Progress and Prospects in Parkinson's Research/Symptoms/A

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The A-Z of Parkinson's Symptoms[edit | edit source]

A

Note: 'A' is a prefix of Greek derivation meaning 'Without'

e.g Asymptomatic means 'Without symptoms'.
Aboulia (lack of will or initiative)

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Aboulia

Lack of will or initiative

There is an alternative spelling ’Abulia’.

This symptom can come about through trauma or as a result of Deep Brain Stimulation. It can also arise from non-Parkinsonian causes such as degeneration of or surgery upon the frontal lobes.

Common features of aboulia are:-

• Difficulty in initiating and sustaining purposeful movements

• Lack of spontaneous movement

• Reduced spontaneous movement

• Increased response-time to queries

• Passivity

• Reduced emotional responsiveness and spontaneity

• Reduced social interactions

• Reduced interest in usual pastimes

This has been described by:-

Doder et al (1999) Parkinson's syndrome after closed head injury: a single case report [1]


Redgrave et al (2010)Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson’s disease [2]


Drubach et al (2011)Free Will, Freedom of Choice and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration [3]

Further Research

Search the scientific literature (Aboulia)

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Aboulia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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Search the scientific literature (Abulia)

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Abulia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Doder, Daniel A,; Jahanshahi, M.; Turjanski, N.; Moseley, I and Lees, A. (1999) Full Text J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 66 (3) 380–385. Parkinson's syndrome after closed head injury: a single case report http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1736270/
  2. Redgrave, Peer; Rodruiguez, Manuel, Smith, Yolande; Rodruiguez-Oroz, Maria C.; Lehericy, Stephane; Bergman, Hagai; Agid, Yves; DeLong, Mahlon R. and Obeso, Jose A. (2010) Full Text Nat. Rev. Neurosci 11 (11) 760-772. Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson’s disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3124757/
  3. Drubach, Daniel A.: Rabibstein, Alejandro, A. and Molano, Jennifer (2011) Full Text Mens. Sana. Monogr. 9 (1) 238–250. Free Will, Freedom of Choice and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3115293/


Agnosia (difficulties in action or perception)

Redirected to Apraxia: ( To subpage for editing >> )

Apraxia


Difficulties in action or perception


(May include Agnosia - Loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells)

This has been studied by:-


Goldenburg et al (1986) Impairment of motor planning in patients with Parkinson's disease: evidence from ideomotor apraxia testing. [1]


Jacobs, Jesse V. et al (2006)The supplementary motor area contributes to the timing of the anticipatory postural adjustment during step initiation in participants with and without Parkinson’s disease [2]


Rohrer et al (2009) Apraxia in progressive nonfluent aphasia [3]


Liepelt-Scarfone et al (2011) Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease [4]

Further Research

Search the scientific literature (Apraxia)

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Apraxia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
Pubmed (abstracts)
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Google_Scholar



Search the scientific literature (Agnosia)

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Agnosia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Goldenberg, G.; Wimmer, A. Auff, E.; and Schnaberth, G. Daniela (1986) Full Text J. Neurol. Neurosurg Psychiatry. 49 (11) 1266–1272. Impairment of motor planning in patients with Parkinson's disease: evidence from ideomotor apraxia testing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1029075/
  2. Jacobs, Jesse V.; Lou, Jau-Shin,; Kraakevik, Jeff A. and Horak, Fay, B. (2006) manuscript The supplementary motor area contributes to the timing of the anticipatory postural adjustment during step initiation in participants with and without Parkinson’s disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2762010/
  3. Rohrer, Jonathan Daniel, Rossoy, Martin N. and Warren, Jason D.(2009) Full Text J.Neurol. 257 (4) 569 – 574 Apraxia in progressive nonfluent aphasia http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848723/
  4. Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Graeber, Susanne; Feseker Anne; Baysal, Gulsum, Godau, Jane; Gaenslen, Alexandra, Maetzler, Walter and Daniela Berg, Daniela (2011) Full Text Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109363/


Agrypnia (persistent sleeplessness)

Redirected to Insomnia: ( To subpage for editing >> )

Insomnia

Disturbed sleep

May include Agrypnia

The following references are relevant:-

Schutte-Rodin et al (2008)Clinical Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults [1]


Suzuki et al(2011)Sleep Disturbances Associated with Parkinson's Disease [2]


Louter et al (2012) Recognition and diagnosis of sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease [3]

Further Research

Search the scientific literature (Insomnia)

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Insomnia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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Search the scientific literature (Agrypnia)

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Agrypnia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References


  1. Schutte-Rodin, Sharon; Broch, Lauren; Buysse, Daniel; Dorsey, Cynthia and Sateia, Michael (2008) Full Text J. Clin. Sleep Med. 4 (5) 487 – 504. Clinical Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2576317/
  2. Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Iwanami, Masoki and Hirata, Koichi (2011) Full TextParkinsons Dis. 2011: 219056. Sleep Disturbances Associated with Parkinson's Disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3159123/
  3. Louter, Maartje; Aarden, Willemijn C.C.A.; Lion, Joy, Bloem, Bastiaan R. and Overeem, Sebastian (2012) Full TextJ. Neurol. 259 (10) 2031 – 2040. Recognition and diagnosis of sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3464375/


Akathesia (restless legs)

Redirected to Restless Legs Syndrome: ( To subpage for editing >> )

Restless Legs Syndrome[edit | edit source]

Uncontrollable, involuntary movement of the legs and feet

The following references are relevant:-

Gao et al (2010) Restless Legs Syndrome and Erectile Dysfunction[1]

Gao et al (2010) Restless legs syndrome and Parkinson’s disease in men[2]

Pourcher et al (2010) Compulsive habits in restless legs syndrome patients under dopaminergic treatment [3]

Peeraully and Tan (2012) Linking restless legs syndrome with Parkinson's disease: clinical, imaging and genetic evidence [4]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802250/

Further Research[edit | edit source]

Search the scientific literature

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Restless_Legs_Syndrome.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Gao, Xiang; Schwarzchilds, Michael A.: O’Reilly, Eilis J.; Wang, Hao and Ascherio, Alberto (2010) Full TextSleep 33 (1) 75 – 79 Restless Legs Syndrome and Erectile Dysfunction http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802250/
  2. Gao, Xiang; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; O’Reilly, Eilis J.; Wang, Hao and Ascherio, Alberto (2010) Full Text Mov. Disord. 25 (15) 2654 – 2657 Restless legs syndrome and Parkinson’s disease in men http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3114885/
  3. Pourcher, E.; Remillard, S. and Cohen, H. (2010) Full TextJ. Neurol. Sci. 290 (1-2) 52 -56 Compulsive habits in restless legs syndrome patients under dopaminergic treatment. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3114885/
  4. Peeraully, Tasneem and Tan, Eng-King (2012) Full TextTransl. Neurodegener. 2012; 1: 6. Linking restless legs syndrome with Parkinson's disease: clinical, imaging and genetic evidencehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3514082/


Akinesia (freezing of gait)

Redirected to Freezing of gait ( To subpage for editing >> )

Freezing of gait[edit | edit source]

Inability to initiate locomotion

The following references are relevant:-

Morris et al (2010) Striding Out With Parkinson Disease: Evidence-Based Physical Therapy for Gait Disorders [1]

Maidan et al (2010) Heart rate changes during freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease [2]

Espay et al(2012) “On” state freezing of gait in Parkinson disease - A paradoxical levodopa-induced complication [3]

Further Research[edit | edit source]

Search the scientific literature

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Freezing_of_gait.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References


  1. Morris, Meg. E.; Martin, Clarissa L. and Schenkman, Margaret L.(2010) Full Text Phys. Ther. 90 (2) 280 – 288 Striding Out With Parkinson Disease: Evidence-Based Physical Therapy for Gait Disorders http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816030/
  2. Maidan, I; Plotnik, M.; Mirelman, M. Wess, A.; Giladi, N.; and Haudorff, J.M. (2010) Full Text Mov. Disord. 25 (14) 2346 -2354 Heart rate changes during freezing of gait http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2964413/
  3. Espay, A.J.; Fasano, A.; van Nuenen, B.F.J.; Payne, M.M; Snijders, A.H. and Bloem, B.R. (2012) Full Text. Neurology 78 (7) 454 – 457 ”On” state freezing of gait in Parkinson disease - A paradoxical levodopa-induced complication http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466608/


Algolagnia (excessive sexual activity)

Redirected to Hypersexuality: Hypersexuality

Excessive sexual activity

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(Related symptoms: Satyriasis, Sadomachism)

The following references are relevant:-

Witjas et al (2012) Addictive behaviors and Parkinson's disease. [1]


Politis et al (2013) Neural response to visual sexual cues in dopamine treatment-linked hypersexuality in Parkinson's disease. [2]

Pereira et al (2013) Screening hypersexuality in Parkinson's disease in everyday practice. [3]

Further Research

Search the scientific literature

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Hypersexuality .
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References


  1. Witjas, T.; Eusebio, A.; Fluchère, F. and Azulay, J.P. (2012) Full Text Rev. Neurol. (Paris). 168 (8-9) 624 - 633. Addictive behaviors and Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22921247
  2. Politis, M.; Loane, C.; Wu, K.; O'Sullivan, S.S.; Woodhead, Z.; Kiferle, L.; Lawrence, A.D.; Lees, A.J. and Piccini, P. (2013) Full Text Brain. 136 (Pt 2) 400 -411.Neural response to visual sexual cues in dopamine treatment-linked hypersexuality in Parkinson's disease.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23378222
  3. Pereira, B.; Llorca, P.M.; Durif, F.; Brousse, G.; Blanc, O.; Rieu, I.; Derost, P.; Ulla, M.; Debilly, B. and de Chazeron, I. (2013) Full Text Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 19 (2) 242 - 246. Screening hypersexuality in Parkinson's disease in everyday practice. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23176749


Amimia (fixed and vacant expression)

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Amimia[1][edit | edit source]

Fixed and vacant expression (masking)

Very little research has been carried out on this common PD symptom but the following are relevant :-

Allen (1931) The Dissociation of voluntary and emotional movements of the face with special reference to emotional paresis as a physical sign [2]

Hemmesch et al (2009)The Influence of Facial Masking and Sex on Older Adults’ Impressions of Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease. [3]

Clark et al (2011) Visual Exploration of Emotional Facial Expressions in Parkinson's Disease [4]

Tickle-Degnen et al (2011) Culture, Gender and Health Care Stigma: Practitioners’ Response to Facial Masking Experienced by People with Parkinson’s Disease < [5]

Further Research[edit | edit source]

Search the scientific literature

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Amimia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/
  2. Allen, I.M.(1931) Full Text The Dissociation of voluntary and emotional movements of the face with special reference to emotional paresis as a physical sign http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1038785/?page=1
  3. Hemmesch. Amanda R.; Tickle-Degnen, Linda and Zebrowitz, Leslie A. (2009) Full Text Psychol. Aging 24 (3) 542 – 549 The Influence of Facial Masking and Sex on Older Adults’ Impressions of Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761205/
  4. Clark, Uraina S.; Neargarder, Sandy and Cronin-Golomb, Alice (2011) Full Text Visual Exploration of Emotional Facial Expressions in Parkinson's Disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2876199/
  5. Tickle-Degnen, Linda and Zebrowitz, Leslie A. and Ma, Hui-ing (2011) Full Text Soc. Sci. Med. 73 (1) 95 – 102 Culture, Gender and Health Care Stigma: Practitioners’ Response to Facial Masking Experienced by People with Parkinson’s Disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3142938/


Aphagia(inability to swallow)

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Aphagia[edit | edit source]

Inability to swallow

Swallowing problems are frequently reported by PD patients but the symptom awaits detailed scientific research.

The following references are relevant:-

eHealthMe (1977)Could Parkinson's disease cause Aphagia? A study of 26 patients [1]

eHealthMe (1977) Could Azilect cause Aphagia? [2]

Russell et al (2010) Targeted exercise therapy for voice and swallow in persons with Parkinson’s disease [3]

Further Research[edit | edit source]

Search the scientific literature

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Aphagia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. eHealthMe (1977) Article Could Parkinson's disease cause Aphagia? A study of 26 patients http://www.ehealthme.com/cs/parkinson's+disease/aphagia
  2. eHealthMe(1977) Article Could Azilect cause Aphagia? http://www.ehealthme.com/ds/azilect/aphagia
  3. Russell, John A.; Ciucci, Michelle, R.; Connor, Nadine P. and Schallert, Timothy(2010) Full TextBrain Res. 1341 : 3 – 11. Targeted exercise therapy for voice and swallow in persons with Parkinson’s disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2908992/


Aphonia (inability to make sounds)

Aphonia: Inability to make sounds. ( To subpage for editing >> )

Aphonia

Inability to make sounds

The following references are relevant:-

Critchley (1981) Speech disorders of Parkinsonism: a review [1]

Russell et al (2010) Targeted exercise therapy for voice and swallow in persons with Parkinson’s disease [2]

Hallett (2011) Psychogenic Parkinsonism [3]

Search the scientific literature (Aphonia)

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Aphonia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Critchley, E,M, (1981) Full TextJ. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 44 (9) 751 – 758 Speech disorders of Parkinsonism: a review http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC491132/
  2. Russell, John A.; Ciucci, Michelle, R.; Connor, Nadine P. and Schallert, Timothy(2010) Full TextBrain Res. 1341 : 3 – 11. Targeted exercise therapy for voice and swallow in persons with Parkinson’s disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2908992/
  3. Hallett, Mark (2011) Full TextJ. Neurol. Sci. 310 (1-2) 163 – 165 Psychogenic Parkinsonism http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139799/


Aphrenia(stoppage of thought)

Aphrenia: Stoppage of thought Redirected to Dementia: ( To subpage for editing >> )

Dementia

Abnormal progressive decline in cognitive function

See also Cognitive Impairment

The following references are relevant.

Leverenz et al, (2009) Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Patients with Parkinson Disease [1]

Johnson and Galvin (2011) Longitudinal Changes in Cognition in Parkinson's Disease with and without Dementia [2]

Weintraub et al (2011) Neurodegeneration Across Stages of Cognitive Decline in Parkinson Disease [3]

Further Research

Search the scientific literature

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Dementia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Leverenz, James B.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Zabetian, Cyrus;Zhang, Jing; Montine, Kathleen S. and Montine, Thomas J. (date) Full TextCurr. Top Med. Chem. 9 (10) 903 – 912. Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Patients with Parkinson Disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2804995/
  2. Johnson, David K.; and Galvin, James E. (2011) Full Text Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 31 (2) 98 – 108. Longitudinal Changes in Cognition in Parkinson's Disease with and without Dementia http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047760/
  3. Weintraub, Daniel; Doshi, Jimit; Koka, Deepthi’ Davatzikos, Christos; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Duda, John E.; Wolk, David A.; Moberg, Paul J.; Xie, Sharon X. and Clark, Christopher M. (2011) Full TextArch Neurol. 68 (12) 1562 – 1568. Neurodegeneration Across Stages of Cognitive Decline in Parkinson Disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3290902/


Apnoea (stoppage of breathing)

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Apnoea

Arrest of breathing

There is an alternative spelling " Apnea". This is most frequently observed sleep disorder. During apnoea there is no movement of air in or out of the lungs. There is a considerable body of literature on this Symptom. Here are a few references and a general search tool:

Chotinaiwattarakui et al (2010) Risk of sleep-disordered breathing in Parkinson's disease [1]

Univ. of California clinical Trials. (2012). Study into the cognitive benefits of treating sleep apnea in Parkinson’s disease [2]

Lelieveld et al (2012) The Role of Serotonin in Sleep Disordered Breathing Associated with Parkinson Disease: A Correlative DASB PET Imaging Study [3]

Further Research

Search the scientific literature - Apnoea

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Apnoea.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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Search the scientific literature - Apnea

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Apnea.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Chotinawattarakui, Wattanachai; Davalu, Ptaveen; Chervin, Ronald D, and Albin, Roger L. (2010) Sleep Breath 15 (3) 471 – 478 Risk of sleep-disordered breathing in Parkinson’s disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2978748/
  2. Univ. Californis Clinical Trial, (2012). Study into the cognitive benefits of treating sleep apnea in Parkinson’s disease. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00492115
  3. Lelieveld, Irene M.; Müller, Martijn L.T.M.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.Koeppe, Robert A.; Chervin. Robert D; Frey, Kirk A.; and Alnin, Roger L.(2012) PloS On The Role of Serotonin in Sleep Disordered Breathing Associated with Parkinson Disease: A Correlative DASB PET Imaging Study e 7 (7) e-40166 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3390329/


Apraxia (difficulties in action or perception)

( To subpage for editing >> )

Apraxia


Difficulties in action or perception


(May include Agnosia - Loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells)

This has been studied by:-


Goldenburg et al (1986) Impairment of motor planning in patients with Parkinson's disease: evidence from ideomotor apraxia testing. [1]


Jacobs, Jesse V. et al (2006)The supplementary motor area contributes to the timing of the anticipatory postural adjustment during step initiation in participants with and without Parkinson’s disease [2]


Rohrer et al (2009) Apraxia in progressive nonfluent aphasia [3]


Liepelt-Scarfone et al (2011) Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease [4]

Further Research

Search the scientific literature (Apraxia)

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Apraxia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
Pubmed (abstracts)
Pubmed_Central (Full_Text)
Google_Scholar



Search the scientific literature (Agnosia)

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Agnosia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Goldenberg, G.; Wimmer, A. Auff, E.; and Schnaberth, G. Daniela (1986) Full Text J. Neurol. Neurosurg Psychiatry. 49 (11) 1266–1272. Impairment of motor planning in patients with Parkinson's disease: evidence from ideomotor apraxia testing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1029075/
  2. Jacobs, Jesse V.; Lou, Jau-Shin,; Kraakevik, Jeff A. and Horak, Fay, B. (2006) manuscript The supplementary motor area contributes to the timing of the anticipatory postural adjustment during step initiation in participants with and without Parkinson’s disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2762010/
  3. Rohrer, Jonathan Daniel, Rossoy, Martin N. and Warren, Jason D.(2009) Full Text J.Neurol. 257 (4) 569 – 574 Apraxia in progressive nonfluent aphasia http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848723/
  4. Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Graeber, Susanne; Feseker Anne; Baysal, Gulsum, Godau, Jane; Gaenslen, Alexandra, Maetzler, Walter and Daniela Berg, Daniela (2011) Full Text Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109363/


Ataxia(lack of voluntary co-ordination of muscle movements)

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Ataxia[edit | edit source]

Lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements

The following references are relevant:-

Nocera et al Impaired Step Up/Over in Persons With Parkinson’s Disease[1]

Paquette et al (2011) Walking in circles: navigation deficits from Parkinson's disease but not from cerebellar ataxia [2]

Chaturvedi and Flint (2013) Mitochondrial Diseases of the Brain. [3]

Further Research[edit | edit source]

Search the scientific literature (Ataxia)

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Ataxia.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Nocera, Joe. R.; Horvat, Michaej and Ray, Christopher T. Full Text Adapt. Phys. Activ. Step Up/Over in Persons With Parkinson’s Disease Published in final edited form as: Adapt. Phys. Activ. Q. 27 (2) 87– 95. Impaired Step Up/Over in Persons With Parkinson’s Disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3607198/
  2. Paquette, Caroline; Franzen, Erika; Melvill-Jones, Geoffrey and Horak, Fay B. (2011) Full Text Neuroscience 190 177 – 183 Walking in circles: navigation deficits from Parkinson's disease but not from cerebellar ataxia http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3156363/
  3. Chaturvedi, R.K. and Flint, Beal M. (2013) Full Text Free Radic Biol. Med. 2013 Apr 5. pii: S0891-5849(13)00123-8. doi: 0. Mitochondrial Diseases of the Brain. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23567191


Athetosis (involuntary movements of the face, tongue and extremities)

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Athetosis[edit | edit source]

Involuntary movements of the face, tongue and extremities.

A number of projects have concentrated on this symptom:-

Neilson (1974) Measurement of involuntary arm movement in athetotic patients [1]

Hallett and Alvarez (1983) Attempted rapid elbow movements in patients with athetosis [2]

Further Research[edit | edit source]

Search the scientific literature

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Athetosis.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
Pubmed (abstracts)
Pubmed_Central (Full_Text)
Google_Scholar



References[edit | edit source]

  1. Neilson, Peter D. (1974) Full Text J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 37 (2) 171–177. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC494600/
  2. Halett, M. and Alvarez, N. (1983) Full Text J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 46 (8) 745–750. Attempted rapid elbow movements in patients with athetosis http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1027529/


Automatism (forced obedience to external stimulli or commands)

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Automatism[edit | edit source]

Forced obedience to external stimuli or commands.

Some potentially relevant references are:-

Allain et al (1995) Explicit and procedural memory in Parkinson's disease. [1]

Allain et al (1995) Procedural memory and Parkinson's disease. [2]

Perez-Velazquez (2012) The biophysical bases of will-less behaviours [3]

Further Research[edit | edit source]

Search the scientific literature

Literature search:

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Automatism.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
Pubmed (abstracts)
Pubmed_Central (Full_Text)
Google_Scholar



References[edit | edit source]

  1. .Allain,H,; Lieury, A.; Thomas V.; Reymann JM.; Gandon, J.M. and Belliard, S. (1995) Abstract Biomed. Pharmacother. 49 (4) 179 – 186 Explicit and procedural memory in Parkinson's disease.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7669937
  2. Allain, H.; Lieury, A.; Quemener, V.; Thomas, V.; Reymann, J.M, and Gandon, J.M. (1995) Abstract Dementia 6 (3) 174 – 178 Proceadurl memory and Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7620531
  3. Perez-Valaquez, Jose L. (2012) Abstract Front. Integr. Neirosci. 2012:6:98 The biophysical bases of will-less behaviours http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3478585/


< Back to Parkinson's Symptoms

Links to the symptoms of Parkinson's in alphabetical order:

A B C D E
F - G H I - L M - N O
P - Q R S T U - Z

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