Portal:Radiation astronomy/Lesson

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Selected lessons

First microwave source in Cepheus

This image shows the Cepheus molecular cloud complex as seen through the glow of carbon monoxide (CO) with Planck (blue). Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration.

The first microwave source in Cepheus is unknown.

The field of microwave astronomy is the result of observations and theories about microwave sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical microwave source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, microwaves from the Sun are intermingled with other radiation so that the Sun may appear as other than a primary source for microwaves.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry microwave detectors high enough may have detected microwaves from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and researching. It is also a research project in the history of microwave astronomy looking for the first astronomical microwave source discovered in the constellation of Cepheus.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding microwave sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are actual research.

If stellar flares have origins similar to solar flares, then flare stars produce microwaves.




First neutron source in Volans

This is a visual image of NGC 2788A near the edge of the constellation Volans. Credit: Aladin at SIMBAD.

The first neutron source in Volans is unknown.

The field of neutron astronomy is the result of observations and theories about neutron sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical neutron source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, neutrons from the Sun are intermingled with other radiation so that the Sun may appear as other than a primary source for neutrons.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry neutron detectors high enough may have detected neutrons from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and researching. It is also a research project in the history of neutron astronomy looking for the first astronomical neutron source discovered in the constellation of Volans.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding neutron sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are actual research.




First positron source in Phoenix

Positron astronomy results have been obtained using the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI shown. Credit: Medialab, ESA.

The first positron source in Phoenix is unknown.

The field of positron astronomy is the result of observations and theories about positron sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical positron source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, positrons from the Sun are intermingled with other radiation so that the Sun may appear as other than a primary source for positrons.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry positron detectors high enough may have detected positrons from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and researching. It is also a research project in the history of positron astronomy looking for the first astronomical positron source discovered in the constellation of Phoenix.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding positron sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are actual research.




First radio source in Pisces

The image shows 54 Piscium, its red dwarf companion and a Saturn-sized planet. One of these may be a radio source. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / T. Pyle (SSC).

The first radio source in Pisces is unknown.

The field of radio astronomy is the result of observations and theories about radio sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical radio source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, radio waves from the Sun are intermingled with other radiation so that the Sun may appear as other than a primary source for radio waves.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry radio detectors high enough may have detected radio waves from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and researching. It is also a research project in the history of radio astronomy looking for the first astronomical radio source discovered in the constellation of Pisces.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding radio sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are actual research.

If stellar flares have origins similar to solar flares, then flare stars produce radio waves.




First violet source in Leo

This is an image of the Sun using an H I violet band pass filter. Credit: NASA.

The first violet source in Leo is unknown.

The field of violet astronomy is the result of observations and theories about violet sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical violet source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, violet waves from the Sun are intermingled with other radiation so that the Sun may appear as other than a primary source for violet waves.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry violet detectors high enough may have detected violet waves from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and searching. It is also a project in the history of violet astronomy looking for the first astronomical violet source discovered in the constellation of Leo.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding violet sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are an actual search.




First yellow source in Aquila

NGC 6741 is the Phantom Streak Nebula. Credit: ESA/Hubble and NASA.

The first yellow source in Aquila is unknown.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and searching. It is also a project in the history of yellow astronomy looking for the first astronomical yellow source discovered in the constellation of Aquila.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding yellow sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are an actual search.




First blue source in Boötes

This is a visual image of lambda Boötis. Credit: Aladin at SIMBAD.

The first blue source in Boötes is unknown.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and searching.

It is also a project in the history of blue astronomy looking for the first astronomical blue source discovered in the constellation of Boötes.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding blue sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are an actual search.

To succeed in finding a blue source in Boötes is the first step. Next, you'll need to determine the time stamp of its discovery and compare it with any that have already been found. Over the history of blue astronomy a number of sources have been found, many as point sources in the night sky. These points are located on the celestial sphere using coordinate systems. Familiarity with these coordinate systems is not a prerequisite. Here the challenge is geometrical, astrophysical, and historical.




First cyan source in Caelum

This is an image of NGC 1679 in Caelum. It is a spiral galaxy located two degrees south of Zeta Caeli. Credit: NASA/ESA (Wikisky).

The first cyan source in Caelum is unknown.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and searching. It is also a project in the history of cyan astronomy looking for the first astronomical cyan source discovered in the constellation of Caelum.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding cyan sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are an actual search.

To succeed in finding a cyan source in Caelum is the first step. Next, you'll need to determine the time stamp of its discovery and compare it with any that have already been found. Over the history of cyan astronomy a number of sources have been found, many as point sources in the night sky. These points are located on the celestial sphere using coordinate systems. Familiarity with these coordinate systems is not a prerequisite. Here the challenge is geometrical, astrophysical, and historical.

NGC 1679 in the image at left appears to contain some cyan, probably as a result of a mixture of light blue and yellow.




First gamma-ray source in Triangulum Australe

The first gamma-ray source in Triangulum Australe is unknown.

The field of gamma-ray astronomy is the result of observations and theories about gamma-ray sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical gamma-ray source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, gamma-rays from the Sun do not penetrate far enough into the Earth's atmosphere to be detected on the ground.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry detectors high enough may have detected gamma-rays from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and searching. It is also a project in the history of gamma-ray astronomy looking for the first astronomical gamma-ray source discovered in the constellation of Triangulum Australe.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding gamma-ray sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are an actual search.




First infrared source in Crux

This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the nebula nicknamed "the Dragonfish". Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Toronto.

The first infrared source in Crux is unknown.

The field of infrared astronomy is the result of observations and theories about infrared, or infrared-ray sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical infrared source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, infrared rays from the Sun are intermingled with other colors so that the Sun may appear yellow-white rather than infrared.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry infrared, optical, or visual detectors high enough may have detected infrared-rays from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and searching. It is also a project in the history of infrared astronomy looking for the first astronomical infrared source discovered in the constellation of Crux.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding infrared sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are an actual search.




First orange source in Cancer

Cloud bands are clearly visible on Jupiter. Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS.

The first orange source in Cancer is unknown.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and researching. It is also a research project in the history of orange astronomy looking for the first astronomical orange source discovered in the constellation of Cancer.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding orange sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are actual research.

To succeed in finding an orange source in Cancer is the first step.

Next, you'll need to determine the time stamp of its discovery and compare it with any that have already been found.

Over the history of orange astronomy a number of sources have been found, many as point sources in the night sky.

These points are located on the celestial sphere using coordinate systems. Familiarity with these coordinate systems is not a prerequisite. Here the challenge is geometrical, astrophysical, and historical.




First red source in Canis Major

Sirius is the brightest star as seen from Earth, apart from the Sun. Credit: Mellostorm.

The first red source in Canis Major is unknown.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and researching. It is also a research project in the history of red astronomy looking for the first astronomical red source discovered in the constellation of Canis Major.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding red sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are actual research.

To succeed in finding a red source in Canis Major is the first step.

Next, you'll need to determine the time stamp of its discovery and compare it with any that have already been found. Over the history of red astronomy a number of sources have been found, many as point sources in the night sky. These points are located on the celestial sphere using coordinate systems. Familiarity with these coordinate systems is not a prerequisite. Here the challenge is geometrical, astrophysical, and historical.




First superluminal source in Indus

This is an Aladin at SIMBAD image of ICRF J230343.5-680737, a Seyfert 1 galaxy in the constellation Indus. Credit: Aladin at SIMBAD.

The first superluminal source in Indus is unknown.

The field of superluminal astronomy is the result of observations and theories about superluminal sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical superluminal source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, superluminal rays from the Sun are intermingled with other radiation so that the Sun may appear as other than a primary source for superluminal rays.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry superluminal detectors high enough may have detected superluminal rays from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and searching. It is also a project in the history of superluminal astronomy looking for the first astronomical superluminal source discovered in the constellation of Indus.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding superluminal sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are an actual search.




First green source in Tucana

This star is listed in SIMBAD as having spectral type G. Credit: Aladin at SIMBAD.

The first green source in Tucana is unknown.

The field of green astronomy is the result of observations and theories about green, or green-ray sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical green source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, green rays from the Sun are intermingled with other colors so that the Sun may appear yellow-white rather than green.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry green, optical, or visual detectors high enough may have detected green-rays from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and searching. It is also a project in the history of green astronomy looking for the first astronomical green source discovered in the constellation of Tucana.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding green sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are an actual search.




First submillimeter source in Carina

Observations made with the APEX telescope reveal the cold dusty clouds from which stars form. Credit: ESO/APEX/T. Preibisch et al. (Submillimetre); N. Smith, University of Minnesota/NOAO/AURA/NSF (Optical).

The first submillimeter source in Carina is unknown.

The field of submillimeter astronomy is the result of observations and theories about submillimeter sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical submillimeter source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, submillimeter waves from the Sun are intermingled with other radiation so that the Sun may appear as other than a primary source for submillimeter waves.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry submillimeter detectors high enough may have detected submillimeter waves from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and researching. It is also a research project in the history of submillimeter astronomy looking for the first astronomical submillimeter source discovered in the constellation of Carina.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding submillimeter sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are actual research.




First ultraviolet source in Sagittarius

These two photographs were made by combining data from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer spacecraft and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/JHU.

The first ultraviolet source in Sagittarius is unknown.

The field of ultraviolet astronomy is the result of observations and theories about ultraviolet sources detected in the sky above.

The first astronomical ultraviolet source discovered may have been the Sun.

But, ultraviolet waves from the Sun are intermingled with other radiation so that the Sun may appear as other than a primary source for ultraviolet waves.

The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry ultraviolet detectors high enough may have detected ultraviolet waves from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and searching. It is also a project in the history of ultraviolet astronomy looking for the first astronomical ultraviolet source discovered in the constellation of Sagittarius.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level and perhaps even a primary education level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding ultraviolet sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are an actual search.




First X-ray source in Andromeda

This is an X-ray image of the Andromeda galaxy. Credit: ESA/XMM-Newton/EPIC/W. Pietsch.

The first X-ray source in Andromeda is not known. This lesson is also a research project that needs your help. And, in exchange you'll be free to learn about star maps, astronomy, and the speciality of X-ray astronomy. The first such source in the constellation Andromeda is an astronomical X-ray source detected at some point in human history between now and a distant time mark in the past. It is an astronomical X-ray source detected in the constellation Andromeda.

This learning resource is experimental in nature because each learner interested in seeking this first X-ray source may start with any source and attempt to determine if this source is in Andromeda and is an X-ray source. Each currently known source has a history that includes earlier and earlier detections. To succeed, the adventurer need only show that their source has an earlier detection date as an X-ray source than previous adventurers.

The celestial sphere has coordinate systems often used to place a point source in the heavens. Familiarity with these coordinate systems is not a prerequisite. An introductory geography or map reading course or some familiarity with following a map is all that's needed.

Over the history of X-ray astronomy a number of astronomical X-ray sources have been discovered and studied, usually because they have something special about them that intrigues the researcher. The challenge of this resource is geometrical, astrophysical, and historical. As the ultimate answer is unknown, this is actually a research project, yet you may succeed!

Enjoy learning by doing!




First X-ray source in Antlia

Inside the white circle is a new supernova remnant in Antlia. Credit: P. R. McCullough, Brian D. Fields, and Vasiliki Pavlidou.

The first X-ray source in Antlia is unknown.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and researching. It is also a research project in the history of X-ray astronomy looking for the first astronomical X-ray source discovered in the constellation of Antlia.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary educational level.

Some of the material and information you'll be introduced to is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding X-ray sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are actual research.

To succeed in finding an X-ray source in Antlia is the first step. Next, you'll need to determine the time stamp of its discovery and compare it with any that have already been found. Over the history of X-ray astronomy a number of sources have been found, many as point sources in the night sky. These points are located on the celestial sphere using coordinate systems. Familiarity with these is not a prerequisite. Here the challenge is geometrical, astrophysical, and historical.




First X-ray source in Apus

The graph shows the spatial distribution of ROSAT all-sky survey X-ray sources in the Chamaeleon cloud complex. Credit: J.M. Alcalá, J. Krautter, J.H.M.M. Schmitt, E. Covino, R. Wichmann and R. Mundt.

The first X-ray source in Apus discovered by our X-ray observatory satellites or rockets is unknown.

Above is a sky plot of the X-ray sources detected by the ROSAT all-sky survey in the Chamaeleon star-forming cloud complex. X-ray sources (Xs in the diagram) along the 14:00 h longitude are in the constellation Apus.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and researching. It is also a research project in the history of X-ray astronomy looking for the first astronomical X-ray source discovered in the constellation of Apus.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary educational level.

Some of the material and information you'll be introduced to is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding X-ray sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are actual research.

To succeed in finding an X-ray source in Apus is the first step. Next, you'll need to determine the time stamp of its discovery and compare it with any that have already been found. Over the history of X-ray astronomy a number of sources have been found, many as point sources in the night sky. These points are located on the celestial sphere using coordinate systems. Familiarity with these coordinate systems is not a prerequisite. Here the challenge is geometrical, astrophysical, and historical.




First X-ray source in Aquarius

The blue (X-ray) shows evidence for a growing super massive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. Credit: Left panel: D. Alexander et al. S. Chapman et al. T. Hayashino et al. J. Geach et al. Right Illustration: M. Weiss.

The first X-ray source in Aquarius is unknown. The field of X-ray astronomy is the result of observations and theories about X-ray sources detected in the sky above. The first astronomical X-ray source discovered may have been the Sun. But, X-rays from the Sun do not penetrate far enough into Earth's atmosphere to be detected on the ground. The early use of sounding rockets and balloons to carry detectors high enough may have detected X-rays from the Sun as early as the 1940s.

This is a lesson in map reading, coordinate matching, and researching. It is also a research project in the history of X-ray astronomy looking for the first astronomical X-ray source discovered in the constellation of Aquarius.

Nearly all the background you need to participate and learn by doing you've probably already been introduced to at a secondary level.

Some of the material and information is at the college or university level, and as you progress in finding X-ray sources, you'll run into concepts and experimental tests that are actual research.

To succeed in finding an X-ray source in Aquarius is the first step. Next, you'll need to determine the time stamp of its discovery and compare it with any that have already been found. Over the history of X-ray astronomy a number of sources have been found, many as point sources in the night sky. These points are located on the celestial sphere using coordinate systems. Familiarity with these coordinate systems is not a prerequisite. Here the challenge is geometrical, astrophysical, and historical.




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Nominating or creating selected lessons

If you have a suggestion for future Selected lessons for this portal, please suggest them on the discussion page, or create them yourself. You can also suggest future Selected lessons at Portal talk:Radiation astronomy/Lesson. If you have any questions, contact User:Marshallsumter or leave a message at Astronomy.