Abbreviation Meaning ${\displaystyle \alpha }$ Alpha ANOVA Analysis of Variance ANCOVA Analysis of Covariance β Beta (Standardised regression coefficient) ${\displaystyle \chi }$ 2 Chi-square CI Confidence Interval df Degrees of Freedom DV Dependent Variable e Error ES Effect Size ${\displaystyle \eta }$ 2 Eta-squared ${\displaystyle \eta }$ p2 Partial Eta-squared H0 Null hypothesis H1 Alternative hypothesis IV Independent Variable LOM Level of Measurement LR Linear Regression M Mean MD Mahalanobis’ Distance MLR Multiple Linear Regression MVO Multivariate Outlier N Sample Size PASW Statistical Package for the Social Sciences - formerly known as SPSS ${\displaystyle \phi }$ Phi r Product-moment correlation or Pearson’s correlation R Multiple correlation co-efficient SD Standard Deviation SE Standard Error SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences - now known as PASW ST Significance Test/Testing