Time perspective

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Time perspective theory is the idea that our perceptions of time influence our emotions, perceptions, and actions.

Most time perspective models break down our time perspectives into chronological categories such as:

  1. Past
  2. Present
  3. Future

Zimbardo's approach further breaks these time perspectives down into five perspectives:

  1. Past
    1. Past-Positive
    2. Past-Negative
  2. Present
    1. Present-Hedonistic
    2. Present-Fatalistic
  3. Future

Carelli et al. (2011) argued for a 6-factor model which splits Future into:

  1. Future-Positive
  2. Future-Negative

In addition, Zimbardo proposes a separate Transcendental time perspective which relates to looking beyond one's individual lifetime.

Figure 1. 6-factor model of the ZTPI

See also[edit]


Some peer-reviewed literature and books about the psychology of time perspective:

Košťál, J., Klicperová-Baker, M., Lukavská, K., & Lukavský, J. (2015). Short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI–short) with and without the Future-Negative scale, verified on nationally representative samples. Time & Society, 25, 169-192.

Orosz, G., Dombi, E., Tóth-Király, I., & Roland-Lévy. The less is more: The 17-Item Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Current Psychology, 36, 39–47. doi:10.1007/s12144-015-9382-2

Zhang, J. W., Howell, R. T., & Bowerman, T. (2013). Validating a brief measure of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Time & Society, 22, 391-409.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271-1288.

Zimbardo, P. G. & Boyd, J. N. (2009). The time paradox: Using the new psychology of time to your advantage. New York, NY: Free Press.

Zimbardo, P. G., Sword, R., Sword, S. (2012). The time cure: Overcoming PTSD with the new psychology of Time Perspective Therapy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

External links[edit]