Latin/Adverbs Lesson 2

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Salvēte omnēs! Welcome back to Latin for Wikiversity. Here you can peruse a new lesson in Latin, in a simple format. If you would like to catch up, you can find a directory of lessons, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at the links on the right.

This week, we continue to add adverbs to our vocabulary. Some of the adverbs relating to time (soon, then, first, etc.) will be used more commonly with tenses other than the present, but we’ll have to make do with the present for now, and I have only limited sample sentences at this point. Also note that we won’t be teaching comparative adjectives or adverbs yet; where we would say in English, “very (adjective)”, the Latin would normally use a superlative adjective form instead. Latin does use intensifying adverbs like valdē and multum, but not as frequently as we do in English. Please also note that some of this lesson’s adverbs can cross over and be neuter nouns or adjectives; nimis, multum, satis, parum are commonly used as nouns; as nouns, they are usually accompanied by the genitive: too much, a lot, enough, too little OF something.

The difficulty of constructing conversational sentences is that there are many cases where it is hard to be sure if the Latin syntax we're presenting is authentic and true to the classical literature; we welcome any suggestions if you want to leave them as comments on the talk page.

New Vocabulary[edit | edit source]

Latin English Audio (Classical) Notes
facile easily
foris outside, outdoors
inde from there, from then
intus (intro) inside, indoors, in the house
ita so, thus
iterum again, for the second time
mox soon
multum much, very much, greatly, very, frequently, “a lot” n.b. can also be used as a neuter noun, with the genitive
nimis (nimius, nimium) too much, excessively often with genitive
parum too little, not enough n.b. can also be used as an indeclinable neuter noun, with the genitive
prīmum at first, first of all, in the first place
rūrsus again, back  
satis , sat enough, sufficiently
n.b can also be used as a neuter noun, with the genitive
sīc so, thus, in such a manner
tum (tunc) then, at that time
ubīque everywhere
unde from where?, whence?
ut (adv.) how, in what way, as We’ll encounter ut again in the future, as a conjunction meaning “in order that”, but it is also used commonly as an adverb
valdē greatly, very
vērō in truth, truly, in fact

New Sentences[edit | edit source]

Latin English Notes
Magister mox advenit. The teacher is arriving soon.
Tempus cēnae mox est. Dinner time (the time of dinner) is soon.
Līberī intus manent. The children stay indoors.
Paula intus it. Paula goes indoors.
Mīles foris dormit. The soldier sleeps outdoors.
Gāius et Mārcus foris labōrant. Gaius and Marcus are working outside.
Unde venis? Where do you come from?
Domus mea est in Americā. Inde veniō. My home is in America. I come from there.
Formīcae ubīque sunt. Ants are everywhere.
Cum “mū mū” hic et “mū mū” illic; hic “mū,” illic “mū,” ubique “mū mū.” With a “moo moo” here and a “moo moo” there; here a “moo,” there a “moo,” everywhere a “moo moo.”
Epistulam iterum legō. I read the letter again.
Lūcia domum rūrsus venit. Lucia comes home again.
Puer rūrsus rogat. The boy asks again.
Facile vincunt. They win easily.
Prīmum ambulat, tum currit. First he walks, then he runs.
Prīmum, cibum volō. First of all, I want food.
Ita (est). Yes/ It is so.
Ita vērō. Yes indeed.
Homō semper sīc agit. The man always does so.
Lūcia sīc scrībit. Lucia writes in this way/like this.
Ut valēs? (Quid agis?) How are you?
Ut māter tua valet? How is your mother (doing)?
Mārcus est, ut dicunt, rāra avis. Marcus is, as they say, a rare bird.
Ut pater dicit, ita fīliī faciunt. As the father says, so the sons do.
Gāius valdē ēsurit. Gaius is very hungry.
Virī valdē sitiunt. The men are very thirsty.
Valdē pulchra est. She is very beautiful.
Tū mihi valdē/multum placēs. I like you very much.
Multum labōrat. He is working a lot.
Multum vīnī bibit. (Multum vinum bibit). He drinks a lot of wine/He drinks much wine. (The first sentence has multum as a neuter noun; the second has it as an adjective modifying vinum. Both are acceptable.)  
Satis cibī habet. He has enough food.
Nōn satis dormit. He doesn’t sleep enough.
Satis bene intellegō. I understand well enough.
Satin’ (satisne) bene? Are you all right/well enough?
Nimis bibit. He drinks too much.
Nimis vīnī bibit. He drinks too much wine.
Multum bibit. He drinks very much/ a lot.
Mārcus satis aquae bibit, sed tū parum bibis. Marcus drinks enough water, but you drink too little.
Parum pecūniae habeō. I do not have enough money/ I have too little money.
Prīmum, nōn nocēre. First, do no harm. (Hippocrates gave this as an ethical guideline for doctors)
Nātūra valdē simplex est et sibi cōnsona. Nature is exceedingly simple and harmonious with itself. (Sir Isaac Newton)
Multum, nōn multa. Much, not many things. Used to promote a philosophy of learning where “less is more” and students study fewer subjects, but more deeply.
Verbum sapientī sat est. A word to the wise is sufficient.

Practice[edit | edit source]

Practice and learn the words and phrases in this lesson
Step one First learn the words using this lesson:
Step two Next try learning and writing the sentencing using this:
Note that the Memrise stage covers the content for all lessons in each stage.
If you are skipping previous stages you may need to manually "ignore" the words in previous levels (use the 'select all' function)

Multum adverbōrum in hāc lectione habēmus! (We have a lot of adverbs in this lesson). It’s at least two lessons’ worth. We will move on to something else with the next lesson. There are more adverbs but it might be better to wait and introduce them in context as they come up, or do another adverbs lesson later on. For the present, valēte et habēte bonam fortūnam!