Motivation and emotion/Tutorials/Needs

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Tutorial 02: Needs

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This is the second tutorial for the Motivation and emotion unit of study.


Overview[edit]

This tutorial:

  1. introduces brain structures which are relevant to motivation and emotion
  2. discusses the motivational and emotional role of hormones and neurotransmitters
  3. considers psychological needs, with a particular focus on Deci and Ryan's taxonomy of motivation and self-determination theory
  4. discusses book chapter topic development

Physiological aspects of motivation and emotion[edit]

Important physiological elements of our motivational and emotional experiences include brain structures, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Whilst each of these components serves particular functions, they also communicate directly or indirectly with one another to work dynamically and holistically.

Brain structures and functions[edit]

The purpose of this section is to become familiar with brain structures which have important motivation and emotional functions.

Triune brain theory[edit]

A useful starting point to understanding the human brain structures which relate to our motivational and emotional lives, is the triune theory which understands the brain as having evolved in evolutionary layers:

  1. Reptilian brain (Brain stem): Instinct, survival, alertness
  2. Mammalian brain (Limbic system / Mid-brain): Emotional functions
  3. Human brain (Neocortex): Higher order capacities to self-regulate, plan, make choices, exercise volition, decide whether to approach or avoid, and so on, in the frontal cortex.
Triune brain theory

Brain structures[edit]

To learn about the Limbic System, also see [1] and watch this 1 min video: Limbic system, plus Limbic system. Further reading: Limbic system, The brain's subcortical nuclei, Brain areas supporting cerebral cortex function

Activity: Mix and match activity in small groups

Face-to-face
  1. Review the master list of brain structures and functions.
  2. Cut up the copy into separate structures and functions, then mix them around.
  3. As a group, match the brain structures to their functions - do the best you can, then check against the master list.
  4. Mix them up, and try again - repeat process until your group can get them all right.
Online
  1. Use this link:
    Brain structure mix and match activity
  2. Each person should allocate themselves to researching a structure; once completed, add your name to a free structure until complete
3D Brain structure app

This is a recommended app to install and explore the location and function of important brain structures:

  1. 3D Brain app on Google Play
  2. 3D Brain app on Apple iTunes
List of brain structures linked to Wikipedia articles
  1. Overview brain diagram (note: useful summary, but not all structures of interest are listed)
Cortical
  1. Cerebral cortex (Frontal lobes)
  2. Anterior cingulate cortex
  3. Dorsolateral cortex
  4. Orbitofrontal cortex
  5. Prefrontal cortex
  6. Ventromedial cortex
Sub-cortical
  1. Amygdala - Video
  2. Basal ganglia
  3. Hypothalamus
  4. Insula
  5. Reticular formation
  6. Ventral striatum and Nucleus accumbens
  7. Ventral tegmental area

Hormones and neurotransmitters[edit]

  1. Ask/discuss:
    1. What is a hormone?
    2. What is a neurotransmitter?

Hormones[edit]

List of hormones linked to Wikipedia articles
  1. Cortisol
  2. Testosterone
  3. Oxytocin
  4. Ghrelin
  5. Leptin

See also: Catecholamine

Face-to-face activity
  1. Allocate each person a hormone or a function of a hormone - from this list.
  2. Invite class to 'find their match' and discuss what they know about how this physiological element works. (If someone is really lost, encouraged others to help them out; last resort - give them a hint)
  3. Ask the pairs to explain their match to the class and what else they know about that hormone; encourage other's input
  4. Optional: Mix-up and repeat again.
Online activity
  1. Go to the mix and match spreadsheet:
    Hormones, neurotransmitters and their motivational and emotional function - Mix and match
  2. Allocate your name to one of the hormones research the correct answer. Once finished, select any that are free until the task is complete.

Neurotransmitters[edit]

List of neurotransmitters linked to Wikipedia articles
  1. Dopamine
  2. Serotonin
  3. Norepinephrine
  4. Endorphins

Face-to-face activity
  1. Allocate each person a neurotransmitter or a function of a neurotransmitter - from this list.
  2. Invite class to 'find their match' and discuss what they know about how this physiological element works. (If someone is really lost, encouraged others to help them out; last resort - give them a hint)
  3. Ask the pairs to explain their match to the class and what else they know about that hormone; encourage other's input
  4. Optional: Mix-up and repeat again.
Online activity
  1. Go to the mix and match spreadsheet:
    Hormones, neurotransmitters and their motivational and emotional function - Mix and match
  2. Allocate your name to one of the neurotransmitters and research the correct answer. Once finished, select any that are free until the task is complete.

Needs[edit]

Brainstorm and discuss:

  1. What are needs?
    Discuss and define - needs are requirements for physiological and psychological health and well-being (e.g., eating (nutrients/energy), hydration, temperature, sleeping).
  2. How do needs differ from desires, wants, likes etc.?
    Needs are essential for survival and well-being; desires, wants, likes etc. are motivations for non-essential stimuli (e.g., An umbrella in the rain)
  3. What types of needs are there?
    Brainstorm. Reeve (2015) classifies needs as physiological, psychological and implicit (social).
  4. Deficit vs. growth needs

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation[edit]

  1. The intrinsic-extrinsic motivational distinction is widely recognised and accepted. However, it risks being overly simplistic. Discuss:
    1. What is intrinsic motivation (IM)?
    2. What is extrinsic motivation (EM)?
    3. What are some advantages of conceptualising motivation in this way?
      (e.g., simple, easy to understand and helps with research designs)
    4. What are some disadvantages of conceptualisating motivation in this way?
      (e.g., motivational sources are often complex and dynamic, involving aspects of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation)
    5. Deci and Ryan (2000)'s taxonomy of motivation (Figure 1) describes a motivational spectrum including amotivation, four types of extrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation.
    6. What are each of the types motivation described by Deci and Ryan's taxonomy? Handout a blanked version of Deci and Ryan's taxonomy and facilitate the class to define, discuss, and generate examples for each of the components:
      1. Amotivation
      2. Extrinsic motivation
        1. External regulation
        2. Introjection
        3. Identification
        4. Integration
      3. Intrinsic motivation

Psychological needs[edit]

Self Determination Theory
  1. Provide an overview of Self-Determination Theory (SDT):
    1. Who has heard of it?
    2. What they know about it?
    3. What is the theory for?
    4. Who is it by?
    5. What are the key components?
      1. Autonomy
      2. Competence
      3. Relatedness
  2. Quiz the class a bit further about what it knows about "autonomy" and what might be meant by "autonomy support"?
  3. Watch the 14 min. video, Promoting motivation, health, and excellence (Ed Deci, TEDx) (youtube) and note answers to:
    1. What is autonomy-based motivation?
    2. Why does autonomy-based motivation matter?
    3. How can we facilitate autonomy-based motivation? (e.g., as leaders, managers, teachers, parents)

Book chapter development[edit]

Topic development[edit]

  1. Conduct a quick poll of who has:
    1. Who doesn't have a topic? (sign up or propose a topic ASAP) - Discuss/help
    2. Who hasn't edited the chapter page they are working on yet with draft headings and dot-points? - Discuss/help
    3. Who has a chapter plan? (headings, key points, key references, image)
  2. Who has a "wiki buddy"? (each person should know the user name of someone else with whom they've agreed to work for peer review purposes - help students find at least one wiki buddy if they don't already have one)
    1. Who has made a social contribution (an edit beyond their user page or book chapter, discussion post, or tweet)?
    2. Who has logged a social contribution on their user page? (see making and summarising social contributions)
  3. Brainstorm and discuss:
    1. Book chapter structure (main sections)
    2. Learning features (basically, anything that is not paragraph text)
    3. Social contribution (any logged contribution beyond one's primary chapter)

Wiki editing skills[edit]

  1. Spaces
    1. Main
    2. User
  2. Pages
    1. Resource
    2. Discussion (Talk)
  3. Preferences
    1. Visual editor
    2. Other preferences e.g., email notifications
  4. Interactive use
    1. Commenting on discussion pages
    2. Thanking
    3. Undoing changes (via History)
    4. Watchlist (favourite pages and then click on Watchlist to see latest changes)
  5. Images
    1. Searching
    2. Embedding
  6. Tables
  7. Social contributions
    1. Improving previous chapters
    2. Improving current chapters
    3. UCLearn discussion forum posts
    4. #emot18 twitter posts
    5. Summarise on user page with links to evidence

Wiki-blitz[edit]

  1. With any extra time at the end of tutorials, invite and encourage any questions about the assessment and then if people ask a useful question, with their permission, bring up their book chapter page on the projector (or Google Scholar etc.) and try to fix/help with whatever they are asking about on their chapter page. That helps to reward and encourage sharing and asking questions as a group.
  2. Next tutorial we will discuss content development.

Recording[edit]

See also[edit]

Extra tutorial exercises
Lectures and tutorials
Book chapters

External links[edit]