Talk:Motivation and emotion/Book/2011/Music and emotion

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Not sure on how to tackle the "Problem" aspect of this topic (as suggested in the assessment outline.) What is a potential problem through which music's influence on emotion could be used?


  • How music could contribute to the mental-stability of an individual?
E.g. Depression.
  • This could be further expanded with the use of music in psychological operations.
- Reference:

  • How styles of music is negatively represented in media and subsequently blamed?
E.g. Marilyn Manson / Columbine High School massacre.
- Reference:

  • How music can be used in political warfare?
- Reference:

Thanks for the suggestions mysterious stranger, some really interesting points. I'll weave these in. Cheers -- Jaybay 12:53, 3 November 2011 (UTC)

Feedback and Suggestions[edit]

Re: Music, emotion and film

Hi J, Have placed your page on my watch list. Really interesting topic. Glad the suggestion re music,film and emotion was a helpful idea - hope there's some research out there. Only other things that occurred to me was from physiology last year, there was a link from the text to a research centre in Canada which was looking at musical pitch (and perfect pitch). Not sure if they were doing anything around music more generally, or anything connected with emotion. But worth checking out.

Jeanette 02:00, 29 September 2011 (UTC)

Hi, I agree, this is a really interesting topic. I have an example which may or may not be helpful. My 12 year old daughter was having friends stay over, and after they had watched movies and were really tired, I put some classical music on to relax and calm them down, thinking it would help them get to sleep. However, the girls all found it very annoying and were not able to sleep until the music was turned off. This showed me the relationship between mood and music, as my daughter had always enjoyed listening to classical music. However, we had only ever had it on during the day, not when she was tired. Looking forward to reading more of your chapter. Ltb 06:06, 18 October 2011 (UTC)

That's interesting Ltb, sounds a little bit like your daughter was conditioned to classical music? That is certainly an avenue I could use too, music in regard to learning as well as mood. I'd be interested to hear what kind of classical music it was too? I know that some of Mozart's music mimics brain wave patterns (AKA "The Mozart Effect") From memory one of them may have been similar to sleep. Other composers or pieces with faster tempos or certain timbre may increase wakefulness? - Jaybay 05:43, 19 October 2011 (UTC)

Checking in again Hi J - love the colours you've chosen & the little musical notes - very cute. Know that's probably very superficial of me but also makes it easier to read. Was thinking re other angles (if you are looking for them). Re music and emotion - music and workplaces might be another angle. Remember working at a retail store straight after finishing high school & just in time to score all the Christmas music. Staff were generally not jolly, even before the crowds started. & just wondered about housework and music (does it help with motivation - think I need to know). With the ones you have - curious to see in terms of music and memory if any studies turn up with anything around music therapy for dementia sufferers. Will stop there - not sure where your reading is leading to & you may have already thought of & discarded these ideas already! & I think the idea you had about the bio effects of music, e.g. neurotransmitters, sounds fascinating. Will be curious to see what you find out! Gangster wiggles is hilarious. Regards Jeanette 09:23, 18 October 2011 (UTC)

Hi Jeanette! Thanks I have trouble reading sometimes if the contrast is off or there's little colour so glad to see it works for others too. Appreciating all your input, I think I have read some articles somewhere in regards to music therapy for people in a coma (who show signs of neural response!) I would be interested to see if there's any music therapy for people with dementia, or just generally for emotional issues such as depression, anxiety or anger management. As they say music calms the savage beast. Motivation is an area I would love to develop the chapter on, but not sure if I'm allowed to stray too far into the area? I find music to be a great influence on my motivational moods at least, I think this might fit in well (I can do it - I will vacuum! :P). Do you mean the Christmas music was aggravating the employees? I'm not keen on Christmas music played at work or in shops. Stores keep doing it, so I wonder if it's effective in sales? I have a nice long list of things to research, but I am always ears for any ideas - cheers again. - Jaybay 05:43, 19 October 2011 (UTC)

Hi there, thanks for stopping by the Emotional Intelligence page and leaving your comment. I have left one of your page as well, but I'll repeat that you might like to work in a reference to Gardner's multiple intelligence theory which lists music as an intelligence. Cheers U112052 11:05, 18 October 2011 (UTC)

Cheers U112052 for the suggestion, there may something along the lines of musical intellect and emotional regulation, or emotional differences? I will have a look :) - Jaybay 05:43, 19 October 2011 (UTC)

have you thought of maybe including something on music as a way of expressing emotions if you could tie this in with your other ideas. Also perhaps you could look into music therapy for children with learning disorders as ths is quite a common application. keep up the good work Jessica.h 07:58, 25 October 2011 (UTC)

Hi Justine! I am loving all the interactive quizzes and music you have put on your page. it looks like it will be fun and interesting. great work! Courtney.reis 08:38, 26 October 2011 (UTC)

Hey, very interesting topic you picked! I did an essay last year on the effect of motivation on exercise performance. I know that it doesn't relate much to your topic, but I found lots of physiological effects such as lowered HR, blood pressure etc, so hopefully you'll be able to find lots of information on that! Good look with finishing it, i'll definitely check in again to see the finished product. Tashc 09:58, 3 November 2011 (UTC)

Justine your page is amazing, so much depth and it really shows how much research you have put into it EamesA 10:34, 5 November 2011 (UTC)

Hey Jus, You were asking me the other day about evaluative conditioning, about when you here music and it take you back to an event... I thought of some examples for you!! Spice Girls - Wannabe, could take you back to your year 6 dance, right before graduation... or hearing Celine Dion - My Heart will Go On, could take you back to your first date in highschool where you went to see Titanic! Hope that's helpful!! :) Good work on your page!! It's coming along nicely! A-bryant 12:48, 5 November 2011 (UTC)

Don't take drugs! Take Music!! That would make an interesting heading for explaining the physiological and theraputic impact it can have upon us! A-bryant 14:56, 5 November 2011 (UTC)

Music and Emotions

The most difficult problem in answering the question of how music creates emotions is likely to be the fact that assignments of musical elements and emotions can never be defined clearly. The solution of this problem is the Theory of Musical Equilibration. It says that music can't convey any emotion at all, but merely volitional processes, with which the music listener identifies. Then in the process of identifying the volitional processes are colored with emotions. The same happens when we watch an exciting film and identify with the volitional processes of our favorite figures. Here, too, just the process of identification generates emotions.

Because this detour of emotions via volitional processes was not detected, also all music psychological and neurological experiments, to answer the question of the origin of the emotions in the music, failed.

But how music can convey volitional processes? These volitional processes have something to do with the phenomena which early music theorists called "lead", "leading tone" or "striving effects". If we reverse this musical phenomena in imagination into its opposite (not the sound wants to change - but the listener identifies with a will not to change the sound) we have found the contents of will, the music listener identifies with. In practice, everything becomes a bit more complicated, so that even more sophisticated volitional processes can be represented musically.

Further information is available via the free download of the e-book "Music and Emotion - the Research on Musical Equilibration:

Enjoy reading

Bernd Willimek

Feedback on progress[edit]

Your page is coming along brilliantly. Envious of what you've done with your title - may try to nick it. Hoping I can work out how.
Re the Christmas music comment earlier - was definitely irritating rather than inspiring.
As an aside, my gorgeous newborn niece has been giving her parents a run for their money. In desperation, they "turned on David Guetta, Black Eyed Peas and Justin Timberlake on full ball and danced around the room with her and instantly she changed, appears she likes loud dance music just like her mum, just sat in my arms enjoying the moment." Think you're on to something here. Jeanette 00:13, 28 October 2011 (UTC)

Aww that's pretty cute, they're a dancer baby already :) Go ahead and steal! I think I used that formatting from someone else's page (thank you whever you are) thanks for the feedback too, any criticisms?( Ignore the fact it's a bit of a mess :S) I've been hoping to get a draft done by mid next week for a formal feedback overall, in sydney at the moment so hopefully it'll get there! Jaybay 03:31, 28 October 2011 (UTC)

Hi JayBay, really interesting topic - I look forward to reading the finished product? My sister was actually hospitalised for anorexia/bullemia and they did music therapy a few times a week. They all loved it - not only did they listen but also sing along. Could you possibly include a section on music therapy? ShaunaB 02:58, 29 October 2011 (UTC)

Just popped back to see how you were going. Looking good. I tried to play one of yoiur sound files, but it wasn't working. This may be because you haven't put the link in as yet. Keep up the good work. Ray U112052 05:37, 30 October 2011 (UTC)

Hi JayBay - your page is looking great! I really love the layout and the pictures for effect. It's obvious that you have really given thought you plan. Well done - you're right on track :) ( 04:21, 31 October 2011 (UTC))

Music can make wine taste better[edit] -- Jtneill - Talk - c 22:15, 2 November 2011 (UTC)

That's really interesting! Will have to give Tom Jones and Merlot a try. I think there is probably an avenue for research into food as well. Thanks for your input Jaybay 12:56, 3 November 2011 (UTC)

G'day. This is an excellent looking chapter on what is a truly interesting topic. Great idea... kind of wish I'd thought of it myself. Regards U895075 02:17, 3 November 2011 (UTC)

Draft feedback[edit]

Hi Justine, please see my comments below. Take or leave any of the suggestions as you like.


Could mention the Gestalt or holism perspectives here, where the whole is more than the sum of its parts.

Does music really influence us emotionally, and how?

Not sure of the purpose to capitalising Musical components, Physiological reactions, Cognitive and Social. Because they are titles to another section? Perhaps check APA style guide.

Why do we listen to music? You may like to revise the following sentences for better flow:

  • “It is noticeably prevalent and embraced in most cultures around the world, where it unlikely to have been due to culturally spread, perhaps indicative of an instinctual drive (_)."
  • it it’s cross-culturally highly valued

Best if you can source the original article and reference that rather than using secondary citations, but this is not always possible. Please ensure use of APA style throughout when completing the draft.

Musical components

  • The first para is quite long – consider splitting.

Physiological impact Very interesting that people in vegetative states still show a reaction to music! I like seeing the psychophysiological measures in this section as supporting your argument for emotions arising from music. It is interesting to note how researchers infer emotional reactions to music and that objective measures are used in addition to self-report.

Applications I think this section provides some real meat for the self-help objective of the book!

General comments As I read through your chapter, I was reminded of times I have had strong emotional reactions to music, usually in relation to sad songs, such as Pearl Jam’s last Kiss and Empty Chairs at Empty tables from Les Miserables. You might like to include a box asking people to reflect on their own emotional reactions and what types of music evoke it? The more aware they are of their reactions and musical stimuli, perhaps the more useful it will be when they attempt to regulate emotions through its use? Many people may use music to attenuate current mood states or create new ones, consciously or not. For example, music can be used for a temporary mood and energy boost, as many people do when getting ready to go out and party. However, you have already made great use of boxes as learning features – fantastic integration of external survey sources, music, images, diagrams and quizzes throughout your chapter!

There are a few minor grammatical errors throughout – expected for a draft.

In your structure, I can see critical analysis of research, theories and possibilities for self-help. You have really engaged with the topic and carefully considered the marking criteria in your structure and approach in an engaging style. Good luck with the polishing and pulling it together! Cheers, Rfoster 22:47, 5 November 2011 (UTC)

Thanks Roxanne, that was very helpful. All points noted! --Jaybay 13:54, 6 November 2011 (UTC)
I would have liked to include something on Gestalt psychology, but the word count was getting too close, had to remove that introduction. Did include your suggestion for asking the reader about their experiences in the new introduction though, great idea. Cheers Jaybay 13:38, 8 November 2011 (UTC)

____ Feedback and contribution

I think you have chosen a really fascinating topic to study. Your page looks great, with a nice blend of music, imagery and theoretical content to back up emotion being connected with music .User:Mandygal1304 21:40, 4 November 2011 (UTC)

Thanks Mandy! --Jaybay 13:54, 6 November 2011 (UTC)

I've had a quick look and made some minor formatting edits. Looking looks fascinating content/structure with lots of useful links. One final thing to check - some of the Wikiversity links are in external link format. They can be changed to internal e.g., here's the format

-- Jtneill - Talk - c 20:48, 6 November 2011 (UTC)

Thanks James, had a few issues there. Will add them into the non-assessable version. Lots of terms!

What a wonderful chapter - Mozart is ideal for studying and concentrating - that has been proven - very well done - congratulations - Magnolia

Chapter review and feedback

This chapter has been reviewed according to the marking criteria. Written feedback is provided below, plus there is a general feedback page. Please also check the chapter's page history to check for editing changes made whilst reviewing through the chapter. Responses to this feedback can be made by starting a new section below and/or contacting the reviewer. Chapter marks will be available later via Moodle, along with social contribution marks and feedback. Keep an eye on Announcements.

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  1. Overall, this is a fabulously researched chapter on a novel, challenging topic. It succeeds in providing a reader with a rich and interesting account of ways of in which emotion can be influenced by music. Perhaps I would have liked to see some more about music and learning (does it help? does it interfere? Of the samples, worked best for me whilst marking!). Other than that, there were some minor aspects of written expression which could be improved. This would make for an excellent 4th year research topic!


  1. Extensive coverage of a variety of theories.
  2. Critical perspective evident.
  3. Perhaps a table defining the key music terms, with examples would be useful. Perhaps this is already available to be linked to on Wikipedia?


  1. Extensive citation list and effective summarising of an impressive array of research, yet in a highly readable, succint manner.
  2. Critical perspective evident.
  3. When describing important research findings, indicate the size of effects in addition to whether or not there was an effect or relationship.
  4. Some statements were unreferenced - see the [factual?] tags

Written expression[edit]

  1. Written expression
    1. The chapter is very well written, with some minor areas for potential improvement.
    2. The conclusion perhaps could be strengthened to provide clear take-home messages and/or answers to the focus questions.
    3. Some paragraphs were overly long. Each paragraph should communicate one key idea in three to five sentences.
    4. The introduction was well developed, to concentrate on some central focus questions.
    5. Well done on getting and addressing comments on a chapter plan and/or chapter draft.
  2. Learning features
    1. Interwiki links to musical terms were useful, as were within page links - well done
    2. A variety of music samples were used effectively to engage the reader and illustrate the points.
  3. Spelling, grammar and proofreading
    1. Check comma usage - e.g. add comma for a statement such as "Furthermore, ....", " Historically, philosophers" and " In fact, Plato"
    2. Discuss completed research studies in the past tense
  4. APA style
    1. In-text citations were in APA style
    2. The references list is in very good APA format. Issue number should not be in italics.

-- Jtneill - Talk - c 11:37, 27 November 2011 (UTC)

Thanks James, I would actually be very keen to research this area if I am able to, I really enjoyed learning about it. There are so many potential areas to further look at. Learning and music is another interesting and useful avenue. -- Jaybay 03:04, 29 November 2011 (UTC)

Multimedia feedback

The accompanying multimedia presentation has been marked according to the marking criteria. Marks are available via login to the unit's Moodle site. Written feedback is provided below, plus there is a general feedback page. Responses to this feedback can be made by starting a new section below. If you would like further clarification about the marking or feedback, contact the unit convener. If you wish to dispute the marks, see the suggested marking dispute process.



  1. Overall, this is an engaging, interesting presentation which consists of narrated audio with text-slides, images and video.

Structure and content[edit]

  1. In the general introduction, establish self-help focus questions.
  2. The content provides a broad overview without going into too much depth (good)
  3. No summary of take-home messages?


  1. Voice-over pace is good (not too fast).
  2. Voice-over intonation and elocution could vary more to enhance interest and attention.
  3. Images are used effectively
  4. Video is integrated effectively
  5. Great to see the self-created images/video

Production quality[edit]

  1. Excellent use of youtube as a platform, with excellent meta-data (title, description, license) etc., attracting already an impressive number of views and likes!
  2. Ideally, provide clear source and attribution for each image - e.g,. could be in the video description
  3. Well done on using Wiki Commons and Creative Commons resources
  4. Thanks for licensing the presentation under a Creative Commons Attribution license.
  5. Production quality

-- Jtneill - Talk - c 02:54, 11 December 2011 (UTC)