Motivation and emotion/Book/2021/Antidepressants and motivation

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Antidepressants and motivation:
What are the effects of popular antidepressants on motivation?

Overview[edit | edit source]

Figure 1. Antidepressant medication in several forms of oral pills

Motivation is that process that makes organisms act the way they towards any goal, a process which guides these goal-orientated behaviour is known as motivation (Cherry, 2020). Over the years of research, the causes of motivation within an individual is often seen as a fluctuating element of a person's life, with instances and situations in life causing high and low motivation, seen through actions, behaviours and moods. With regard to this, motivation is driven by many factors within an individual's life, to list a few, this includes instincts, needs and arousal behaviours. Several downfalls in the motivation of an individual in linked to psychological disorders or mental illnesses that may arise within a human's lifespan, potentially impacting the way they go about their daily tasks. Generally, theories of motivation mainly include the classification of motivation into two categories, being either intrinsic or extrinsic (Sands, 2020). Extrinsic motivation is referred to the external factors that influence our goal-seeking behaviours, that more often include some section of rewards. On the contrary, intrinsic motivation refers to internal factors to describe such behaviours, essentially, a factor which influences behaviour from within an individual, i.e. personal gratification, etc. Often a lack in these factors are useful for providing reasoning towards mental illnesses and such related indications if one does not seem to present these factors of motivation.

Moreover, psychologists have classified the specific term for a lack of motivation as 'Avolition' (Purse, 2020). Avolition is defined as a lack of motivation or reduced drive to complete goal-directed activities. The term is widely known as a negative symptom of many psychological disorders and presentably causes decrease or loss in mental functioning and can interfere with daily functioning, including maintaining a job, relationship, or social life. However, it should be clearly noted that Avolition is not a clear and indefinite sign of a mental disorder, it is rather a symptom that arises when associated with mental disorders.

Antidepressants are known as drugs or medication which have the ability to chemically relieve symptoms of depression, social anxiety disorder, anxiety disorders and other such mental disorders. The function of these chemical compounds is to maintain and resolve the chemical imbalance in the neurotransmitters in the brain which are essential the causes of negative moods and behaviours. Generally, antidepressants are categorised into five main groups; Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) and Noradrenaline and specific serotoninergic antidepressants (NASSA) (Legg, 2018).

Focus questions:

  • How do antidepressants work?
  • What impacts do antidepressants have on humans overall?
  • Which aspects of motivation do antidepressants impact?

The relationship between motivation and antidepressants[edit | edit source]

Serotonin, one of the synthetic "couriers," or synapses, in the mind, is utilised by neurons to speak with one another. It assumes a significant part in the guideline of rest, development and different practices that are fundamental for creature endurance. However, for inspiration specifically, it was muddled whether serotonin was involved. Serotonin-delivering neurons are situated in a space of the brainstem (the most "crude" part of the mind in developmental terms) called the raphe cores. Since these neurons project their axons to various mind areas, serotonin acts generally across the cerebrum. In the wake of being delivered by the neurons in the raphe nuclei, those equivalent neurons reabsorb overabundance serotonin. Since low serotonin levels in the cerebrum are related with discouragement, drugs called specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), including Prozac, increment serotonin levels in the mind by forestalling take-up of overabundance serotonin, and are utilised to treat burdensome manifestations. Nonetheless, it is indistinct how the overabundance serotonin acts organically to reduce those manifestations.

Motivation[edit | edit source]

Figure 2. Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs[edit | edit source]

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in brain research involving a five-level model of human requirements, frequently portrayed as progressive levels inside a pyramid. From the lower part of the chain of command upwards, the necessities are: physiological (food and dress), wellbeing (employer stability), love and having a place needs (companionship), regard, and realisation. Needs further down in the chain of command should be fulfilled before people can go to needs higher up. Maslow (1943) at first expressed that people should fulfils lower level shortfall needs prior to advancing on to meet more elevated level development needs. Notwithstanding, he later explained that fulfilment of a need is definitely not an "all-or-none" wonder, conceding that his prior assertions might have given “the false impression that a need must be satisfied 100 percent before the next need emerges” (1987, p. 69). Each individual is able and wants to climb the pecking order toward a degree of self-realisation. Tragically, progress is frequently disturbed by an inability to meet lower level requirements. Educational encounters, including separation and cutback of an employment, may make an individual change between levels of the chain of importance. Subsequently, not every person will travel through the pecking order in a uni-directional way however may move to and fro between the various kinds of requirements. Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow in this way stretched out the plan to incorporate his perceptions of people's intrinsic interest.

His order of requirements is a persuasive hypothesis involving a five-level model of human necessities, regularly displayed as progressive levels inside a pyramid. From the lower part of the order upwards, the requirements are: physiological, security, love and having a place, regard and self-completion.

Case Study

Within a study that explored the application of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs of individual people conducted by Shahrawat et al. (2017). Through this examination, it was tracked down that the characters could be orchestrated along a continuum of human working. The singular characters are shown changing requirements going from self-completion to indications of metapathology. This dynamic of human conduct towards various and changing finishes can be an expected wellspring of more up to date experiences assisting the reason for human turn of events and advancement. Some have contended that the need progressive system might unfurl over a long period (Wahba & Bridwell, 1976; Deci, 1975). Taking cues from them, this paper looked to concentrate on the predominant requirements at which the over four recorded characters worked as far as Maslow's Hierarchy. Additionally, Maslow (1954) propounded the idea of "comprehensive quality" wherein he accepted that the arrangement of requirements should be examined in general as opposed to as individual necessities autonomously.

Locke’s goal-setting theory[edit | edit source]

Locke's investigation into objective setting and inspiration gave us our cutting edge comprehension of objective setting. In his 1968 article "Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives," he showed that unmistakable objectives and suitable criticism propel workers. He proceeded to feature that running after an objective is likewise a significant wellspring of inspiration – which, thus, further develops execution. Goal setting theory has certain eventualities such as: self-efficiency and goal commitment. Self-productivity is simply the singular's certainty and confidence that he has the capability of playing out the errand. Higher the degree of self-productivity, more prominent will be the endeavours placed in by the person when they face testing undertakings. While bringing down the degree of self-productivity, less will be the endeavours placed in by the individual or he may even stop while meeting difficulties. The objective setting hypothesis expects that the individual is focused on the objective and won't leave the objective. The objective responsibility is subject to the accompanying components:

  • Objectives are made open, known and communicated.
  • Objectives ought to be set-self by people as opposed to assigned.
  • People's defined objectives ought to be steady with the hierarchical objectives and vision.

As one example, J. K. Rowling has a great inspirational quote. After all, she drafted Harry Potter on the back of a napkin in a cafe in Edinburgh. She believes that:

everything is possible if you’ve got enough nerve.

In 90% of the cases, perusing a persuasive statement and promising yourself to work more enthusiastically, change either propensity or work on a part of your life ensures disappointment. Why would that be? Assuming laying out objectives and succeeding is important for what makes 'human,' how would we address this fall flat inclined inclination? It makes a difference, to accomplish your objectives, as pursuing significant objectives gives us an internal compass, reason, and which means throughout everyday life.

Figure 3. Motivation Diagram

Self-Regulation Model[edit | edit source]

The Self Regulation Model diagrams how disease brings about intellectual and passionate reactions (together 'sickness insights') which thusly decide to adopt conduct. Sickness insights and adapting impact result operationalised in for instance visiting a clinical specialist, taking prescriptions, 'personal satisfaction', or self-administration abilities. Endeavours to impact discernments and subsequently result ought to, accordingly, target supplanting maladaptive disease insights and adapting practices by valuable, versatile sickness insights and adapting. As a broadly concentrated on hypothesis, SRT was additionally extraordinarily affected by the notable social clinician Roy Baumeister. He portrayed the capacity to self-control as restricted in limit and through this, he begat the term personality exhaustion. The four parts of the self-guideline hypothesis portrayed by Roy Baumeister are principles of advantageous conduct, inspiration to satisfy guidelines, observing circumstances and musings that go before breaking norms and determination, or the inward solidarity to control desires. In Baumeister's paper named Self-Regulation Failure: An Overview, he communicates that self-guideline is mind-boggling and multi-layered. Baumeister spreads out his "three fixings" of self-guideline as a case for self-guideline disappointment.

Research

Many examinations have been done to test various factors with respect to self-guideline. Albert Bandura concentrated on self-guideline previously, after and during the reaction. He made the triangle of equal determinism that incorporates conduct, climate and the individual (intellectual, passionate and actual components) that all impact each other. Bandura reasoned that the cycles of objective achievement and inspiration come from an equivalent communication of self-perception, self-response, self-assessment and self-viability.

Deci and Ryan's Taxonomy of motivation[edit | edit source]

In Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, 1985) we recognise between various kinds of inspiration dependent on the various reasons or objectives that bring about an activity. The most fundamental differentiation is between characteristic inspiration, which alludes to accomplishing something since it is intrinsically intriguing or charming, and outward inspiration, which alludes to doing something since it prompts a distinguishable result. More than thirty years of exploration has shown that the nature of involvement and execution can be altogether different when one is acting for inherent versus extraneous reasons. One reason for this audit is to return to this exemplary qualification among characteristic and outward inspiration and to sum up the useful contrasts of these two general kinds of inspiration. Inherent inspiration has arisen as a significant marvels for instructors—a characteristic wellspring of learning and accomplishment that can be efficiently catalysed or subverted by parent and educator rehearses (Ryan and Stiller, 1991). Since inborn inspiration brings about excellent learning what's more, imagination, detail the elements and powers that incite versus sabotage it. Nonetheless, similarly significant in the current audit is the explanation of the totally different kinds of inspiration that fall into the classification of outward inspiration. In the exemplary writing, extraneous inspiration has regularly been portrayed as a pale and devastated (regardless of whether amazing) type of inspiration that differentiations with characteristic inspiration (deCharms, 1968). Notwithstanding, SDT recommends that there are shifted sorts of outward inspiration, a few of which do, to be sure, address ruined types of inspiration and a few of which address dynamic states.

Antidepressants[edit | edit source]

Figure 4. Chemical compound form of 12B antidepressant synthesized by Maryanoff et al. (1987)

Chemical components of antidepressants[edit | edit source]

The nerve cells in our mind utilise different synthetics to pass on signals. Despite the fact that not all subtleties are known, specialists accept that downturn is brought about by an irregularity of specific compound couriers (synapses) like serotonin, which implies that signs can't be passed along the nerves appropriately. Antidepressants mean to expand the accessibility of these synthetic substances. Depression results from a deficiency of norepinephrine at receptors in the brain. Mechanisms that increase their effective concentration at the receptor sites should alleviate depression. The antidepressant drugs act by one or more of the following stimulation type mechanisms:

  1. Increase release of norepinephrine: Amphetamines and electroconvulsive therapy act by this mechanism. Amphetamines mimic norepinephre
  2. Prevent the re uptake of norepinephrine:The action of norepinephrine at the receptor site is terminated by the re uptake of norepinephrine by the neuron from which it was originally released.
  3. Prevent inactivation of norepinephrine:Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are thought to act as antidepressant agents in part by preventing the breakdown and inactivation of norepinephrine.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) causes the oxidative deamination of norepinephrine, serotonin, and different amines. This oxidation is the strategy for decreasing the grouping of the synapse after it has conveyed the message at the receptor site. A medication which hinders this protein builds the convergence of the norepinephrine which thus causes an incitement impact. As of recent research, specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been presented for the treatment of misery. Prozac is the most renowned medication in this class. Clomiprimine, fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline and paroxetine specifically block the re take-up of serotonin, accordingly expanding the degrees of serotonin in the focal sensory system. Note the likenesses and contrasts between the tricyclic antidepressants and the specific serotonin re take-up inhibitors. Clomipramine has been helpful in the treatment of fanatical enthusiastic problems.

Treatment[edit | edit source]

Antidepressants are typically taken every day. The objective in the initial not many months is to diminish the side effects and, where conceivable, make the downturn disappear. Whenever that has been accomplished, the treatment proceeds for somewhere around four to nine months. This continuation treatment is important to prevent the side effects from returning. The medicine is some of the time taken for more to forestall backslides. The length of treatment additionally relies upon how the indications keep on creating over the long run and regardless of whether the downturn is probably going to return. Certain individuals take antidepressants over numerous years. Have standard meetings with your PCP when taking antidepressants. There you can discuss whether the indications have improved and regardless of whether there are any incidental effects. The portion will be changed if important. In no way, shape or form should you lessen the portion or quit taking the drug all alone. That can make the tablets less viable, or they might cause more incidental effects. Towards the finish of the treatment, the portion is steadily diminished throughout a little while. You might encounter brief rest issues, queasiness or anxiety when falling off antidepressants. These indications are particularly probable in the event that you unexpectedly quit taking antidepressants. Once in a while individuals quit accepting their prescription when they begin feeling much improved, however that builds the danger of the downturn returning. In contrast to many resting pills and tranquillisers, antidepressants don't cause actual reliance or compulsion.

Why is drug administration of antidepressants an effective method and why are there criticisms of this method?[edit | edit source]

Antidepressants are commonly used medication for treatments that aim to relieve the symptoms of severe depression, which include changing the chemical imbalance of the patient and changing symptoms such as feeling down and exhausted. Such strong medication purposely alters emotional stability and allows for an individual to follow a coherent routine, which can be achieved by the chemical stability that the antidepressants achieve. There are many medications for treating depression. However, it is hard to foresee how well a specific medicine will help a person. Along these lines, specialists regularly first recommend taking a medication that they consider to be compelling and generally all-around endured. In the event that it doesn't help as much true to form, it is feasible to change to an alternate prescription. Once in a while, various medications must be attempted before you observe one to be that works. Generally, antidepressants also work towards symptoms which include anxiety, sleep problems, restlessness and also sometimes work to prevent self-harming thoughts. Studies show that the advantage for the most part relies upon the seriousness of the downturn: The more extreme the downturn, the more noteworthy the advantages will be. All in all, antidepressants are successful against ongoing, moderate and extreme melancholy. They don't help in gentle discouragement. The different antidepressants have been thought about in many investigations. By and large, the generally utilised tricyclic antidepressants (SSRIs and SNRIs) were observed to be similarly compelling.

Uses of antidepressants and their effects on the human body[edit | edit source]

Types of antidepressants and their effects[edit | edit source]

Figure 5. Medication in the form of pills.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs):[edit | edit source]

SSRIs are the most broadly recommended sort of antidepressants. They're typically liked over different antidepressants, as they cause less incidental effects. An excess is likewise less inclined to be not kidding. Fluoxetine is presumably the most popular SSRI (sold under the brand name Prozac). Different SSRIs incorporate citalopram (Cipramil), paroxetine (Seroxat) and sertraline (Lustral).

Serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs):[edit | edit source]

SNRIs are like SSRIs. They were intended to be a more successful stimulant than SSRIs. Nonetheless, the proof that SNRIs are more compelling in treating discouragement is questionable. It appears to be that certain individuals react better to SSRIs, while others react better to SNRIs. Instances of SNRIs incorporate duloxetine (Cymbalta and Yentreve) and venlafaxine (Efexor).

Noradrenaline and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NASSAs):[edit | edit source]

NASSAs might be successful for certain individuals who can't take SSRIs. The symptoms of NASSAs are like those of SSRIs, however they're thought to cause less sexual issues. Notwithstanding, they may likewise cause more tiredness right away. Mirtazapine and mianserin are also called noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs).

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs):[edit | edit source]

TCAs are a more seasoned kind of upper. They are presently not generally suggested as the primary treatment for gloom since they can be more perilous if excess is taken. They likewise cause more undesirable incidental effects than SSRIs and SNRIs. Exemptions are once in a while made for individuals with extreme gloom that neglect to react to different medicines. TCAs may likewise be suggested for other psychological well-being conditions, like OCD and bipolar issue. Examples of TCAs incorporate amitriptyline (Tryptizol), clomipramine (Anafranil), imipramine (Tofranil), lofepramine (Gamanil) and nortriptyline (Allegron).

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs):[edit | edit source]

MAOIs are a more seasoned sort of stimulant that are once in a while utilizes these days. They can cause conceivably genuine incidental effects so ought to just be recommended by an expert specialist. Instances of MAOIs incorporate tranylcypromine, phenelzine and isocarboxazid. Progressively, individuals with moderate to serious sadness are dealt with utilising a mix of antidepressants and CBT. Antidepressants work rapidly in decreasing side effects, while CBT sets aside an effort to manage reasons for sorrow and methods of conquering it.

What do the chemicals do to impact the psychology of the body?[edit | edit source]

Due to changes in the activity level of various emotional signalling centres, the cerebrum turns out to be incredibly one-sided toward negative musings and sentiments and handily overpowered by them. The capacity to appreciate life disappears. Inspiration escapes with it. Actual development becomes troublesome. Rest is upset. It is a famously troublesome ailment to treat. The monoamine hypothesis of misery has for quite some time been powerful. It holds that downturn results from a shortfall of at least one synapse in the cerebrum. It connects the synapses to explicit gatherings of side effects. For instance, serotonin-subordinate signs influence rest, assimilation, mindset, and conduct guideline; norepinephrine drives the battle flight-freeze reaction; and dopamine has been connected to inspiration, development, and the limit with regards to delight. Notwithstanding, the thought that a substance lopsidedness in the cerebrum produces melancholy has offered an approach to more current thoughts that mirror a more prominent comprehension of how the mind functions.

Figure 6. Symptoms of antidepressants.

Side effects on the human body[edit | edit source]

Like all medications, antidepressants can have side effects. Some of the most common include:

  • Headache
  • Agitation
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Sleeplessness
  • Drowsiness
  • Reduced sex drive
  • Dry mouth
  • Weight gain

Quiz Time![edit | edit source]

1 Motivation can be identified and models using several theories:

True
False

2 Which one of these is not a type of antidepressant?:

SSRIs
TCAs
SNRIs
SSRs

3 Psychologists and Psychiatrists support antidepressants fully:

True
False
Sometimes
It depends on the context of prescription and the patient


How do antidepressants impact the motivation of an individual[edit | edit source]

Particular serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), ordinarily used to treat sadness, are related to loss of motivation, energy, and absence of interest frequently alluded on the whole as apathy. Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally viewed as first-line treatment for despondency. Their utilisation is liked over different specialists because of their somewhat good wellbeing profile and simplicity of organisation. Notwithstanding, diminished passionate reach, loss of motivation, loss of scholarly interest, all parts of the apathy disorder, have been accounted for as expected unfriendly impacts of these medications. The relationship of apathy with SSRI use is progressively being perceived to be a class impact, to be fast in beginning, reversible with stopping of SSRIs now and again and to be regardless old enough of the patients or the sign for the utilisation of SSRIs. Energiser meds are intended to change synthetic compounds (synapses) in the mind that influence mindset and feelings. At the point when one is experiencing the aggravation and torment of misery, that can seem like a straightforward and advantageous technique for help. Obviously, recall that regardless of what you might have heard—discouragement isn't just brought about by the equilibrium of synthetic compounds in the mind. Maybe, it's brought about by a complicated mix of natural, mental, and social elements, including way of life, connections, and adapting abilities that prescription can't address. Motivational manifestations like psychomotor impediment, anergia, absence of energy, weariness, exhaustion, and decreased effort of exertion are normal and basic in significant burdensome issue (Stahl, 2002; Demyttenaere et al., 2005; Salamone et al., 2007; Treadway and Zald, 2011). These exceptionally weakening side effects in melancholy are emphatically connected with issues with social capacity and work (Tylee, 1999; Stahl, 2002, 2017; Hodgetts et al., 2017). They are additionally profoundly impervious to treatment and regularly stay as remaining indications after abatement (Stahl, 2002; Nutt et al., 2007; Fava et al., 2014). Numerous normal antidepressants including serotonin (5-HT) carrier (SERT) inhibitors like fluoxetine and citalopram are helpful for treating state of mind indications in discouragement (Rosenblau et al., 2012; Rizvi et al., 2013; Hieronymus et al., 2016), however they are generally insufficient for treating inspirational dysfunctions, and, indeed, it has been proposed that SERT inhibitors may compound or prompt these manifestations in certain patients (Nutt et al., 2007; Targum and Fava, 2011; Padala et al., 2012; Stenman and Lilja, 2013; Fava et al., 2014; Rothschild et al., 2014). Be that as it may, precise examinations are as yet deficient.

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

Popular antidepressants have numerous effects on human motivation, as highlighted, the several theories of motivation provide information towards the aspects of human needs that creates motivation within a human. Similarly, antidepressants can expand your energy and motivation levels, which might be extremely low while you are discouraged. Right off the bat in your treatment individuals may encounter more energy and inspiration before your sensations of despondency have begun to lift. Apathy and the absence of inspiration are difficult to treat. Numerous drugs that assistance with different side effects of depression do not prove effective towards these factors. A diligent absence of inspiration is a trademark side effect of depression. Additionally, discouragement can demolish when an individual encounters a diminished longing to get done with certain jobs or participate in customary exercises. The clinical faculty accepts that downturn influences the equilibrium of synapses or synthetic compounds that control mindset, in the cerebrum. Clinical medicines can assist with controlling synapses, which might further develop the mindset and improve motivation in individuals with depression.

In the current writing, particular serotonin reuptake inhibitor openness has been sporadically connected with both social lacks of care and enthusiastic dulling. While much of the time depicted as discrete elements, these two conditions are commonly described by apathy and might be joined under the single moniker, "selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced indifference."

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

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External links[edit | edit source]