Motivation and emotion/Tutorials/Individual emotions

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Tutorial 5: Individual emotions

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This is the fifth tutorial for the motivation and emotion unit of study.

Overview[edit | edit source]

This tutorial is about individual emotions and time perspective.

Individual emotions[edit | edit source]

Table 1.
20 Individual Emotions in 3 Categories (based on Reeve, 2018)

  1. Handout: 20 Individual Emotions Matching Exercise[1]
  2. What are the three categories of emotion? (see Slide 3 of Lecture 09)
    1. Basic (7)
    2. Self-conscious (5)
    3. Cognitively complex (8)
  3. What is the difference between shame and guilt?
    1. Guilt focuses on behaviour; shame focuses on self
    2. Guilt is private; shame is public
  4. What are the two types of envy?
    1. Benign envy focuses on self-improvement
    2. Malicious envy focuses on undermining another
  5. What are the different causes and consequences of disappointment and regret?
    1. Disappointment involves not perceiving that one's behaviour could have been different
    2. Regret involves perceiving that one's behaviour could have been different and is stronger
  6. What are the two aspects of pride?
    1. Authentic (based on actual achievements)
    2. Narcissistic (based on a desire to be better/more dominant than others)
  7. What is the difference between empathy and compassion?
    1. Empathy mirrors the feelings of another
    2. Compassion involves action to help another
  8. What are the two aspects of gratitude?
    1. If the receiver focuses on what was received (e.g., $50), then the receiver may feel indebted to repay, leading to an exchange-based relationship
    2. If the receiver focuses on the giver (e.g., a friend), then the receiver may feel cared for and loved, leading to a communal relationship
  9. What is the opposite of hope?
    1. Fear

Time perspective - ZTPI[edit | edit source]

  • Self-test online: Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (56/61 items).
    • Note that the display of the graph at the end does not work
  • Compare your scores with the:
    • Norms:
      • Past Negative (M = 3.00)
      • Past Positive (M = 3.22)
      • Present Fatalism (M = 3.22)
      • Present Hedonism (M = 2.33)
      • Future (M = 3.69)
      • Transcendental Future
    • 'Optimal' profile
      • High Past Positive (like your past)
      • Moderate Present Hedonism (choose when to select pleasure in the present) [2]
      • Moderately high Future orientation (work for the future)
    • The worst time-perspective profile includes:
      • High Past Negative
      • High Present Fatalism
      • "These people are living in a negative past and think nothing they do can change it."[3]
  • Watch and discuss video: Philip Zimbardo prescribes a healthy take on time (Philip Zimbardo, 6:31 min, TED talk, 2009)
  • Zimbardo's two books on this topic are:

Readings[edit | edit source]

Book chapter development[edit | edit source]

  • Peer reviewing / Social contributions
  • Interactive features
  • Wiki-blitz based on outstanding questions about the chapters
  • Author guidelines


See also

References[edit | edit source]

Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Coop. Amazon. Google Books. Companion site. UC Library. ISBN: Paperback 978-1-118-51779-6, E-text 978-1-118-80456-8.

Zimbardo, P. G. & Boyd, J. N. (2009). The time paradox: Using the new psychology of time to your advantage. New York, NY: Free Press.