Answering Votian questions

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Answering questions [1][edit]

Descriptive question[edit]

Inflection of pronouns and pointers
  Interrogative Distal demonstrative Proximal demonstrative Alternative Indefinite Negative Universal
Adverbs
manner ( instructive ) kui (ku, ko) how nī (nennī, kannī, Eastern Votic dialect: kannīG) so muitē̮   elsehow, in another way; (for nothing) kuilēB [2] [3] somehow
cause-purpose ( translative ) mihsi (missi, mihē̮   , minē-peräs̄ , Mati dialect: mi) why senē perässä (senperäs̄ ) therefor muite̮z otherwise; for no reason, for nothing misse Luuditsa dialect [4] [5] for some reason or other
time ( essive) ke̮nz (kē̮z, kē̮) when sīz (size̮   , siz) then nüD (nüttä, Jõgõperä dialect: nüt̄ ; para.iko) now muinā other times - long ago [6] kē̮zlēB [7] sometimes
direction ( allative and illative ) kuhē̮   where (to) sinne (Eastern Votic dialect: sinneG) there (to) tänne (Eastern Votic dialect: tänneG) here (to) muvvaлē̮   (mūvvaлē̮   , Luuditsa dialect: mujā) elsewhere (to) kuhē̮lēB [8] somewhere (to)
location ( adessive and inessive ) kuza where siällä there tǟllä (kassenna) here muvvaллa elsewhere kuzalēB [9] somewhere
ablative-direction ( ablative and elative ) kussa where (from) siältä there (from) tǟltä here (from) muvvaлta elsewhere (from) kussalēB [10] somewhere (from)

Dialectal alternatives[edit]

location sihēsē (sihē) here (to) sīnä here sītä here (from)


Syntax[edit]

  • A simple descriptive question may be composed starting a sentence with an interrogative word. Often you may answer with one word or phrase [11].
    • kuhē̮ ke̮rjazit tširvē ? 'Where did you hide the ax?' Luuditsa dialect
    • sinne . 'Over there.'

You may answer with more informative adverbs, than the general ones displayed in the table above.

  • kuhē̮ , kuza, kussa 'where (to), where, where (from)'
    • 'somewhere'
      • kuhē̮lēB e.g. Itšäpäivä dialect: kuhē̮lēG mennǖD tüttäreD, ep kūluG näitä 'Daughters have gone somewhere, they can't be heard.' kuhē̮ [12]
    • 'outside'
      • akkunaлā e.g. лahze̮d ̮johsivad ̮akkunaлā 'The kids ran out.' kuhē̮
      • akkunaллa e.g. meil on akkunaллa vanat ̮kazge̮D 'We have old birchtrees outside (in our courtyard).' kuza
      • akkunaлta e.g. akkunaлta tultī jo rihēsē 'They came in already.' kussa (into the chamber from outside of the house)
    • 'down, below, under'
      • aлaz ~ aлā e.g. tämä tuli ähüpǟlt aлaz 'He came down from the oven.' kuhē̮
      • aллa e.g. koira on lavvā naллa, meni aлā 'The dog is under the table, went down.' kuza (The n of naллa is actually a Genitive ending, which has slided from lavvā to the beginning of the following word.)
      • aлta e.g. ve̮ta linad ̮aлta vällǟ 'Take the bedsheets away.' kussa (from below a blanket)
    • 'ahead, forward, onwards'
      • etezī ~ etēz e.g. ain ove̮s̄ etezī aje̮ Lempola dialect '(He) drove the horse forward all the time.' kuhē̮
    • 'back'
      • tagāz ~ tagaz e.g. vellet ̮tulivat ̮tagāz 'The brothers came back.' kuhē̮ ; täl tagāz ̮be̮ллu antā rahā 'She (the seller) had no money to give (return me) the change.'
    • 'back and forth, there and back, to and fro, up and down'
      • etēz ̮tagāz' e.g. tšäütteleb ̮etēz ̮tagāz '(Se) walks back and forth.' kuhē̮
  • kui 'how'
    • 'below'
      • aлe̮tsē̮   ~ aлe̮ttse̮   ~ aлattsē̮   e.g. menemmä aлe̮tsē̮   "Let's pass below (the obstacle)."
  • mihsi 'why'
    • ' otherwise, for no reason, for nothing'
      • muite̮z ~ muitez ~ muitaz [13]
    • ' anyway, still (regardless to that)'
      • muite̮štši [14]
    • ' of course'


Affirmative question[edit]

suffix -ko Is it ... ? Did she ...? ... wether etc.
adverb vai Is it ... ? Did she ...? ... wether etc.
  • A simple question may be composed adding a suffix -ko to the first word of a sentence.
    • pesiko tšäet puhtāssi? 'Did he wash his hands (clean)?' < pesi tšäet puhtāssi. '(He) washed (his) hands (clean).'
    • ko üvä issua? 'Is it good to sit (like this)?' < on üvä issua. 'It is good to sit (like this).'
  • A simple question may be composed starting a sentence with vai.
    • vai siä karjuššin̄ e̮лe̮D? 'Are you (working as) a shepherd?' < siǟ e̮лe̮D karjuššin 'you are (working as) a shepherd?'

A vague answer may contain ku b lie (may be). [16]


Neighbouring languages[edit]

There is a similar morpheme vai in Latvian with similar functions. [17]

  • Vai Ritai patīk aritmētika? 'Does Rita like arithmetic?' < Ritai patīk aritmētika? 'Rita likes arithmetic.'



Exercises[edit]

  • 1. Compose questions and answers using the examples of the Syntax chapter.


See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 108-118
  2. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.276
  3. Potential-future : lēB
  4. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.3. p.327
  5. Translative: *mikse
  6. E. Adler, M. Leppik: Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v. 3; p. 340
  7. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.274
  8. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.274
  9. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.321
  10. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.319
  11. E. Adler, M. Leppik: Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v. 2; p. 273
  12. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.274
  13. E. Adler, M. Leppik: Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v. 3; p. 340
  14. E. Adler, M. Leppik: Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v. 3; p. 340
  15. E. Adler, M. Leppik: Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v. 3; p. 340
  16. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.2. p.270
  17. [1] Latvian Language: Lesson 6
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