Latin/2nd Declension Lesson 4
Salvēte omnēs discipulī!
This is the latest in the series of Latin lessons for those of us who are impatient to learn Latin in a simple and easy way.
In this lesson we’ll wrap up the overview of 2nd declension nouns with the dative case. The dative case is used for indirect objects or “to/for” phrases; the singular ending is -ō and the plural ending, -īs. (The endings are the same for both masculine or neuter gender nouns; only nom. and acc. cases show differences for gender in 2nd declension). We frequently use the verb “dō” (give) with the dative case, but it can also be used with a few other verbs, including the being verb, as we’ll see today.
|case name||sing.||pl.||typical use|
|nominative (m.)||-us/-r||-ī||subject or predicate noun|
|genitive||-ī||-ōrum||possession, the “of” case|
|dative||-ō||-īs||indirect object, the “to/for” case|
|accusative (m.)||-um||-ōs||direct object (also some objects of preps.)|
|ablative||-ō||-īs||objects of prepositions, etc. “by/with/from” case|
|auxilium, i||help, aid|
|miser, misera, miserum||wretched, poor|
|Avus pecūniam puerīs dat.||The grandfather gives the boys money.|
|Auxilium miserīs damus.||We give help to the needy/ We give the needy help.|
|Frāgum virō dō.||I give the man a strawberry.|
|Frāga virīs damus.||We give the men strawberries.|
|Gāius amīcus est Mārcō.||Gaius is a friend to Marcus.|
|Gāius amīcus Mārcī est.||Gaius is Marcus’ friend/ a friend of Marcus.|
|Mārcus gladium Gāiō dat.||Marcus gives a sword to Gaius.|
|Liber est dōnum medicī amīcō.||The book is the doctor’s gift to the(his) friend.|
|Verba tua sunt auxilium puerō.||Your words are a help to/for the boy.|
|Estne equus amīcō meō?||Is there a horse for my friend?|
|Gladiōs dominīs, sed nōn servīs, dant.||They give swords to the masters, but not to the slaves.|
|Agricola cibum equīs in agrō dat.||The farmer gives food to the horses in the field.|
|Dōna pecūniae miserīs dās.||You give gifts of money to the poor.|
|Practice and learn the words and phrases in this lesson|
|Step one||First learn the words using this lesson:|
|Step two||Next try learning and writing the sentencing using this:|
|Note that the Memrise stage covers the content for all lessons in each stage. |
If you are skipping previous stages you may need to manually "ignore" the words in previous levels (use the 'select all' function)
Next time we will begin working on 3rd declension nouns.