Motivation and emotion/Book/2019/Autonomy support and educational motivation in primary school

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Autonomy support and educational motivation in primary schools:
What role does autonomy support play in educational motivation and how can it be fostered in primary schools?

Overview[edit | edit source]

When people are deprived of opportunities for autonomy, competence and relatedness, they suffer in terms of motivation and well-being (Reeve, 2018).


Case study
Sarah is an active 7 year old girl who enjoys making arts and crafts. At school, she loves deciding what to make, the colours she'll use, materials and where to display her art. Sarah also has a fond interest in cats,[grammar?] this interest is expressed through a variety of artwork, which her teacher helps to display In the classroom. At home, Sarah's Mother Suzie, makes all the decisions. Suzie often tells Sarah, that 'she is the boss'. Sarah is not allowed to do arts and craft at home as it is too messy. Suzie is allergic to cats, has had bad experiences with cats and dislikes anything to do with them. Instead, Suzie insists that Sarah attends ballet and has a timetable on the fridge of class/ rehearsal times, postures to learn and the date for the end of year concert, which Suzie wants Sarah to win the under 8's trophy. Sarah doesn't like ballet and has little motivation to rehearse.

Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self direction, authentic choice and personal endorsement (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Reeve, 2018). The opposite of feeling autonomy support (AS), is feeling controlled, by which the needs for autonomy are thwarted, thus hindering an individuals well being (Deci & Ryan 2000). From birth, humans are active, curious, playful and have a desire to learn and explore (Reeve et al., 2004), it is only natural for an individual to want to be self directed. Though this natural curiosity and motivation seems to decline as the child progresses through each grade at school (Reeve & Jang 2006). In unsupportive environments, including in a classroom with a teacher who has a controlling teaching style, a child's need for autonomy could be hindered which in turn can affect other needs and overall a child's psychological well-being.

In the school context, how can parents/ caregivers and teachers support a child's autonomy and motivation? This book chapter on motivation and autonomy will explain:

  • intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
  • research findings explaining AS
  • two relevant theories and findings that show success of theory in practice
  • why AS is central for one's well being
  • key strategies to enhance AS at school
Figure 2. Students are provided with meals and stationary to support their learning at school

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation[edit | edit source]

The concept of human motivation has been widely studied, with information collected used to shed light on developmental and educational practices (Reeve, Jang, Carrell, Jeon & Barch, 2004; Ryan & Deci 2000; Deci & Ryan 2008; Reeve & Jang, 2006). Two main types of motivation exist, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation is the in built desire to seek out novelty and challenge, in other words to explore and investigate and to stretch one's capacities (Ryan & Deci, 2017). Intrinsically motivated people have a natural inclination toward exploration of the world around them, spontaneous interest, a natural striving for personal growth and to satisfy psychological needs (Reeve, 2018). For example, Intrinsic motivation and sport refers to performing the activity for the pleasure and satisfaction derived from participation (Gillet, Vallerand, Amoura & Baldes 2009) and not for an external reward such as a trophy or prize. Intrinsic motivation is best for performance and learning outcomes (Gillet, Vallerand, Amoura & Baldes 2010; Deci & Ryan 2008), though in some situations, such as an undesirable task like standardised testing in school, extrinsic motivation can be the next best option (Deci & Ryan 2008).

The second type of motivation is extrinsic motivation, which arises from an external consequence that is separate from the activity itself (Ryan & Deci, 2000) such as rewards, privileges or punishers. As seen in figure 1.5 (Ryan & Deci 2000), extrinsic motivation has four different levels, ranging from external regulation to integrated regulation, which is closest to intrinsic motivation. Identifying different types of motivation is important, as the amount of autonomy within any motivational state, has a substantial effect on what people think, feel and do (Reeve, 2018). The underlying understanding of research on intrinsic versus extrinsic goals, is that not all goals are equal, as some intrinsic goals are more beneficial for psychological health, then other extrinsic goals (Reeve, 2018).

Figure 3. Extrinsic motivation can be 'drive to action' for an external reward such as a trophy or prize


Figure 1.5 SDT continuum showing types of motivation

Relevant theories[edit | edit source]

In order to meet the psychological needs of children (students) in the classroom, such as the needs of Sarah (mentioned in the case study), it can be very helpful for parents/ caregivers and teachers to know about relevant motivational theories. At times, unknowingly, teachers may in fact hinder a students needs rather than support their needs. Two relevant theories will now be explained, with research provided that show success of these two theories in practice (which may prove useful particularly to teacher's[grammar?] and parents reading this chapter).

Self determination theory[edit | edit source]

Self determination theory (SDT) is a theory of human motivation,[grammar?] which has been widely researched in the past three decades (Ryan & Deci 2000b, Deci & Ryan 2000c, Deci & Ryan 2008, Gillet, Vallerand, Amoura & Baldes 2010) and has universal application in educational/ health care practices. SDT has a high degree of consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, relatedness and autonomy (Ryan & Deci 2000b & Deci & Ryan 2000c), that will be further explained in the next sections. SDT is distinctive from previous theories of motivation, in that it defines types of motivation, rather than just amounts of motivation that people have for set behaviors or activities (Ryan & Deci 2000b). An example of this could be a physiological type of motivation such as hunger, whereby an individual would be motivated to satisfy their hunger needs. This drive to action (go to the fridge) could be either consciously of[spelling?] unconsciously (implicitly) triggered (Reeve, 2018). SDT, is still quite a young theory, which first appeared with it's initial comprehensive statement in the mid 1980's[grammar?] (Ryan & Deci, 1985). The concept of human motivation is very popular with research on motivational principles continuing to evolve at a vigorous pace. (Deci & Ryan, 1985). SDT concludes, that in order for an individual to reach their optimal development, the human psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness must be met (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). SDT also makes a clear distinction between autonomous motivation and controlled motivation for optimal functioning (which is further explained throughout this book chapter in the school setting).

SDT and education[edit | edit source]

SDT proposes that a teacher's instructional style can be measured along a continuum, that ranges from highly controlling (not desirable) to highly autonomy supportive (Deci, Schwartz, Sheinman, & Ryan, 1981). In general, teachers who practice an autonomy-supportive style engage students by facilitating an on-going balance between students’ autonomous sources of motivation and their moment-to-moment classroom activity (Jang, Reeve, & Deci, 2010). There are a number of strategies teachers can implement in order to encourage student autonomy and engagement in the classroom.


Autonomy-supportive teachers can increase student engagement by:
  • taking the students’ perspective
  • identifying and nurturing the students’ needs
  • identifying the students interests, and preferences
  • providing optimal challenges
  • highlighting meaningful learning goals
  • presenting interesting, relevant, and enriched activities (Jang et al., 2010).
  • building and maintaining a mutually trusting relationship between the teacher and student.

Unfortunately, throughout educational history, an implicit assumption was that the student could not be trusted with his/ her own learning, as quoted by American psychologist, Carl Rogers 'Freedom to learn' 1969 (Reeve, Jang, Carrell, Jeon & Barch, 2004).

Below is a table to highlight/ contrast an autonomy-supportive teaching style versus a controlling teaching style (Reeve, 2018)

Autonomy support Controlling
Takes the students perspective Takes only the teachers perspective
Provides interesting learning activities Introduces extrinsic motivators
Provides explanatory rationales

Uses informational language

Acknowledges and accepts negative affect

Displays patience

Neglects to provide explanatory rationales

Uses controlling/ pressuring language

Tries to change negative affect

Displays impatience

SDT and psychological needs[edit | edit source]

The psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness are defined in SDT as evolved and species typical, and are thus thought to be basic and universally relevant within all people and all cultures (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Below, the three key human needs (psychological) are explained with given examples and relevant study findings.

Figure 3.5 Self Determination Theory (SDT)


Autonomy[edit | edit source]

Autonomy involves feeling internal control regarding one’s behavior, rather than feeling controlled or pressured (Deci & Ryan, 2008). As defined in SDT, autonomy allows an individual to feel self organised and self regulated, which increases personal integrity, volition and vitality (Deci & Ryan, 2008). In a now classic study by 'Olds' ( 1958) as cited in Deci and Ryan (2000c), when rats were externally controlled with rewards via electrical brain stimulation, the rats worked themselves to exhaustion and starvation, neglecting their personal control for basic physiological needs (hunger, thirst, rest) and also their psychological need for autonomy. Feelings of autonomy, similar to competence and relatedness, are essential for optimal functioning applicable across cultures world wide (Ryan & Deci, 2000b) and to avoid the risk of excessive external control, which leads to maladaptive behaviors (that may serve a purpose at the time) and poor psychological functioning (Deci & Ryan, 2000c).

Competence[edit | edit source]

Competence, (as defined in SDT) involves feeling efficient, effective, and even masterful in one’s behavior, rather than incompetent and ineffective (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). For intrinsic motivation to increase, competence needs to work hand in hand with feelings of autonomy. This is specified in the cognitive evaluation theory (CET) a sub theory of SDT, that feelings of competence will not enhance intrinsic motivation, unless they are accompanied by a sense of autonomy (Ryan & Deci, 2000a). For example, if a child was excellent at playing tennis (high competence), but felt that each practice, skills session and game (behavior) was controlled by the coach (controlling ie low autonomy support), then the child's motivation to play tennis would be undermined. In a lab experiment (Deci, Eghrari, Patrick & Leone, 1994), results revealed that when a high level of support was provided, including providing a rationale (reason) for doing an uninteresting activity, acknowledging individuals perspectives and feelings, providing choice and minimising pressure, that participants would integrate behaviour regulations (Deci & Ryan 2008). In an earlier study by Vallerand and Reid (1984) it was confirmed that felt competence mediated the effects of positive versus negative feedback on intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000c). With this contextual support, it better enables feelings of autonomy and competence or even mastery of one's behaviour.

Relatedness[edit | edit source]

Figure 4. A positive teacher/ student relationship creates a strong sense of belonging and satisfies the psychological need for relatedness

Relatedness involves feeling meaningfully connected to others and having a strong positive sense of belonging (Ryan & Deci, 2000a). In the school context, these interpersonal relationships may be in the form of teacher/ student, parent/ student or student/ student, each important for the psychological need of relatedness. Numerous studies have drawn a link between need satisfaction and both relationship quality and well being outcomes (Deci, La Guardia, Moller, Scheiner & Ryan, 2006). More specifically, in an authoritive[spelling?]/ subordinate relationship ie teacher/ student, SDT studies have shown, that it is the subordinates (students) psychological need satisfaction that yields positive effects (Deci., et al, 2006). In a study involving parents, interviewers Grolnick & Ryan (89), found higher levels of intergration[spelling?] of school related values among children whose parents were more supportive of autonomy and relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2000a). A future study could be used to examine the effects of AS in peer relationships, in order to further explore the need for mutual relatedness.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs[edit | edit source]

Figure 5. Abraham Maslow, a key figure in humanistic psychology theorised that humans have a hierarchy of needs, including the three psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness

While SDT (Ryan & Deci, 2000b) is focussed predominantly on psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness), Maslow's Hierarchy of needs (MHN) outlines that the basic human physiological needs (food, water, warmth, rest), must first be met, before one becomes motivated to achieve higher level needs (Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981). Given the growing number of children (world wide) experiencing deficit for basic needs to be met, a better understanding of these relationships can serve as a prerequisite for establishing conditions that maximise learning outcomes (Noltemeyer, Bush, Patton & Bergen, 2012). MHN states that the prime motivator of all human behaviour is self - actualisation (which is an in built tendency that people have to meet their full potential) (Burton, Westen & Kowalski, 2015). For example, imagine a young boy growing up in a poverty stricken household with limited money or opportunities. He really wants to attend 'saint school' (private school) and hopes to become a lawyer one day. Despite this young child's disadvantaged home background, he still has the freedom to make his own choices and set his own goals. MHN points out that by helping people consciously and unconsciously set goals, modifies their behaviour and outcomes (self- efficacy). This can be seen in the popular treatment of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Figure two (below), illustrates the human needs for esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs, as needs to first be acquired, before an individual can continue onto achieving their full potential. Though today, some scholars suggest that these need levels are continuously overlapping each other, rather then Maslow's intended idea, of achieving one before moving onto the next (Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981). Either way, for a child to flourish in the classroom, their needs should be identified and supported.

The basic human needs (food, water, safety and rest) or known as deficiency needs, do impact on a students learning motivation and outcomes at school. In a study by Noltemeyer et. al., (2012), of 390 disadvantaged students across 40 schools in the US, findings revealed a positive relationship between deficiency needs and growth needs. Interestingly, the factor most significantly related to student achievement outcomes was access to health and dental care. In schools today, emphasis and funding support (for such government initiatives like 'Healthy Harold' - Australia), must first be given for basic health needs to be addressed, in order to successfully support the autonomy of each student, so that they are better able to realise and achieve their goals (self- actualisation) and life ambitions.

Figure 6. Maslow's hierarchy of needs outlines our human basic needs building squentially[spelling?] to optimal functioning and well being.
Quiz

1 The three types of motivation include, A motivation, Intrinsic motivation and ___.

Internal motivation
extrinsic motivation
external regulation

2 In SDT, what are the three psychological needs discussed?

competence, volition, autonomy
relatedness, self- direction, thirst
relatedness, competence, autonomy
competence, autonomy, orientation

3 A self-determined individual who chooses their behaviour and actions, finds enjoyment

True
False

4 Maslow's hierarchy of needs starts at self actualisation

True
False


Facilitating versus undermining autonomy[edit | edit source]

So, exactly how important is the teacher and the classroom environment in supporting a childs[grammar?] autonomy? Findings show that feedback and external regulation (Deci & Ryan, 2008) socializers and relationships (Thompson & Prottas, 2006, Ryan & Deci, 2008) and the social environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000) play a key role in either supporting or thwarting autonomy. A majority of the research on motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2008) investigates;[grammar?] what moves people to think, act and develop, then it could be fair to say, that the teacher is the main catalyst for fostering autonomy in the classroom and facilitating student learning outcomes. In the school setting, engagement is also important because it functions as a behavioural pathway by which students’ motivational processes contribute to their subsequent learning and development (Wellborn, 1991). Engagement, refers to the behavioural intensity and emotional quality of a person’s active involvement during a task (Reeve et al., 2004). Engagement data could be collected via observation, though this can prove unreliable as it can be open to the misinterpretation of the experimenter. Though it is necessary for AS to engage students, as disengaged students are distracted, passive, do not try hard, give up easily in the face of challenge or difficulty, express negative emotions, fail to plan or monitor their work, and generally withdraw (Skinner & Belmont, 1993). Student disengagement results in negative learning outcomes for the student (Ryan & Deci, 2008).

Question?
What conditions and teaching processes facilitate autonomy, motivation and ultimately healthy development and how can we help foster AS in primary schools?

External control[edit | edit source]

Controlling teachers interfere with students inner motives as they tend to create direct instruction that defines what students should think, feel and do (Reeve, Jang, Carrell, Jeon & Barch, 2004). In order to influence students[grammar?] compliance towards this instruction, controlling teachers offer extrinsic rewards and pressuring language that bypass any intrinsic motives (Reeve et al., 2004). Unfortunately, this use of extrinsic motivators,{{gr} eliminates any internal drive the student had there in the first place and thus the child is disengaged. Due to lack of knowledge in this area, there could be many primary teachers, world wide, unknowingly not providing AS in the classroom. In 1999, over 100 published experiments had examined the use of extrinsic motivators, including threats and punishers (Deci & Cascio, 1972) and the results of this meta analysis concluded that overall, extrinsic motivators actually decreased intrinsic motivation across a range of ages and activities (Ryan & Deci, 2008). This highlights that, effort to motivate students or a person with rewards or other externally controlled motivators ie; deadlines, punishments and surveillance, actually undermines their intrinsic motivation and proves counter intuitive.

Socializers[edit | edit source]

Socializing agents (parents and teachers) can affect motivation in children (Ryan & Deci 2000; Reeve & Jang 2006, Jang, Reeve & Deci, 2010) via their behaviour. Children are influenced by what their teachers or parents say or do/ value. Looking at earlier studies, Deci (1971) and Harackiewicz (1979), showed that positive performance feedback enhanced intrinsic motivation whereas negative performance feedback diminished it (Ryan & Deci, 2000). In the context of the classroom, controllers of behaviour including tangible rewards, threats, deadlines, directives and competition also diminish intrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000), whereas choice and the opportunity for self direction (Zuckerman, Porac, Lathin, Smith & Deci, 1978) seem to increase intrinsic motivation, as they allow a greater sense of autonomy. In a more recent study (Jang, Reeve & Deci, 2010), a positive relationship between the teacher and student proves to also support autonomy, with a teacher listening carefully and understandingly and accepting negative affect (as seen in figure 2.- article 2, p3). Positive relationships between parents and children/ teachers and students are vital for supporting autonomy and increasing a child's intrinsic motivation.

Social environment[edit | edit source]

Several lab experiments and field studies (mostly in classrooms) have also been conducted in the last two decades (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Reeve, Jang, Carrell, Jeon & Barch, 2004; Jang, Reeve & Deci 2010; Reeve & Jang, 2006) to highlight how autonomy can be supported in the context of the classroom. Firstly, studies reveal (Ryan & Deci 2000) that an autonomy supportive teaching style, as mentioned earlier, spark student's greater intrinsic motivation, as well as their desire for challenge. Secondly, creating a comfortable learning environment, as described by Jon Stolk (Ted Talk) as rich in; choice of learning, self directed goals, variety of content, different learning approaches, resources and space, in an engaging manner will best enable autonomy and thus motivate the students in an engaging way. The practical benefits of AS including, increased engagement, increased performance, higher quality learning and greater psychological well being (Jang, Carrell, Jeon & Barch, 2004) can be used as evidence to encourage teacher's today to acquire a more autonomy supportive teaching style.

1. So how can we create engaged, intrinsically motivated and self directed learners/ children in primary school?

The role of AS and motivation in practice[edit | edit source]

It is very important for teachers and parents to understand the three inter-connected psychological needs and also to know about basic physiological needs (Deci & Ryan 2000c), as Maslow's hierarchy of needs (MHN) theory points out (Deci & Ryan 2000b), that for optimal learning to take place, basic physiological needs must first be met. SDT and MHN theory can be seen in action meeting these basic needs within primary schools today, through the use of 'breakfast clubs' implemented in schools in Australia (for example; Goulburn Public School, Goulburn) and world wide (for example; School of St Jude's, Tanzania). Secondly, the ultilisation of different learning models such as Inquiry based learning model, to meet psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness, allowing opportunities for students to explore and direct their learning, is continually gaining momentum for use in Australian schools and for schools world wide, such as Zurich International School, Switzerland, placing autonomy at the forefront of learning. Thus, by first meeting a child's basic needs and the need for autonomy, a child is able to increase their motivation towards self directed goals and thus achieve their full potential.

Figure 8. An inquiry based learning model for student centred learning in primary schools

Explanatory rationales[edit | edit source]

Nurturing intrinsic motivation in primary students, can be helpful, particularly when an undesired activity such as NAPLAN (standardised testing) need to be completed. To motivate students to complete an undesired task, teachers can use explanatory rationales to communicate value, worth, meaning or importance of engagement (Reeve, 2018). For example, a year five student, Max, is reluctant to complete his multiplication booklet in maths. The teacher could respond with the explanatory rationale, "Max, it is important to know your times tables to help with year six math next year, especially calculating area. This will help your future endeavours to be a builder to work out area and perimeter, you can use your maths aide to guide you". The teacher has responded in an autonomously supportive style, explaining why it is worthwhile and responding to the students needs/ interests.

Understanding AS to improve our well being[edit | edit source]

As mentioned earlier, a comprehensive statement of SDT, by motivational theorists Richard Ryan and Edward Deci, first appeared in the mid 1980's[grammar?] (Ryan & Deci 2000b) and subsequent research and findings on SDT has expanded in the past 30 years (Reeve 1998; Ryan & Deci 2000b; Deci & Ryan 2000c; Guay, Boggiano & Vallerand 2001; Deci & Ryan 2008; Gillet, Vallerand, Amoura & Baldes 2010; Jang, Reeve & Deci, 2010). Future recommendations to better support autonomy in schools may require additional government or private funding in order to address students basic needs on a practical level. This could look like; a breakfast club, affordable uniform shop, homework club (physiological needs), new classroom activities and resources to enhance inquiry based/ student- centered learning (psychological needs) and funding for teacher professional development to support the development of the teachers own autonomy/ AS. By increasing autonomy and satisfying the psychological needs for also competence and relatedness, the mental health of the teacher and student alike, will be improved. In congruence with this, the world health organisation outlines specific ways to promote mental health, including providing a stable environment that is sensitive to children’s health and nutritional needs, with protection from threats, opportunities for early learning, and interactions that are responsive, emotionally supportive and developmentally stimulating (WHO, 2018) and via life skills programmes and child and youth development programmes. As previously mentioned, the teacher is the main catalyst of AS for the students in their classroom. By first supporting the autonomy of the teacher and perhaps parents/ caregivers, the autonomy and psychological needs of the students will thereby be increased, thus steering students towards their optimal motivational functioning.


Current Issues
  • Societies[grammar?] heavy reliance on extrinsic motivators (adverse effects of extrinsic rewards and incentives)
  • Overperscriptive[spelling?] curriculum creating pressure on teachers and subsequent pressure on students
  • The negative impact of controlling motivators
  • Critical feedback (the ramifications may not be present immediately but manifest into future maladaptation's[grammar?]) and a need for awareness
  • A high number of field studies used to collect data (observations open to interpretation)
  • Self report assessments open to confirmation bias (effecting[grammar?] the reliability of findings)
  • Individual difference of participants- including an individuals orientation (autonomous, controlled or impersonal)

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

Autonomy support and educational motivation in primary schools:<br>What role does autonomy support play in educational motivation and how can it be fostered in primary schools?

Keeping the attention, interest and engagement, of 21st century primary school learners, can be a major challenge for educators of today. Through the information provided in this chapter on motivational theories (SDT and MHN) and relevant AS research, it is clear that parent, teachers and peers play a pivotal role in facilitating student motivation. Both theory and research has proved that intrinsic motivation over extrinsic motivation is the better option and results in better learning outcomes. Research findings also highlight that autonomy is at the forefront of one's psychological needs and is a prerequisite for satisfying the needs for competence and relatedness. Before psychological needs can be met, basic physiological needs should be first satisfied.

This book chapter has explained:

  1. The role that teacher's[grammar?] AS plays in student motivation and ways it can be fostered
  2. Scientific findings on the success of AS in practice and how it can improve a students education motivation
  3. Motivational theory about autonomy and AS
  4. Practical strategies for teachers to adjust their teaching style to adopt a more autonomy supportive practice

Key take home strategies for parents and teachers supporting student autonomy:

  1. encourage intrinsic motivation via positive feedback/ praise and catering to students interests / hobbies
  2. provide interesting, enriching and challenging activities
  3. build a trusting and supportive relationship
  4. accept student negative affect and offer explanatory rationales
  5. Allow choice and opportunity for self direction (student centred learning)
  6. ensure basic needs are met
  7. create a safe and comfortable learning environment (classroom)

Opportunities for future research could be:

  • collect evidence to highlight the success of AS in primary schools in order to increase student centred learning in the school curriculum (increase government funding)
  • collect evidence to highlight the success of teacher's adopting a more autonomy supportive teaching practice and include AS strategies in teacher PD
  • Futher[spelling?] research to explore the impact of friends/ peers AS in the classroom
  • Further research to explore the neurology of AS with PET scan evidence to highlight frontal lobe activity such as; planning, expressive language, emotional expression, awareness of abilities, self monitoring, behaviour control and initiation.

With continued psychological research and partnership with primary educators, the educational motivation of primary school students will be better supported and learning outcomes/ student engagement improved.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Burton. L, Westen. D, Kowalski. R. (2015) Psychology, (4th ed.). Milton, Australia: John Wiley & Sons.

Burton, L. J. (2010). An interactive approach to writing essays and reports in psychology (3rd ed.). Brisbane, Australia: John Wiley & Sons.

Deci, E. L., La Guardia, J. G., Moller, A. C., Scheiner, M. J., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). On the benefits of giving as well as receiving autonomy support: Mutuality in close friendships. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 32(3), 313-327.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life's domains. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 49(1), 14.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self determination of behaviour. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.

Deci, E. L., Schwartz, A., Sheinman, L., & Ryan, R. M. (1981). An instrument to assess adult’s orientations toward control versus autonomy in children: Reflections on intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 642–650.

Gillet, N., Vallerand, R., Amoura, S., & Baldes, B., (2009). Influences of coaches' autonomy support on athletes' motivation and sport performance: a test of hierarchical model of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Psychology of sport and science, 11, 151- 161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.10.004

Guay, F., Boggiano, A. K., & Vallerand, R. J. (2001). Autonomy support, intrinsic motivation, and perceived competence: Conceptual and empirical linkages. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(6), 643-650.

Jang, H., Reeve, J., Deci, E., (2010). Engaging students in learning activities: it is not autonomy support or structure but autonomy support and structure. Journal of educational psychology, 102, 588-600. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019682

Noltemeyer, A., Bush, K., Patton, J., & Bergen, D. (2012). The relationship among deficiency needs and growth needs: An empirical investigation of Maslow's theory. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(9), 1862-1867.

Reeve, J. (2018). Understanding Motivation and Emotion (7 ed.). John Wiley & Sons

Reeve, J., Jang, H., Carrell, D., Jeon, S., & Barch, J. (2004). Enhancing students' engagement by increasing Teacher's autonomy support. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 147- 153. dois

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L., (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology. 25, 54-67.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L., (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L., (2017). Self-determination theory: basic psychological needs in motivation, development and wellness. New York: Guilford Press.

Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993), Motivation in the classroom: recipricol effects of teacher behaviour and student engagement across the school year. Journal of educational psychology, 85, 571- 581.

Thompson, C. A., & Prottas, D. J. (2006). Relationships among organizational family support, job autonomy, perceived control, and employee well-being. Journal of occupational health psychology, 11(1), 100.

Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Engaged and disaffected action: The conceptualization and measurement of motivation in the academic domain. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

External links[edit | edit source]