Information Systems/Social Issues

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This lesson covers social issues related to information systems.

Objectives and Skills[edit]

Objectives and skills for the social issues portion of CLEP Information Systems include:[1]

  • Property rights (intellectual, legal ownership of materials, open source software)
  • Effects of information technology on jobs (ergonomics, virtual teams, telecommuting, job design)
  • Technology’s influence on workforce strategies (globalization, virtual teams, telecommuting, outsourcing, insourcing)
  • Careers in IS (responsibilities, occupation, career path, certification)
  • Social networking (benefits, risks, ethics, technology, Web 2.0)
  • Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems (ethics, social, and political issues)

Readings[edit]

  1. Wikibooks: Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Ethics
  2. Wikipedia: Science, technology and society
  3. Wikipedia: Intellectual property
  4. Wikipedia: Telecommuting
  5. Wikipedia: Professional certification (computer technology)
  6. Wikipedia: Social networking service
  7. Wikipedia: Open-source software
  8. Wikipedia: Web 2.0
  9. Wikipedia: Privacy issues of social networking sites
  10. Wikipedia: Information technology outsourcing
  11. Wikipedia: Technological convergence
  12. Wikipedia: Virtual team

Multimedia[edit]

  1. YouTube: Basic Facts: Trademarks, Patents and Copyrights
  2. YouTube: Whats the Difference Between Copyrights vs. Trademark vs. Patent
  3. YouTube: What are patents, copyrights, and trademarks?
  4. Youtube: Social Media, positive affect on society
  5. YouTube: Information Technology & Ethics with Social Media
  6. YouTube: The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies On Our Lives
  7. YouTube: The Economic Impact of Information Technology
  8. YouTube: Social Networking in Plain English
  9. YouTube: Does social media have the power to change the world?
  10. YouTube: Virtual Team Effectiveness - Closing the Gap in Workplace Performance
  11. YouTube: What is TELECOMMUTING? What does TELECOMMUTING mean?
  12. YouTube: 9 Tips for a Healthy Ergonomic Workstation - Mayo Clinic
  13. YouTube: What is Web 2.0? What is Social Media? What comes next??
  14. Youtube: Introduction to Management Information Systems (MIS) concentration
  15. Ethics in the field of Information Systems
  16. Youtube: Globalization

Activities[edit]

  1. Review Wikipedia: Creative Commons License.  Consider the benefits that support the building of a richer public domain when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created.
  2. Review Microsoft: Computer Ergonomics Guide. If necessary, adjust your workspace to provide a healthy work environment.
  3. Complete one or more of the GCF LearnFree: Social Media tutorials.
  4. Review Wordpress:Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems. Research the ethical problems that one can face in Information Systems.
  5. Review Quizlet: Virtual Teams Review keyterms and meanings.
  6. Complete the GCF LearnFree:Introduction to Internet safety tutorials.
  7. Review 5 Skills Every Information Systems Student Needs to Succeed
  8. Review Ethics and Social Impact of Information Systems in Our Society: Analysis and Recommendations
  9. Complete this tutorial: Internet Safety for Kids

Lesson Summary[edit]

  • Technology impacts society through innovation and improved communication, resulting in both positive and negative consequences.[2]
  • Intellectual property is a term referring to creations of the intellect for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law.[3]
  • Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are the protections granted to the creators of IP, and include trademarks, copyright, patents, industrial design rights, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. Artistic works including music and literature, as well as discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property.[4]
  • The stated objective of most intellectual property law (with the exception of trademarks) is to "Promote progress." By exchanging limited exclusive rights for disclosure of inventions and creative works, society and the patentee/copyright owner mutually benefit, and an incentive is created for inventors and authors to create and disclose their work.[5]
  • Violation of intellectual property rights, called "infringement" with respect to patents, copyright, and trademarks, and "misappropriation" with respect to trade secrets, may be a breach of civil law or criminal law, depending on the type of intellectual property involved, jurisdiction, and the nature of the action.[6]
  • Copyrights are there to protect individuals' work, such as literature, art and music. Trademarks are words, phrases, symbols, designs, or a combination of these that are used as an identifier in order to help consumers identify and distinguish one product/service from another one which might be similar. Patents are similar to copyrights and trademarks but protect a person's invention rather than their literary accomplishments or company logos.[7]
  • Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.[8]
  • Computer ergonomics are important because, believe it or not, working at a computer for prolonged periods of time can actually be harmful to your overall health.[9]
  • Light ergonomics is the relationship between the light source and the individual.[10]
  • Telecommuting, remote work, or telework is a work arrangement in which employees do not commute to a central place of work, but instead work from home or use mobile telecommunications technology to work from coffee shops or other locations.[11]
  • A virtual team usually refers to a group of individuals who work together from different geographic locations and rely on communication technology such as email, FAX, and video or voice conferencing services in order to collaborate.[12]
  • Professional certifications in computer technology are non-degree awards made to those who have achieved qualifications specified by a certifying authority to establish that an individual holding a certification is technically qualified to hold certain positions within the field.[13]
  • A social networking service is a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.[14]
  • Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events, and interests with people in their network.[15]
  • Open-source software (OSS) is computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.[16]
  • The open-source software development, or collaborative development from multiple independent sources, generates an increasingly more diverse scope of design perspective than any one company is capable of developing and sustaining long term.[17]
  • Web 2.0 describes World Wide Web websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems and devices) for end users.[18]
  • Privacy concerns with social networking services is a subset of data privacy, involving the right of mandating personal privacy concerning storing, re-purposing, provision to third parties, and displaying of information pertaining to oneself via the Internet.[19]
  • Information technology outsourcing is a company's outsourcing of computer or Internet related work, such as programming, to other companies. It is used in reference to business process outsourcing or BPO, which is the outsourcing of the work that does not require much of technical skills.[20]

Key Terms[edit]

computer-based training (CBT)
The effective use of computers in learning through educational technology.[21]
computer ethics
A part of practical philosophy which concerns with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct.[22]
copyleft
The practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line.[23]
copyright
A legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution.[24]
copyright infringement (piracy, theft)
The use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works.[25]
cyberbullying
The act of harming or harassing via information technology networks in a repeated and deliberate manner.[26]
cybercrime
Computer crime, or cybercrime, is crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target.[27]
cyberstalking
The use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, a group, or an organization.[28]
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
A United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).[29]
digital rights management (DRM) software
Software used to protect and manage the rights of creators of digital content, such as art, music, photographs, and movies.[30]
digital watermark
A subtle alteration of digital content that is not noticeable when the work is viewed or played but that identifies the copyright holder.[31]
job design
The application of sociotechnical systems principles and techniques to the humanization of work[32]
e-learning
A learning environment which uses information and communication technologies as a platform for teaching and learning activities.[33]
ergonomics
The practice of designing products, systems or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.[34]
ethics
moral principles that govern a person's behavior or the conducting of an activity.[35]
fair use
A doctrine originating in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder.[36]
forum
An online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.[37]
globalization
The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.[38]
hashtag
A type of label or metadata tag used on social network and microblogging services which makes it easier for users to find messages with a specific theme or content.[39]
industrial design rights
An intellectual property right that protects the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian. An industrial design consists of the creation of a shape, configuration or composition of pattern or color, or combination of pattern and color in three-dimensional form containing aesthetic value.[40]
insourcing
The commencement of performing a business function that could be contracted out internally.[41]
instant messaging
A type of online chat which offers real-time text transmission over the Internet.[42]
intellectual property rights
The legal rights to which creators of original creative works (such as artistic or literary works, inventions, corporate logos, and more) are entitled.[43]
license
An official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).[44]
Luddite
One opposed to industrialization, automation, computerization or new technologies in general.[45]
lurker
A member of an online community who observes, but does not actively participate.[46]
media psychology
The branch of psychology that focuses on the relationships between human behavior and the media.[47]
MOOC
An online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web.[48]
new media
Refers to content available on-demand through the Internet, accessible on any digital device, usually containing interactive user feedback and creative participation.[49]
online chat
Any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time transmission of text messages from sender to receiver.[50]
online learning community
Public or private destination on the Internet that addresses the learning needs of its members by facilitating peer-to-peer learning.[51]
open-source software
Computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.[52]
outsourcing
The contracting out of a business process to another party.[53]
patent
A set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.[54]
patent infringement
The commission of a prohibited act with respect to a patented invention without permission from the patent holder. Permission may typically be granted in the form of a license.[55]
phishing
The attempt to obtain sensitive information such as user names, passwords, and credit card details, often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.[56]
plagiarism
The "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.[57]
right to privacy
A human right and an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action that threatens the privacy of individuals.[58]
social media
Computer-mediated tools that allow people, companies and other organizations to create, share, or exchange information, career interests, ideas, and pictures/videos in virtual communities and networks. [59]
social networking service
A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is an online platform that is used by people to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.[60]
technology integration
The use of technology tools in general content areas in education in order to allow students to apply computer and technology skills to learning and problem-solving.[61]
technophobia
The fear or dislike of advanced technology or complex devices, especially computers.[62]
telecommuting
A work arrangement in which employees do not commute to a central place of work.[63]
trademark (trade mark, trade-mark)
A recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are usually called service marks. The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity.[64]
trademark infringement
A violation of the exclusive rights attached to a trademark without the authorization of the trademark owner or any licensees (provided that such authorization was within the scope of the licence).[65]
trade secret
A formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.[66]
trolling
Sowing discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people, by posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages with the deliberate intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion.[67]
virtual team
Refers to a group of individuals who work together from different geographic locations and rely on communication technology such as email, FAX, and video or voice conferencing services in order to collaborate.[68]
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
One of the 17 specialized agencies of the United Nations. WIPO was created in 1967 "to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world".[69]

Review Questions[edit]

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  1. Technology impacts society through _____.
    Technology impacts society through innovation and improved communication, resulting in both positive and negative consequences.
  2. Intellectual property is _____.
    Intellectual property is a term referring to creations of the mind such as inventions, names symbols, and images used in commerce.
  3. Some common types of intellectual property rights are _____.
    Some common types of intellectual property rights are copyright, patents, and industrial design rights; and the rights that protect trademarks, trade dress, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets: all these cover music, literature, and other artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs.
  4. Ergonomics is _____.
    Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
  5. Telecommuting, remote work, or telework is _____.
    Telecommuting, remote work, or telework is a work arrangement in which employees do not commute to a central place of work, but instead work from home or use mobile telecommunications technology to work from coffee shops or other locations.
  6. Professional certifications in computer technology are _____.
    Professional certifications in computer technology are non-degree awards made to those who have achieved qualifications specified by a certifying authority to establish that an individual holding a certification is technically qualified to hold certain positions within the field.
  7. A social networking service is _____.
    A social networking service is a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.
  8. Social networking sites allow users to _____.
    Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events, and interests with people in their network.
  9. Open-source software is _____.
    Open-source software is computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
  10. Copy right is ____.
    Copy right is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution.
  11. Web 2.0 describes _____.
    Web 2.0 describes World Wide Web websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems and devices) for end users.
  12. Privacy concerns with social networking services is _____.
    Privacy concerns with social networking services is a subset of data privacy, involving the right of mandating personal privacy concerning storing, re-purposing, provision to third parties, and displaying of information pertaining to oneself via the Internet.
  13. Information technology outsourcing _____.
    Information technology outsourcing is a company's outsourcing of computer or Internet related work, such as programming, to other companies.
  14. Virtual team refers to _____.
    Virtual team refers to a group of individuals who work together from different geographic locations and rely on communication technology such as email, FAX, and video or voice conferencing services in order to collaborate.

Assessments[edit]

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

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  1. CLEP: Information Systems
  2. Wikipedia: Science, technology, and society
  3. Wikipedia: Intellectual property
  4. Wikipedia: Intellectual property
  5. Intellectual property
  6. Wikipedia: Intellectual property
  7. Wikibooks: Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Ethics
  8. Wikipedia: Human factors and ergonomics
  9. Surfnetkids: Why Computer Ergonomics Are Important
  10. Wikipedia:Light ergonomics
  11. Wikipedia: Telecommuting
  12. Wikipedia: Virtual Team
  13. Wikipedia: Professional certification (computer technology)
  14. Wikipedia: Social networking service
  15. Wikipedia: Social networking service
  16. Wikipedia: Open-source software
  17. Wikipedia: Open-source software
  18. Wikipedia: Web 2.0
  19. Wikipedia: Privacy concerns with social networking service
  20. Wikipedia: Information technology outsourcing
  21. Wikipedia: Educational technology
  22. Wikipedia: Computer ethics
  23. Wikipedia: Copyleft
  24. Wikipedia: Copyright
  25. Wikipedia: Copyright infringement
  26. Wikipedia: Cyberbullying
  27. Wikipedia: Cybercrime
  28. Wikipedia: Cyberstalking
  29. Wikipedia: Digital Millennium Copyright Act
  30. Wikipedia: Digital rights management
  31. Wikipedia: Digital watermarking
  32. Wikipedia: Sociotechnical system#Job design
  33. Wikipedia: E-learning
  34. Wikipedia: Ergonomics
  35. [[[Wikipedia:Ethics]]]
  36. Wikipedia: Fair use
  37. Wikipedia: Internet forum
  38. Wikipedia: Globalization
  39. Wikipedia: Hashtag
  40. Wikipedia: Industrial design right
  41. Wikipedia: Insourcing
  42. Wikipedia: Instant messaging
  43. Wikipedia: Intellectual property
  44. Wikipedia: License
  45. Wikipedia: Luddite
  46. Wikipedia: Lurker
  47. Wikipedia: Media psychology
  48. Wikipedia: Massive open online course
  49. Wikipedia: New media
  50. Wikipedia: Online chat
  51. Wikipedia: Online Learning Community
  52. Wikipedia: Open-source software
  53. Wikipedia: Outsourcing
  54. Wikipedia: Patent
  55. Wikipedia: Patent infringement
  56. [[[Wikipedia:Phishing]]]
  57. Wikipedia: Plagiarism
  58. Wikipedia: Right to privacy
  59. Wikipedia: Social media
  60. Wikipedia: Social Networking
  61. Wikipedia: Technology integration
  62. Wikipedia: Technophobia
  63. Wikipedia: Telecommuting
  64. Wikipedia: Trademark
  65. Wikipedia: Trademark infringement
  66. Wikipedia: Trade secret
  67. Wikipedia: Internet troll
  68. Wikipedia: Virtual Team
  69. Wikipedia: World Intellectual Property Organization