Motivation and emotion/Book/2019/Alcohol, dopamine, and emotion

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Alcohol, dopamine and emotion:
What role does dopamine play in emotional responses to alcohol consumption?
[Replace this text with the URL Go to a 3 min. audiovisual overview of this chapter.]

Overview[edit]

We hear many different things about how alcohol affects our brain but what happens once the whiskey works its way through your bloodstream and hits the control center behind your eyes? In this book chapter, we are going to discuss the role of dopamine in emotional responses to alcohol consumption and chemical messengers that transmit the signals throughout that body that controls emotions.

What is dopamine?[edit]

Figure 1: An illustration showing dopamine pathway.

Dopamine is an extremely famous neurotransmitter working in the brain, it helps control the brain’s reward and pleasure centers. It enables us to see rewards and take action to move towards them and also helps regulate movement and emotional responses. It is usually released during pleasurable situations which motivates person to seek out more pleasurable activities. The pleasurable activities may include food, sex and several drugs, these are stimulants of dopamine release in the brain and in particular areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Dopamine is also a chemical that controls the central power for all the activities of the brain and it plays key role behind most of our actions and interpersonal relationships. Dopamine is very important for our brain, the deficiency of the dopamine can result in Parkinson’s disease. The low level of dopamine activity in the brain can make individuals prone to addiction.

Dopamine and emotions[edit]

[Provide more detail]

Emotional states[edit]

  • Reward and associated emotional states

Positive and negative emotions[edit]

  • Overlap between brain substrates of positive and negative emotions

Relapse[edit]

doping-prevention.com
Figure 2. Represents psychological effects and addiction of dopamine and different neurotransmitters.
  • Exposure to stress resulting in drug seeking and relapse.

Affect of alcohol on dopamine[edit]

[Provide more detail]

 Alcohol directly affects the brain chemistry by altering the levels of neurotransmitters[edit]

  • Alcohol can affect both Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
  1. Excitatory neutrotransmitter- Glutamate
  2. Inhibitory neurotransmitter- GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric acid)

Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Drug Seeking and Relapse.[edit]

[Provide more detail]

Dopamine down-regulation[edit]

  • It significantly reduces activity in the dopaminergic reward system and thereby appears to reset the threshold for activating the reward system.

Dopamine theories of addiction[edit]

[Provide more detail]

Dopamine theory[edit]

  • The dopamine theories of addiction is often referred as "Hedonic model of addiction".

Dopamine-independent Reinforcement of Addictive Drugs[edit]

  • This includes evidence that alcohol and other drugs can produce their reinforcing through mechanisms that are independent of DA (van Ree et al., 1999).

Research[edit]

  • Focusing on the involvement of neurochemicals and neurotransmitters systems to see the reinforcing effects of drug addiction. It includes neurotransmitters such as Opiods , glutamate and GABA ( Gumma-aminobutyric acid),nor-adrenaline, serotonin and cannabinoids (Goodman, 2008)

Quiz questions[edit]

Here are some example quiz questions - choose the correct answers and click "Submit":

1

What is dopamine responsible for in human body?

Movement
Pleasurable award
Mood
Emotions

2

The sedative effects of alcohol are linked with its impact on which neurotransmitter?

Serotonin
Dopamine
GABA
Opioids


For more information, see Help:Quiz.

Conclusion[edit]

[Provide more detail]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Psychology Today. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/dopamine

NEUROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON ADDICTION. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/internet/drugstrategy/Publishing.nsf/content/1F49C6D81F2C58F4CA25796600067D60/$File/Neuroscience%20of%20Addiction%20Report.pdf

Salazar, A., Salazar, A., Minchew, M., Ruotolo, L., Salazar, A., & Smigiel, D. et al. (2018). CogniFit's Blog - Health, Brain & Neuroscience. Retrieved from https://blog.cognifit.com/functions-of-dopamine-serve-you/

Sayette, M. (2018). The effects of alcohol on emotion in social drinkers.

T. Kienast. (2018). Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9201/1ab88fb64d2f9a476fbe038d8b1a6fc7daec.pdf

Wacker, J. (2017). Effects of positive emotion, extraversion, and dopamine on cognitive stability-flexibility and frontal EEG asymmetry. Psychophysiology, 55, e12727. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12727

What is Dopamine and What Does it Do?. (2018). Retrieved from https://exploringyourmind.com/what-is-dopamine-and-what-does-it-do

External links[edit]

For example: