Time perspective theory is the idea that our perceptions of time influence our emotions, perceptions, and actions.
Most time perspective models break down our time perspectives into chronological categories such as:
Zimbardo's approach further breaks these time perspectives down into five perspectives:
Carelli et al. (2011) argued for a 6-factor model which splits Future into:
In addition, Zimbardo proposes a separate Transcendental time perspective which relates to looking beyond one's individual lifetime.
Future time perspective
The original Zimbardo TP model suggested five factors, including a single future time perspective factor.
Carelli et al (2011) argued that the future time perspective be split into:
The results appear to be mixed for Carelli's TP model.
An alternative, three-factor future TP model is described and tested by Rohr, John, Fung, and Lang (2017):
- Opportunity - Perception about positive opportunities available in future time remaining
- Extension - Perception about amount of time in life remaining
- Constraint - Perception about barriers and constraints during time remaining
These three components are correlated, and future TP can also be treated a single, overall factor, or as separate components.
- Time management
- Time perception (Wikipedia)
- Time perspective - ZTPI (Motivation and emotion tutorial)
- Time perspective and emotion: How does time perspective affect emotion? (Book chapter, 2013)
- Time perspective and happiness: What is the relationship between time perspective and happiness? (Book chapter, 2016)
Some peer-reviewed literature and books about the psychology of time perspective:
Orosz, G., Dombi, E., Tóth-Király, I., & Roland-Lévy. The less is more: The 17-Item Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Current Psychology, 36, 39–47. doi:10.1007/s12144-015-9382-2
Rohr, M., John, D., Fung, H., & Lang, F. (2017). A three-component model of future time perspective across adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 32(7), 597–607. https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000191
Zhang, J. W., Howell, R. T., & Bowerman, T. (2013). Validating a brief measure of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Time & Society, 22, 391-409.
Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271-1288.
Zimbardo, P. G. & Boyd, J. N. (2009). The time paradox: Using the new psychology of time to your advantage. New York, NY: Free Press.
Zimbardo, P. G., Sword, R., Sword, S. (2012). The time cure: Overcoming PTSD with the new psychology of Time Perspective Therapy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
- The time paradox: The new psychology of time that will change your life (thetimeparadox.com)
- Time Perspective Theory (simpleeconomist)
- What's your time perspective (psychcentral)