Open Access in Latin America
This is a rough draft.
- Esse é um projeto em andamento. Por favor, não altere ou adicione qualquer informação nessa wiki sem antes falar com a líder da pesquisa Carolina Rossini por e-mail email@example.com ou na página de discussão.
- This is a ongoing project. This wiki is changing daily. Please, do not alter or add information before you have the chance to talk to the research lead, Carolina Rossini, by firstname.lastname@example.org or using the talk page. You are welcome to improve formatting, though. :-)
The Internet has inspired multiple movements toward greater openness — most prominently, open access, open data, open science, and open educational resources. None of these is based on the belief that there should be such a thing as a free lunch, but each recognizes that the Internet changes the economics of publication and digital-resource sharing so that changes can feasibly be made to traditional practices that are in some ways “closed,” requiring payment for access to information or prohibiting myriad reuses of accessible information.
Open Access is a knowledge distribution model by which scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles are made freely available to anyone, anywhere over the Internet. Open Access (OA) is part of this greater revolution in knowledge generation and distribution allowed by the ICT expansion and has the potential to empower individuals, communities and institutions, contributing to development and wealth in the patterns proposed by the Information Society. Open Access is a reaction to the persistence (in the face of ICT revolution) of traditional models in scientific knowledge distribution, which were characterized by centralized and high cost journals.
Open Access also resonates with the ICT revolution by empowering the individual. In a world where peer recognition is the “coin of the realm,” OA transfers power to the scientist as both a producer and consumer of knowledge. The possibility of self-archiving and the submission of the paper to peer-review leave more power in the scientist than the analog models. Another crucial aspect of the individual empowerment can be noticed on the consumer end, as more access means an increased ability to remain current and participating through their own research in what is increasingly becoming the global circulation of knowledge.
The BBB declarations:
- “Budapest Open Access Initiative"
- “Berlin Declaration”
- “Bethesda Declaration on Open Access Publishing”
All these declarations affirm that openness requires making the literature freely accessible under liberal terms that permit nearly all reuses so long as the author receives credit for the work when it's republished or adapted. By granting readers full reuse rights, open licenses that support open access unleash "the full range of human creativity for translating, combining, analyzing, adapting, and preserving the scientific record, whereas traditional copyright arrangements in scientific publishing increasingly inhibit scholarly communication."
Open Access is a modern phenomenon that fulfills the human right by addressing the access to knowledge as a pathway to development. And development too is an international human right that demands the construction of the Information Society based on ethic and solidarity.
Open Data: “A piece of data or content is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.” 
Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge.
"O número de revistas científicas publicadas no Brasil, segundo Bianca, é de 2.032, sendo 895 online e 1.137 impressas. Em relação à situação atual das revistas científicas em acesso aberto, ela explicou que o Brasil é o segundo país com maior quantidade de revistas científicas em acesso aberto, segundo dados do Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).O país tem 768 revistas publicadas, e os Estados Unidos, 1.242. Em referência à situação atual das políticas de Estado de acesso aberto, os coordenadores ressaltaram o Projeto de Lei nº 1.120, de 21 de maio de 2007, e o Projeto de Lei do Senado nº 387, de 2011 (em tramitação), que obriga as instituições públicas de ensino superior a construírem os repositórios institucionais para depósito do inteiro teor da produção técnicocientífica do corpo discente e docente. Já em relação às políticas de agências de fomento, foi mencionada a Portaria nº 13 da Capes, de 15 de fevereiro de 2006, que institui a divulgação digital das teses e dissertações produzidas pelos programas reconhecidos de doutorado e mestrado. Com relação às políticas de agências de fomento, foi explicado que a orientação do CNPq, publicada em 2005, incentiva a publicação dos resultados dos beneficiários do CNPq em acesso aberto." http://www.ibict.br/sala-de-imprensa/eventos/iniciativas-do-ibict-para-a-visibilidade-da-ciencia-brasileira
Links sobre investimentos públicos em pesquisas no Brasil:
http://www.mcti.gov.br/index.php/content/view/740.html?execview= (Indicadores) http://www.mcti.gov.br/index.php/content/view/336727.html?execview= (Acesso à Informação) http://www.fapesp.br/381 (Estatísticas e balanços da FAPESP) http://www.cnpq.br/web/guest/acesso-a-informacao http://aquarius.mcti.gov.br/app/
Na última década, houve uma ampliação significativa do investimento em atividades de Ciência e Tecnologia (C&T) no Brasil. No período de 2000 a 2010, o dispêndio nacional em C&T, a preços de 2010, passou de R$ 33,5 bilhões para mais de R$ 60,9 bilhões. Esse esforço representou um crescimento importante do gasto em C&T em relação ao Produto Interno Bruto (PIB), que passou de 1,30%, em 2000,
para 1,66% do PIB em 2010. Por outro lado, também ocorreu uma elevação significativa do dispêndio nacional em atividades de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (P&D). Em valores atualizados, o dispêndio nacional em P&D passou de R$ 25,9 bilhões, em 2004, para mais de R$ 43,5 bilhões em 2010.
De 2000 a 2010, o número de pesquisadores em P&D passou de aproximadamente 126 mil para mais de 230 mil e o pessoal de apoio mais do que duplicou, passando de 105,2 mil para mais de 234 mil pessoas. Os dados disponíveis revelam que, na última década, a participação brasileira na ciência produzida mundialmente praticamente duplicou. Os dados da Thomson/ISI colocam o Brasil como o 13º país com maior número de artigos indexados pela base WoS em 2009, e também entre os seis países do mundo com maior crescimento em termos de produção científica no período de 2001 a 2009.
"No ano de 2010, a União investiu na aquisição de periódicos o valor aproximado, em dólar, de US$ 61.180.065,00." Dados disponíveis no site da CAPES: http://www.periodicos.capes.gov.br "Só em 2011, a Capes informa ter comprado R$ 133,2 milhões em conteúdo eletrônico – essencialmente periódicos científicos e e-books em versão integral – para alimentar o seu Portal de Periódicos, que, segundo o órgão, é uma das maiores bibliotecas virtuais do mundo. A plataforma inclui conteúdo em diferentes idiomas e áreas de conhecimento. Criada em 2000, ela reunia 1.881 títulos no seu primeiro ano de operação. Atualmente, mais de uma década depois, concentra 31 mil títulos de periódicos e 150 mil e-books. O portal oferece ainda 130 bases referenciais com informações bibliográficas, dez bases de patentes, estatísticas, normas técnicas e um banco de teses e dissertações. Hoje, o acesso ao portal está disponível gratuitamente à comunidade acadêmica de 326 instituições. A Capes não faz aquisições de publicações impressas." http://www.publishnews.com.br/telas/noticias/detalhes.aspx?id=68277. CAPES is Wiley's main client in Brazil.
Brazilian Research Output
(2008) > The participation of Brazilian research output on the worldwide stage is very small, though figures have gradually increased. According to some of the latest figures available, Brazilian researchers produced 1.8% of the world’s scientific knowledge in 2005, with the largest contribution coming from medicine (2,508 journal articles), followed by physics with 2,204 articles. It is interesting to note that ca. 85% of the national scientific output is carried out by post-graduate programmes, with a total number of 3,325 masters and doctoral courses in 2005.
- IBICT is the organ of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology responsible for fostering the implementation of (open) access policies to scientific information, and has developed incentive actions, tools and training for universities and research institutions. It is important to notice however that IBICT uses the phrase "open access" indistinctively - many times meaning public access and not fully open licensed open access.
- Background: Founded in 1954 as the Brazilian Institutte of Bibliography and Documentation (IBBD), subordinated to the National Council of Scienctific andTechnological Development (CNPq). In 1975, the IBBD becomes IBICT receiving broadening its role regarding development and implementation of scientific and technologic policies. In 2002, IBICT and other research units were transfferred to the Ministry of Science andTechnology (MCT).
* Definition of "Open Access" for IBICT: "Open Access to scientific information is the access to digital literature through the public availability of full documents on the Internet full that are part of the scientific communication. Open Access allows documents to be read, downloaded, copied and distributed"
The Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) is a cooperative decentralized platform for electronic publishing of scientific journals, with national focal points in diversity of Portuguese and Spanish speaking countries. SciELO is one of the earliest initiatives to provide open access to the scientific literature. SciELO started in Brazil in 1997 as a partnership among FAPESP – the State of São Paulo Science Foundation- and BIREME -the Latin America and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information), a center of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). Since 2002 SciELO also receives support from CNPq -Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico. SciELO demonstrates the importance of government funding to improve visibility, access and impact of science in developing countries.
- Associação Brasileira das Mantenedoras das Faculdades Isoladas e Integradas - ABRAFI - http://www.abrafi.org.br/pt-br/home.php
- Associação Brasileira das Universidades Comunitárias - ABRUC - http://www.abruc.org.br/
- Associação Brasileira de Mantenedoras de Ensino Superior - ABMES - http://www.abmes.org.br/abmes/
- Associação Nacional de Educação Católicas do Brasil - ANEC - http://www.anec.org.br/
- Associação Nacional das Universidades Particulares - ANUP - http://www.anup.com.br/
- Associação Nacional dos Centros Universitários - ANACEU - http://www.anaceu.org.br/
- Associação Nacional dos Dirigentes das Instituições Federais de Ensino Superior - ANDIFES - http://www.andifes.org.br/
- Associação Brasileira dos Reitores das Universidades Estaduais e Municipais - ABRUEM - http://www.abruem.org.br/
- Conselho de Reitores das Universidades Brasileiras - CRUB - http://www.crub.org.br/
- Sindicato Nacional dos Docentes das Instituições de Ensino Superior - ANDES-SN - http://www.andes.org.br/andes/portal.andes
- União Nacional dos Estudantes - UNE - http://www.une.org.br/
- FEBAB - Federação Brasileira de Associações de Bibliotecários, Cientistas da Informação e Instituições: Coordena e desenvolve atividades que promovam as bibliotecas e seus profissionais. Atua como centro de documentação, memória e informação das atividades de biblioteconomia, ciência da informação e áreas correlatas brasileiras. Além de incentivar e defender o desenvolvimento de tais profissões - http://www.febab.org.br/
- State Librarian Associations: http://febab.org.br/?page_id=108
- ABRAINFO – Associação Brasileira de Profissionais da Informação - http://www.abrainfo.com.br/
A CAPES é a agência governamental brasileira responsável pela avaliação da pósgraduação nacional stricto sensu e pelo acesso e divulgação da produção científica, entre outras incumbências. Ela, ao avaliar os Programas de Pós-Graduações nacionais, utiliza como principal índice de avaliação a quantidade de publicações de artigos em revistas qualificadas. Atualmente, os artigos científicos são o meio mais eficiente de divulgação do conhecimento científico, deixando a comunidade científica rapidamente a par de métodos, referenciais teóricos e resultados (BARBA, 2012). No entanto, após a produção e publicação de pesquisas financiadas com verba pública, surgem diversas barreiras para o acesso a estas por parte da comunidade acadêmica
The São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) is a independent public foundation which mission is to support and foster research and scientific and technological development in São Paulo State. The Foundation pursues this mission by funding research projects developed at universities and research institutes in all fields of knowledge. For more information, go to www.fapesp.br/en.
"Brito Cruz também falou sobre a política de acesso aberto já aprovada pelo Conselho Superior da FAPESP, que estabeleceu a criação de um repositório para a publicação de todos os artigos de pesquisas que receberam apoio da FAPESP. “Os resultados de auxílios e bolsas financiados pela FAPESP terão de estar lá, seguindo as normas de cada revista científica onde o artigo foi publicado originalmente. Se o artigo tiver sido publicado na Nature, por exemplo, terá de aguardar seis meses”, disse. Segundo ele, o repositório deverá ficar pronto no segundo semestre de 2013." http://agencia.fapesp.br/16919
(Open) Access Projects
- http://www.redalyc.org/info.oa?page=/acerca-de/usolegal.html (CC-BY-NC-ND 2.5, modified....)
- The Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y El Caribe, España y Portugal (Redalyc) project started in October 2002 with the general aim of building a scientific information system made up by the leading journals of all the knowledge areas edited in and about Latin America. Now days, Redalyc is an information system that also evaluates the scientific and editorial quality of knowledge in Ibero-America. A research group generates bibliometric indicators about the impact of the journals, authors and countries included in the journal electronic library. Redalyc has been consolidated as an important repository of knowledge with 550 journals online and more than 116 000 full-text articles. Since its creation Redalyc set a goal: to give visibility to the scientific production generated in Ibero-America, that is underestimated in the world-wide scene due to different factors like low investment in science and technology, the low participation of Latin American scientists in the main current of science, measured by the percentage of articles signed by Latin American authors in main databases and the low impact of that production.
The Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) is a cooperative decentralized platform for electronic publishing of scientific journals, with national focal points in diversity of Portuguese and Spanish speaking countries. Currently, SciELO publishes about 40 thousand new articles every year from over 900 open access journals. Scielo provides access to journals, allowing searches in article and journal level, by subject or country, to view and download abstract, full-text, and citation information. From Latin America and the Caribbean, the following countries, with active national focal points, have journal collections in SciELO: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. SciELO also includes journals from Portugal, South Africa, Spain and Venezuela. SciELO partnerships at national, regional and international level aiming at the dissemination, improvement and sustainability of the SciELO Model. The operation of the SciELO network is highly based on national infrastructures, which contributes to guarantee its future sustainability.
SciELO is one of the earliest initiatives to provide open access to the scientific literature. SciELO started in Brazil in 1997 as a partnership among FAPESP – the State of São Paulo Science Foundation- and BIREME -the Latin America and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information), a center of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). Since 2002 SciELO also receives support from CNPq -Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico. SciELO demonstrates the importance of government funding to improve visibility, access and impact of science in developing countries.
- SciELO's goals
- The goals of SciELO are to improve the performance and quality of national journals by increasing their visibility, accessibility, use, and impact; to operate as an index for bibliographic control; and to provide bibliometric indicators, complementing the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Science Citation Index and other international evaluators.
- Open License at SciELO:
- The Scielo model includes several components:
- methodology for electronic publication of complete editions of scientific journals, with searchable bibliographical and full text databases, preservation of electronic archives
- methodology to operate web sites with collections of electronic journals, for national and thematic sites.
- methodology for the production of statistical indicators of use and impact. And journal evaluation criteria based on international scientific communication standards.
- Quality requirements for journals to be accepted in Scielo
- Training activities
- SciELO at the Web of Knowledge
- In July, 2012, the Intellectual Property & Science division of Thomson Reuters announced it has partnered with (SciELO) to host the SciELO database on Web of KnowledgeSM, search and discovery platform. Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge provides access to the world’s largest citation databases, covering over 100 years of research in more than 24,000 of the highest impact journals from around the world, as well as thousands of academic conference proceedings and scholarly books. For more information about Web of Knowledge, please visit: http://wokinfo.com/. 
The 15 Latin American countries (Including Brazil, Argentina and Colombia) that have created advanced research and education networks, are members of the Latin American Cooperation of Advanced Research and Education Networks, RedCLARA. For open access to scientific production from Latin America, RedCLARA has submitted to the IDB, the project “Regional Strategy and Interoperability and Management Framework for a Latin American Federated Network of Institutional Scientific Documentation Repositories”. RedCLARA also supports CoLaBoRa, a Latin America Community of Digital Libraries and Repositories. And RedCLARA has recently started cooperation with COAR.
"RedCLARA promotes in Latin America the following open access initivatives with participation of Brazil:
- the Latin America Network of Institutional Repositories National Systems (Red Federada Latinoamericana de Repositorios Institucionales de Documentación Científica), where Ibict is a member;
- the Latin American Network of Institutional Repositories, where Ibict and SIBI/USP are members;
- and the Latin America Community of Digital Libraries and Repositories CoLaBoRa, where the University of Sao Paulo, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, and the State University of Campinas are members."
COLABORA is the Latin America Community of Digital Libraries and Repositories. To address the need of collaboration among digital libraries and repositories from Latin America, and increase the visibility and presence of Latin American authors and institutions in the global academic community, COLABORA started activities in 2009 as a colaborative community of researchers/practitioners from digital libraries and repositories of the region. COLABORA working groups are integrated by 56 researchers/practitioners working in digital repositories of 30 institutions in 10 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, México, Nicaragua, Peru and Venezuela).
The working groups are four:
- Definition of issues that need agreement for regional integration of repositories
- Identification of main initiatives in the region.
- Working policies and management plan for the community
- COLABORA webpage
Colabora community at Open Access week 2010 > Brazilian Presentation on IR > UFRS > Lume IR > production under a CC-by-nc-sa
COLABORA receives support from CLARA- Cooperación Latino Americana de Redes Avanzadas (Latin American Cooperation of Advanced Networks), which is a collaboration system of advanced telecommunication networks in support of research, innovation and education. In May 2011, COAR (Confederation of Open Access Repositories, an international association of repository initiatives), has signed a memorandum of understanding with COLABORA and CLARA committed to establishing a regional branch of COAR in Latin America, coordinated by COLABORA. For this purpose, COLABORA will continue its activities in collaboration with the Iberoamerican Network of Digital Libraries and Repositories (Red Iberoamericana de Bibliotecas y Repositorios Digitales), created in May 2011.
Brazil Science Blogs
Network of Collaboration Between Europe & Latin American-Caribbean (NECOBELAC)
- Ended in July 2012 - materials and reports available
- NECOBELAC is a European project (2009–2012) working to improve the production and dissemination of scientific information in public health, coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), Italy, and funded under the 7th Framework Program of the European Commission (Capacities – Science in Society). NECOBELAC stands for a Network of Collaboration Between Europe and Latin American-Caribbean Countries. The NECOBELAC project aims to establish a network of collaboration between European countries (EU) and countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and spread knowledge on the methods of scientific writing and publishing and on appropriate tools for the open access dissemination of information for the protection of public health. In this context, the project aims to develop a cultural change for two-way exchange (EU-LAC/LAC-EU) of health information involving all stakeholders in the dissemination of scientific information in public health (researchers, publishers, librarians, policy makers, etc.) The project activity is realized through training courses, workshops and conferences, raising awareness on the importance of scientific writing and Open Access publishing, by providing specific training content and by developing a network of EU-LAC experts and professionals collaborating to reach the project objectives.
Open Access Advocacy in Brazil
Interview answered so far
- Abel Packer - SCIELO
- Helio Kuramoto - IBiCT
- Sueli Mara - USP
- Abdo - USP and OKFBr and Free Software Foundation Br
- Fernando Cesar Lima Leite - UnB
- Sely Costa - UnB
- Ewout ter Haar - USP
- Everton Zanella - OKFBr
OA Manifests and Declarations in Brazil
- May 21, 2004. Participants at the 2nd Simposio Internaciaonal Bibliotecas Digitais (II SIBD or International Digital Libraries Symposium) in Campinas, Brazil, on May 21, 2004 issued a statement in support of open access.
- Salvador Declaration - http://www.icml9.org/channel.php?lang=pt&channel=86&content=428
- September 23, 2005> Brazil opened its doors to an important international symposium – the International Seminar on Open Access, a parallel event to the 9o Mundial Congress on Information in Health and Libraries and the 7o Regional Congress on Information in Health Science – where the Salvador Declaration was born. Participants issued two declarations on access to knowledge. The first, The Declaration of Salvador - Commitment to Equity, asks governments to promote equitable and open access. The second, The Salvador Declaration on Open Access: The Developing World Perspective, asks governments to require open access to publicly-funded research. The Salvador Declaration was the first major statement on Open Access specific to the developing world.
- Declaração de apoio ao acesso aberto à literatura científica - "Carta de São Paulo" - http://www.acessoaberto.org/carta_de_sao_paulo_acesso_aberto.htm
- follow-up with signatories
- September 2005, IBICT launches the Manifesto Brasileiro de apoio ao Acesso Livre à Informação Científica.
- March 31, 2006. The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (Curtiba, Brazil, March 20-31, 2006) adopted a statement endorsing open access for biodiversity data.
- 2005 > http://www.acessoaberto.org/
- October 17, 2007. Six Brazilian university rectors met at the University of Brasilia to launch a campaign across Brazil and other Portuguese-speaking countries to persuade research institutions to adopt strong, local OA policies. However, the Open Access Task Force was launched, but never implemented
- 2008 > Acesso Aberto USP launches community support letter, with more than 2300 signatures from the USP academic community
Supporting Policies and Laws
Macro Public Policy at Federal Level > Executive
Fazer parte do Plano Diretor de Tecnologia de Informação e Comunicação (Estratégia Geral de TI do Setor Público Federal – EGTI estabelecida pela Portaria no 11 de 30/12/2008 pelo MPOG
Macro Public Policy from Federal Level > Legislative
- House of Representatives Bill n. 1120/2007: May 23, 2007. A bill was introduced in the Brazilian Parliament to mandate that public universities mandate OA to their research output. At the samem time, Brazilian OA advocates began circulating a petition to support the bill. May 23, 2007. A bill was introduced in the Brazilian Parliament to mandate that public universities mandate OA to their research output. At the samem time, Brazilian OA advocates began circulating a petition to support the bill.
- "In Brazil, the mandate to archive may be solved at one stroke of the pen with a national law. As documented by the excellent blog managed by Hélio Kuramoto from IBICT46, the law 1120/2007 is being discussed in the House of Representatives in Brasilia. This draft requires all universities and research centres that they set up a suitable repository for the archiving of research articles, and then to require of all researchers to deposit their papers in the appropriate archive(...)This is how the draft law is presented at http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/fullinfo.php?inst=Brazil%2C%20House%20of%20Representatives." (Guedon, 2009)
- CURRENT STATUS OF THE BILL: ARCHIVED
- Senate Bill nº 387, de 2011 - Dispõe sobre o Processo de Registro e Disseminação da Produção Técnico-científica pelas Instituições de Educação Superior, bem como as Unidades de Pesquisa no Brasil e dá Outras Providências. [Mar. 2011].
- Comments Ale Abdo on OA Policies**
- Brazil Proposed Multi-Institutional Mandate - Brazil, House of Representatives - http://opendepot.org/
- Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG - http://repositorio.furg.br/
- Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS - http://www.lume.ufrgs.br
- Universidade de São Paulo - USP- http://www.teses.usp.br
- Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca/Fiocruz - http://www.ensp.fiocruz.br/repositorio
- University of São Paulo- http://www.producao.usp.br
- Universidade Federal de Lavras, UFLA - http://repositorio.ufla.br/
Projeto de Lei 1.513/2011 do Deputado Paulo Teixeira : "As compras, as subvenções públicas, parciais ou integrais, ou contratações de servicos para desenvolvimento de recursos educacionais realizadas pela Administração com base na Lei 8.666/1993, deverão prever a compra das unidades e dos direitos autorais relativos a tais obras para que a Administração possa disponibilizá-los a sociedade sob licenças livres (artigo 3º, PL 1.513/2011)."
"Artigo 206 - Constituem patrimônio cultural brasileiro os bens de natureza material e imaterial, tomados individualmente ou em conjunto, portadores de referência à identidade, à ação, à memória dos diferentes grupos formadores da sociedade brasileira, nos quais se incluem: I -as formas de expressão; II -os modos de criar, fazer e viver; III -as criações científicas, artísticas e tecnológicas; IV - as obras, objetos, documentos, edificações e demais espaços destinados às manifestações artístico culturais; V -os conjuntos urbanos e sítios de valor histórico, paisagístico, artístico, arqueológico, paleontológico, ecológico e científico (CONSTITUIÇÃO DA REPÚBLICA FEDERATIVA DO BRASIL, 1988)."
- 132 Brazilian repositories are registered in ROAR and in 67 repositories are registered in OpenDOAR, mainly university initiatives with strong presence of theses collections and also journal articles, conference papers, teaching materials, theses and dissertations, technical reports and other publications.
- Metadata and copyright policies vary immensely. Not every element allows download of the complete object. Project of digitalization , such as at UNESP, allow public access, copy, printing, etc, without express policy. While other such as EMBRAPA clearly states "free (gratis) access"
The Brazilian Institute of Information in Science and Technology (Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnología, Ibict) has developed, based on open source OJS technology, the System for Electronic Journal Edition (Sistema Eletrônico de Editoração de Revistas-SEER and INSEER) and today 1.350 journals from Brazil are incorporated and received training and support from SEER to improve quality, visibility and open access to those journals. Ibict is also developing Oasis.br, the Brazilian Open Access Scientific Information System which will provide integrated access to both, open access repositories and open access journals from Brazil. Provides training: http://seer.ibict.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=245&Itemid=141 (opportunity - classes on OA)
The Portal Brasileiro Open Access to Information Scientific - oasisbr is a multidisciplinary search mechanism that allows free (gratis) access to scientific production of authors linked to universities and research institutes in Brazil. Through oasis.br it is also possible to search sources from Portugal. From a single interface, the engine aims to allow simultaneous searches in scientific journals, institutional repositories, repositories themed digital libraries of theses and dissertations and other sources of information on scientific and technological or academically oriented. The available contents are responsibility of these institutions. The portal was developed bu IBICT with support from Financier of Studies and Projects - FINEP.
- The Diadorim is an information service on authorizations for storage and access of Brazilian journal articles in free access digital repositories. It is part of the set of open access services of the Brazilian Institute of Information in Science and Technology. The information disclosed herein is collected directly from the editors of Brazilian scientific journals. One of its goals is to constitute a source of consultation for authors and repository managers so they do not breach publishing contracts.
- Diadorim uses color codes regarding the permisions for deposit:
- Green: deposit of full text in both pre and post-print
- Blue: deposit of full text of only post-print
- Yellow: deposit of full text of only pre-print
- White: do not allow deposit
- See examples of Journals and its deposit policies
Open Data in Brazil
Recommendations for SPARC regarding Open Access in Brazil
- Under development
"In Brazil, however, the problem is less about access to journals than it is about attitudes toward research. Quoting Abel Packer, program coordinator for Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), 'About 80 per cent of Latin American journals are open access, [and] the number of scientific articles downloaded is increasing daily.'" (Peter Suber at https://plus.google.com/109377556796183035206/posts/KfqQcREXBfk)
- This may include information on OA on other Portuguese speaking countries due to the high collaborations levels between OA advocates in Portugal, Angola and Brazil
- This can be later expanded into something like: http://www.openaire.eu/fr/open-access/country-information, with country fact sheets
- E. g. Work of Paula on http://www.necobelac.eu/ (suggested by Alma Swan)
- Identify and asses material already developed that can use or translated
- Suggest curriculum for ongoing trainings (e. g. SEER)
Clarify and provide training regarding OA and Licensing
There is confusion about copyright issues and open access, it needs clarification and support for decision-making and policies. Creative Commons CC, working together with partners in 11 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, promotes the use of open access licenses. of open access academic publications in Latin America do not establish open access editorial policies that regulate the use of the open access content and provide a legal framework for use of the publications, leaving interpretations to the default legislation in each country. See: Políticas Editoriales de Publicaciones Académicas en Línea en Latinoamérica, by Derechos Digitales and Fundaccion Karisma
I. Self-Archiving: First, scholars need the tools and assistance to deposit their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives, a practice commonly called, self-archiving. When these archives conform to standards created by the Open Archives Initiative, then search engines and other tools can treat the separate archives as one. Users then need not know which archives exist or where they are located in order to find and make use of their contents. http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/harnad/Tp/nature4.htm
II. Open-access Journals: Second, scholars need the means to launch a new generation of journals committed to open access, and to help existing journals that elect to make the transition to open access. Because journal articles should be disseminated as widely as possible, these new journals will no longer invoke copyright to restrict access to and use of the material they publish. Instead they will use copyright and other tools to ensure permanent open access to all the articles they publish. Because price is a barrier to access, these new journals will not charge subscription or access fees, and will turn to other methods for covering their expenses. There are many alternative sources of funds for this purpose, including the foundations and governments that fund research, the universities and laboratories that employ researchers, endowments set up by discipline or institution, friends of the cause of open access, profits from the sale of add-ons to the basic texts, funds freed up by the demise or cancellation of journals charging traditional subscription or access fees, or even contributions from the researchers themselves. There is no need to favor one of these solutions over the others for all disciplines or nations, and no need to stop looking for other, creative alternatives. http://www.doaj.org/
Open Access in Argentina
Supporting Policies and Laws
Open Access in Colombia
Supporting Policies and Laws
Bibliography and Other Resources on Colombia
General Bibliography and Other Resources
- Creative Commons and the Openness of Open Access. By Michael W. Carroll, J.D. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:789-791, February 28, 2013 Available at http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1300040
- File:Creative Commons and the Openness of Open Access. By Michael W. Carroll, J.D. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:789-791- February 28, 2013.|thumbnail
- The Inter-American Court of Human Rights decisions have, since the 1980’s, highlighted that the access to information and knowledge is an pre-condition to the existence of a free society, asserting that 'a society that is not well informed is not completely free'. The Court also asserts that the right to information presents an individual and collective dimension and in an opinion from 1985 concluded: 'This language establishes that those to whom the Convention applies not only have the right and freedom to express their own thoughts but also the right and freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds. Hence, when an individual's freedom of expression is unlawfully restricted, it is not only the right of that individual that is being violated, but also the right of all others to "receive" information and ideas. The right protected by Article 13 consequently has a special scope and character, which are evidenced by the dual aspect of freedom of expression. It requires, on the one hand, that no one be arbitrarily limited or impeded in expressing his own thoughts. In that sense, it is a right that belongs to each individual. Its second aspect, on the other hand, implies a collective right to receive any information whatsoever and to have access to the thoughts expressed by others. Consequently, knowledge is essential to the exercises of both sets of human rights: social-economic-cultural and civil-political. Since these sets are indivisible, the full exercise of one group is condition for the full exercise of the other, and vice versa.'
- Brazilian Open Access Initiatives: Key Strategies and Actions by Sely M S Costa and Fernando C L Leite. Proceedings ELPUB 2008 Conference on Electronic Publishing. Available at http://eprints.rclis.org/11774/1/288_elpub2008.content.pdf
- SciELO and Scientific Publishing in Latin America Science Editor - January – February 2007-Vol 30-No 1-5 . Available at: http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/files/scienceeditor/v30n1p005.pdf
- Press release: Thomson Reuters Spotlights Emerging Research Centers With The Addition Of Scielo Database To Web Of Knowledge. (July, 25 2012) Accessed on February, 2013. Available at http://thomsonreuters.com/content/press_room/science/696739
- "Creative Commons licenses are directly integrated into institutional repository software platforms like DSpace and ePrints. The Scholars’ Copyright Project offers diversity of contents, and the Scholar’s Copyright Addendum Engine helps faculty members upload their research for public use while retaining the rights they want to keep. CC has created policy briefings and guidelines to help institutions implement open access into their frameworks. CC affiliates in Latin America and the Caribbean are responsible for translation and promotion of these opportunities." http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/portals-and-platforms/goap/access-by-region/latin-america-and-the-caribbean/