# Wright State University Lake Campus/2019-5/Phy 2410/Notes

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### Monday 5/13

Organization
1. Pick a schedule. The official course calls for 6 hours per week. Five hours per week will be graded as lab/quiz time, and one hour will be awarded extra credit. Strong students might be able to miss more days.
2. Would it be possible to for every student to attend half of the 3:30-4:30 time slot for a quiz on MW?
First test this Friday (see for Calandar for entire test schedule)
Today's lab-learning python
Decible scale problems using copyAndRename.py and DoNotEdit.py. First look at some sandbox codes:

#### F 5/17 T1̇̇***

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
5 2 a18ElectricChargeField_findE4 -v2.5 Electric Charge & Field pdf 2 1, 2 F 5/17 T1:
5 2 d_cp2.56 pdf 3 1, 2 F 5/17
5 2 c18ElectricChargeField_lineCharges13 pdf 4 0 F 5/17

Vol 2 Chapter 5: Electric Charges and Fields Electric Charges and Fields StudyAll

You must learn the essential questions to pass this course with a C.

After test: Start Gauss's Law for test next Friday.

### Monday 5/20

1. Talked about flux over the surface of a volume (closed surface)
2. Cut Mobius strip in half
3. Did d_cp2.6 and just started c19ElectricPotentialField_GaussLaw
4. Wed we will try to do c19ElectricPotentialField_SurfaceIntegral

#### 5/22

You can use this date for your report:

Be sure to state that this is fake data that was generated using a random number generator because we forgot to save our actual data.

p(cm) q(cm) 1/p 1/q f
20 21 0.05 0.047619048 10.24390244
13 58 0.076923077 0.017241379 10.61971831
16 33 0.0625 0.03030303 10.7755102
18 24 0.055555556 0.041666667 10.28571429
17 27 0.058823529 0.037037037 10.43181818
22 21 0.045454545 0.047619048 10.74418605
24 18 0.041666667 0.055555556 10.28571429
average 10.48121131
standard deviation 0.258412213

#### F 5/24 T2***

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
6 2 d_cp2.66 -v2.6 Gauss's Law pdf 5 1, 2 F 5/24 T2:
6 2 c19ElectricPotentialField_GaussLaw6 pdf 6 1, 2 F 5/24
6 2 c19ElectricPotentialField_SurfaceIntegral3 pdf 7 1, 2 F 5/24

### Monday 5/27

2 Chapter 7: Electric Potential

#### 5/29 W T3***

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
7 2 d_cp2.711 -v2.7 Electric Potential pdf 8 ? F 5/31 T3:
7 2 a19ElectricPotentialField_KE_PE4 pdf 9 1 - 4 F 5/31
7 2 c07energy_lineIntegral4 pdf 10 ? F 5/31

Work on:

### Monday 6/3

#### 6/5 W T4***

This is a (planned) test:

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
8 2 d_cp2.84 -v2.8 Capacitance pdf 11 1-3[1] W 6/5 T4:
8 2 a19ElectricPotentialField_Capacitance5 (old) solutions pdf 12 1-2 W 6/5

After the test we will try to work on this:

Ch. Vol QuizName # Look at
7 2 d_cp2.711 -v2.7 Electric Potential pdf 8 1, 8, 10, 11
8 2 d_cp2.84 -v2.8 Capacitance pdf 11 1, 2, 3
8 2 a19ElectricPotentialField_Capacitance5 pdf 12 4
##### Cell membrane
Not important any more

In particular, we will look at w:Capacitor to understand energy storage using differentials. Then we will check d_cp2.8 #4 to see if maybe it was right.

Conventional (and correct) wisdom is that there are four fundamental forces. But as a practical matter, there is: gravity, electro-magnetic, chemical, and what might be called "mechanical". These mechanical forces include tension, friction, and the normal force. These mechanical forces, as well as the "chemical" force are for the most part electromagnetic: It is the electrons that prevent you from walking through walls and closed doors, and their force is largely electrostatic. An important chemical force is related to something called the "chemical potential", discussed in this Khan Academy unit. String tension best viewed as a mysterious "mechanical" (not electrical) force, it is best to view the force exerted by ATP in the cell as sort of a "mechanical" force because it is a really complicated way we use food to maintain the proper balance of ions inside and outside a cell, and ultimately control our muscles.

The membrane of a biological cell is essentially a capacitor, and there is an obvious electrical force (and associated potential) that pushes positive and negative ions between the intra- and extra- cellular environments. Also important is the electrochemical gradient, caused by an abundance of one species in one of the environments. See also: w:Electrochemical gradient - w:Active transport - The electrochemical gradient consists of two parts, the chemical gradient, or difference in solute concentration across a membrane, and the electrical gradient, or difference in charge across a membrane.

### Monday 6/10 T5***

Another test:

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
9 2 d_cp2.910 -v2.9 Current & Resistance pdf 13 1, 5 M 6/10 T5
9 2 d_cp2.gaussC8 pdf 14 0 M 6/10
9 2 a20ElectricCurrentResistivityOhm_PowerDriftVel4 pdf 15 1, 3, 4 M 6/10

#### 6/14

2 Chapter 11: Magnetic Forces and Fields

### Monday 6/17

#### W 6/19 T6***

N.B.: on pdf 16, question 9 is not on the test. Also the resistors are in series for question 2. Test T6 postponed till Friday.

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
10 2 d_cp2.109 v2-10 D.C. circuits pdf 16 1, 2, 3, 9 W 6/19 T6ː
10 2 a21CircuitsBioInstDC_circAnalQuiz121 pdf 17 ? W 6/19
10 2 a21CircuitsBioInstDC_circuits5 pdf 18 1-3 W 6/19
10 2 a21CircuitsBioInstDC_RCdecaySimple4 pdf 19 1 W 6/19

OpenStax:Vol.1 - Vol.2 - Vol.3

### Monday 6/24 T7***

T7 will be on Monday 6/24 so we can stay on schedule. After this, (starting with T8), exams will begin to cover review material. Expect lower scores, but do not worry: All members of this class have demonstrated an ability to pass this course. The "harder" tests will be used to distinguish between the passing grades ... all you need to do to pass this course is continue to do well on the new "essential" questions.

Ch. Vol Monday 6/24 T7*** # Essential Date
11 2 d_cp2.119 v2.11 Magnetic Forces & Fields pdf 20 1, 3, 4 M 6/24 T7ː
11 2 a22Magnetism_forces4 pdf 21 3 M 6/24

OpenStax:Vol.1 - Vol.2 - Vol.3

#### 6/28

2 Chapter 14: Inductance

### Monday 7/1 T8***

Monday 7/1 T8***

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
12 2 d_cp2.1211 -v2.12 Sources of magnetic fields pdf 22 2, 3, 8, 9 M 7/1 T8ː
12 2 c22Magnetism_ampereLaw6 pdf 23 1, 6 M 7/1
12 2 c22Magnetism_ampereLawSymmetry4 pdf 24 2, 3 M 7/1

OpenStax:Vol.1 - Vol.2 - Vol.3

#### 7/5 T9***

F 7/5 T9***

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
12 2 d_cp2.139 -v2.13 Electromagnetic induction pdf 25 1, 3, 4, 8 F 7/5 T9:

OpenStax:Vol.1 - Vol.2 - Vol.3

### Monday 7/8

#### 7/10 T10 ***

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
14 2 d_cp2.146 -v2.14 Inductance pdf 26 1, 2, 4 W 7/10 T10ː

OpenStax:Vol.1 - Vol.2 - Vol.3

#### 7/12 T11***

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
15 2 d_cp2.158 -v2.15 A.C. circuits pdf 27 1, 2, 8 F 7/12 T11
15 2 a23InductionACcircuits_Q12 pdf 28 1 F 7/12

OpenStax:Vol.1 - Vol.2 - Vol.3

### Monday 7/15 T12***

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
16 2 d_cp2.166 -v2.16 Electromagnetic waves pdf 29 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 M 7/15 T12
16 2 c24ElectromagneticWaves_displacementCurrent4 pdf 30 0 M 7/15

OpenStax:Vol.1 - Vol.2 - Vol.3

#### 7/17

Gauss and Ampere Laws
new figure
The volumes to the left have surfaces but the surfaces have no boundry line. The surfaces to the right all have a boundary. You must pass through the boundary to enter the thing.
• Review current density as current per square meter:

Assume that A (SI unit: m2) is a small surface centred at a given point M and orthogonal to the motion of the charges at M. If IA (SI unit: A) is the electric current flowing through A, then electric current density j at M is given by the limit

${\displaystyle j=\lim \limits _{A\rightarrow 0}{\frac {I_{A}}{A}},}$

with surface A remaining centred at M and orthogonal to the motion of the charges during the limit process.S

• Ampere's law with H:
Forms of the original circuital law written in SI units
Integral form Differential form
Using B-field and total current ${\displaystyle \oint _{C}\mathbf {B} \cdot \mathrm {d} {\boldsymbol {l}}=\mu _{0}\iint _{S}\mathbf {J} \cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {S} =\mu _{0}I_{\mathrm {enc} }}$ ${\displaystyle \mathbf {\nabla } \times \mathbf {B} =\mu _{0}\mathbf {J} }$
Using H-field and free current ${\displaystyle \oint _{C}\mathbf {H} \cdot \mathrm {d} {\boldsymbol {l}}=\iint _{S}\mathbf {J} _{\mathrm {f} }\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {S} =I_{\mathrm {f,enc} }}$ ${\displaystyle \mathbf {\nabla } \times \mathbf {H} =\mathbf {J} _{\mathrm {f} }}$

What the ...?

${\displaystyle \mathbf {B} =\mu \mathbf {H} ,}$

where μ is a material dependent parameter called the permeability. In some cases the permeability may be a second rank tensor so that H may not point in the same direction as B. These relations between B and H are examples of constitutive equations. However, superconductors and ferromagnets have a more complex B-to-H relation; see magnetic hysteresis.

### Monday 7/22 T13

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date
2 3 a25GeometricOptics_image8 pdf 31 1-8 M 7/22 T13
2 3 a25GeometricOptics_thinLenses4 pdf 32 1-3 M 7/22
2 3 a25GeometricOptics_vision4 pdf 33 M 7/22

OpenStax:Vol.1 - Vol.2 - Vol.3

### Monday 7/29

#### 7/31 W FE

Ch. Vol QuizName # Essential Date

Textbook:Vol.1 - Vol.2 - Vol.3

## Final week

### Wed and Friday: July 24, 26

Most of the time will be devoted to the Eye Model Lab. The report is due on the last day of class (Wed 31 July).

### Monday 29 July: Test

Test covers two topics:

#### Optics

Ch. Vol QuizName study
2 3 a25GeometricOptics_image8 pdf 31
2 3 a25GeometricOptics_thinLenses4 pdf 32
2 3 a25GeometricOptics_vision4 pdf 33

#### Maxwell's equations

Application of surface and line integrals (Gauss, Ampere, and Faraday laws, as well as convection current). Questions will be taken from the following list. And you will be asked to apply how one of the integration laws to a simple geometry that has already been discussed in class.

Quizbank N PDF
d_cp2.6 6 4
c19ElectricPotentialField_GaussLaw 6 5
c19ElectricPotentialField_SurfaceIntegral 3 6
d_cp2.gaussC 8 7
c22Magnetism_ampereLaw 6 22
c22Magnetism_ampereLawSymmetry 4 23
a23InductionACcircuits_Q1 2 27

### Wed 31 July: Report due and required lab activity

The report on the lab we did with a real image. The lab activity is required and to be arranged. We might work on the application of calculus to physical problems.

You can use this date for your report:

Be sure to state that this is fake data that was generated using a random number generator because we forgot to save our actual data.

p(cm) q(cm) 1/p 1/q f
20 21 0.05 0.047619048 10.24390244
13 58 0.076923077 0.017241379 10.61971831
16 33 0.0625 0.03030303 10.7755102
18 24 0.055555556 0.041666667 10.28571429
17 27 0.058823529 0.037037037 10.43181818
22 21 0.045454545 0.047619048 10.74418605
24 18 0.041666667 0.055555556 10.28571429
average 10.48121131
standard deviation 0.258412213

#### Maxwell's equations for simple geometries

Ampere's law drawing infinite wire diagram

Old solutions -StudyQuestions.pdf(all) - Textbook:Vol.1 - Vol.2 - Vol.3

1. Question 4 was removed for being wrong