Literature/1979/Ortony

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Ortony, Andrew, ed. (1979). Metaphor and Thought, Cambridge University Press. 2nd. ed. 1993.

Authors[edit]

Some authors and contents may not have originated in 1979, but included in the revised edition in 1993.

Contents[edit]

  • Metaphor, language and thought, Andrew Ortony
  • More about metaphor, Max Black
Part I. Metaphor and Meaning
  • Figurative speech and linguistics, Jerrold M. Saddock
  • The semantics of metaphor, L. Jonathan Cohen
  • Some problems with the notion of literal meanings, David E. Rumelhart
  • Metaphor, John Searle
  • Language, concepts, and worlds: Three domains of metaphor, Samuel R. Levin
  • Observations on the pragmatics of metaphor, Jerry L. Morgan
Part II. Metaphor and Representation
  • Generative metaphor: A perspective on problem-setting in social policy, Donald A. Schön
  • The conduit metaphor: A case of frame conflict in our language about language, Michael J. Reddy
  • The contemporary theory of metaphor, George Lakoff
  • Process and products in making sense of tropes, Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr.
  • Metaphor, induction, and social policy: The Convergence of macroscopic and microscopic views, Robert J. Sternberg and Roger Tourangeau
Part III. Metaphor and Understanding
  • Psychological processes in metaphor comprehension and memory, Allan Paivio and Mary Walsh
  • The interpretation of novel metaphors, Bruce Fraser
  • The role of similarity in similes and metaphors, Andrew Ortony
  • Images and models, Similes and Metaphors, George Armitage Miller
  • How Metaphors Work, Sam Glucksberg and Boaz Keysar
  • Metaphor and irony: two levels of understanding, Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner
Part IV. Metaphor and Science
  • The shift from metaphor to analogy in western science, Dedre Gentner and Michael Jeziorski
  • Metaphor and theory change: What is 'etaphor' a metaphor for? Richard Boyd
  • Metaphor in science, Thomas Kuhn
  • Metaphorical imprecision and the 'top-down' research strategy, Zenon Pylyshyn
Part V. Metaphor and Education
  • The instructive metaphor: metaphoric aids to students' understanding of science, Richard E. Mayer
  • Metaphor and learning, Hugh G. Petrie and Rebecca S. Oshlag
  • Learning without metaphor, Thomas F. Green
  • Educational uses of metaphor, Thomas G. Sticht

Excerpts[edit]

Wikimedia[edit]

Chronology[edit]

  • Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson (1980). Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press. [^]
  • Ortony, Andrew, ed. (1979). Metaphor and Thought, Cambridge University Press. 2nd. ed. 1993. [^]
  • Werner Abraham (1975). A Linguistic Approach to Metaphor. Lisse, Netherlands: Peter de Ridder Press. [^]
  • Ricoeur, Paul (1975). The Rule of Metaphor: Multi-Disciplinary Studies in the Creation of Meaning in Language. Robert Czerny, Kathleen McLaughlin & John Costello, trans., London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978. [^]
  • Black, Max (1954). "Metaphor." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 55, pp. 273-294. [^]
  • Richards, I. A. (1936). The Philosophy of Rhetoric. Oxford University Press. [^]
  • Ogden, C. K. & I. A. Richards (1923). The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. [^]

Comments[edit]


Notes[edit]

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Gradient-optical-illusion.svg
The shade of the bar looks invariant in isolation but variant in context, in (favor of) sharp contrast with the color gradient background, hence an innate illusion we have to reasonably interpret and overcome as well as the mirage. Such variance appearing seasonably from context to context may not only be the case with our vision but worldview in general in practice indeed, whether a priori or a posteriori. Perhaps no worldview from nowhere, without any point of view or prejudice at all!

Ogden & Richards (1923) said, "All experience ... is either enjoyed or interpreted ... or both, and very little of it escapes some degree of interpretation."

H. G. Wells (1938) said, "The human individual is born now to live in a society for which his fundamental instincts are altogether inadequate."