65 Kattila dialect
  37. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 51 (examples of XII Declension: -a stems )
  38. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.324 Mati dialect
  39. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.1. p.178 eb ̮ mi·llineiD Pummala dialect
  40. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.324 mi·ltineiD Kattila dialect, Pummala dialect, Mati dialect etc.
  41. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.344 Kattila dialect, Itšäpäivä dialect, Mati dialect etc.
  42. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 46 (examples of I Declension: one syllable wovel stems )
  43. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.319 migässäiDsä puissa ("(made) of some trees" singular instead of plural elative ) Itšäpäivä dialect
  44. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.319 Mati dialect
  45. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 47 (examples of I Declension: one syllable wovel stems )
  46. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.315 Pummala dialect
  47. Numerals
  48. Numerals
  49. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.376
  50. E. Adler, M. Leppik: Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v. 2; p. 273
  51. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.327, 374
  52. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 73
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