Response formats

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In survey design, it is important to understand the different types of survey response formats and their implications in terms of levels of measurement for quantitative data analysis.

Some commonly used response formats include:

Measurement scale Level of measurement Example
Dichotomous Binary Yes or No
Graphical rating Continuous Mark any point on a line
Idiographic Ordinal/Likert Use symbols/pictures instead of words and numbers
Likert scale Interval Equally-spaced intervals, usually 3 to 9 intervals
Multiple choice or Multichotomous Categorical/nominal Yes, No, or Maybe
Multiple response Binary Tick all that apply
Ranking Ordinal Compare items to each other by placing them in order of descending preference
Semantic differential Interval Put two words at opposite ends of a scale with interval marks
Verbal frequency Ordinal How often ... Never, Sometimes, Often, Always

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