Motivation and emotion/Tutorials/Emotion

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Tutorial 04: Emotion

Wikiversity.logo.svg Resource type: this resource contains a tutorial or tutorial notes.

This is the fourth tutorial for the Motivation and emotion unit of study.

Core emotion sort[edit]

Emotion sort exercise under way...
Words which refer to aspects of "sad" emotions.

The goal of this exercise is to experientially organise emotion-related words into models which depict underlying families of emotional experience.

  1. Face-to-face
    1. Hand-out the (per small group)
    2. Cut up the list of emotion words - need scissors and lots of table space
    3. Sort the emotion words:
      1. select those which represent emotions and sort them into their core emotion families - try not to be restricted or overly-guided by previous theory - go with what seems to make sense.
      2. discard those which do not represent core emotion families
    4. Label each emotion family
    5. Share and discuss each groups' model with the rest of the class
  2. Virtual
    1. Go to the online list of emotion words
    2. As a group, work through each emotion word, classifying as either:
      1. A member of a core emotion family
      2. A non-emotion word
    3. After the initial classification, sort and review the words by emotion family
    4. Discuss the results
Core emotion criteria

To qualify as a core emotion, consider whether the word represents an affective state which is (Reeve, 2009, p. 312):

  1. Innate (i.e., evident from birth)?
  2. Triggered by same circumstances each time? (i.e., has a specific causal trigger)?
  3. Expressed uniquely and distinctively? (e.g., unique facial expression)
  4. Predictable physiological response? (e.g., effect on heart-rate)

Psychological qualities which do not quality as emotions may instead be better considered as: (Reeve, 2009, p. 336)

  1. Attitudes
  2. Behaviours
  3. Disorders
  4. Moods (Reeve, 2009, p. 322)
  5. Personality traits
Emotion knowledge

This core emotion sort exercise is also designed to expand "emotion knowledge", which is the "number of different emotions any one person can distinguish" (e.g., the various shades of anger, including fury, hostility etc.) (Reeve, 2009, p. 352) and is part of emotional literacy and emotional intelligence.

Part of the challenge in improving emotion knowledge is to expand one's linguistic taxonomy about our emotional repertoire, including the detail and nuance of our emotional variability. Reeve (2009, p. 353) suggests that "the finer and more sophisticated one's emotion knowledge is, the greater his or her capacity to respond to each life event with a specialised and highly appropriate reaction".

Foreign language emotion words

There are many non-English words for emotional states that are not well described in English e.g.,:


Wikipedia-logo.png Search for Positive and Negative Affect Schedule on Wikipedia.
  1. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)
  2. Complete and score the 20-item PANAS:
    1. Hard-copy handout
    2. Online version (PsyToolkit)
  3. Compare Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA) scores with SMU undergraduate norms
  4. Discuss:
    1. Versions
      1. Temporal framing
      2. Short vs. long (PANAS-X)
    2. Psychometrics
      1. Correlation between PA and NA
      2. Test-retest reliability
  5. See also: Affect measures (Wikipedia)

Book chapter development[edit]

  • Live demo (ask for a volunteer chapter).


Figure X. An example image with an APA style caption.
    1. Search commons:Wiki commons for an image e.g., commons:Category:Emotions
    2. Edit a Wikiversity page and add an image using the Visual Editor, including captioning, positioning and sizing of the image
    3. Repeat for a second image
    4. Show Google Advanced Image Search with License filtering to identify free to use images and demo upload such an image to Wiki Commons and embed in a page


  1. Easiest to use the visual editor
  2. Tables


  1. Quizzes
  2. Pretty boxes


See also

External links