Information Systems/Databases

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Databases are organized collections of data typically collected by schemas, tables, queries, reports and views. Databases are typically organized to process data to provide quick information retrieval.[1]

Objectives and Skills[edit]

Objectives and skills for the databases portion of CLEP Information Systems include:[2]

  • Database management systems (data warehousing, data mining, networking, security, validation, migration, storage, obsolescence)
  • Database management systems (relational, hierarchical, network, management strategies)
  • Difference between multidimensional, object-oriented, hierarchical, and relational databases.

Readings[edit]

  1. Wikibooks: Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Database
  2. Wikipedia: Database
  3. Wikipedia: Data warehouse
  4. Wikipedia: Data mining
  5. Wikipedia: Computer network
  6. Wikipedia: Data Security
  7. Wikipedia: Relational model
  8. Wikipedia: Hierarchical database model
  9. Wikipedia: Network database model
  10. Wikipedia: Data validation
  11. Wikipedia: Data migration
  12. Wikipedia: Database storage structures
  13. Wikipedia: Digital obsolescence

Multimedia[edit]

  1. YouTube: Introduction to Database Management System (Short Version)
  2. YouTube: Introduction to Database Management System (Longer Version)
  3. YouTube: Microsoft Access 2013 Tutorial - Creating Tables (Part 1 - Access 2013 Training for Beginners)
  4. YouTube: Beginners MS Access Database Tutorial 1 - Introduction and Creating Database
  5. YouTube: What is Database & SQL
  6. YouTube: How to Create a Database in SQL Server 2016
  7. YouTube: 2016 whats new in 2016 Microsoft Access
  8. YouTube: RelationalDatabase Concepts
  9. YouTube: How to make a Database-Part 1 Tables

Activities[edit]

  1. Complete one or more of the following database tutorials:
  2. Complete A Quick-Start Tutorial on Relational Database Design.
  3. Review QCI: Database vs. Spreadsheet and PC Magazine: Spreadsheet Does Not = Database. Identify spreadsheets you use at work, school, or home that should be implemented as databases instead. If you are responsible for the data, try creating a database as a replacement. If someone else is responsible for the data, discuss with them the advantages of using a database.

Research and Discussion[edit]

  1. Identify different database management systems that you frequently use. Identify potential benefits and limitations of information stored in those systems.
  2. Research the various levels of security used to protect database management systems.

Lesson Summary[edit]

  • A database is an organized collection of data, including schemas, tables, queries, reports, views and other objects.[3]
  • A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. It allows you to keep accurate records and retrieve records quickly.[4]
  • A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases.[5]
  • Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is often used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it.[6]
  • A data warehouse is a central repository of integrated data from one or more disparate sources used for reporting and data analysis.[7]
  • Data mining is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems.[8]
  • A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model.[9] The relational model represents data terms of ordered sets of elements (tuples), grouped into relations (tables).[10][11]
  • A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure. The data is stored as records which are connected to one another through links. A record is a collection of fields, with each field containing only one value. The entity type of a record defines which fields the record contains.[12]
  • The network model is a database model conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships. Its distinguishing feature is that the schema, viewed as a graph in which object types are nodes and relationship types are arcs, is not restricted to being a hierarchy or lattice.[13]
  • Data migration is the process of transferring data between computer storage types or file formats. It occurs for a variety of reasons, including server or storage equipment replacements, maintenance or upgrades, application migration, website consolidation and data center relocation.[14]
  • Data warehouses (known as DW, DWH, and EDW) are systems used for reporting and data analysis. Current and historical data uploaded from the operational systems in stored in one single place and is used for creating analytical reports.[15].

Key Terms[edit]

centralized database
A database that is located, stored, and maintained in a single location.[16]
client / server
A distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service and service requesters.[17]
data cleansing
The process of detecting and correcting or removing corrupt or inaccurate records from a record set, table, or database.[18]
data mining
The computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems.[19]
data security
protecting data, such as those in a database, from destructive forces and from the unwanted actions of unauthorized users.[20]
data networking
data network is a telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.[21]
data validation
The process of ensuring that a program operates on clean, correct and useful data.[22]
data warehouse
A central repository of integrated data from one or more disparate sources used for reporting and data analysis.[23]
database administrator (DBA)
The role responsible for installation, configuration, design, migration, capacity planning, performance monitoring, security, troubleshooting, as well as backup and recovery of a database or databases.[24]
database management system(DBMS)

system software for creating and managing databases.[25]

database model
Determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated.[26]
database storage
The container of the physical materialization of a database. It comprises the internal (physical) level in the database architecture.[27]
database schema
The structure of a database described in a formal language supported by the database management system.[28]
digital obsolescence
A situation where a digital resource is no longer readable because of its archaic format.[29]
distributed database
A database in which portions of the database are stored on multiple computers within a network.[30]
export
The act or process of retrieving data out of data sources for further data processing or data storage (data migration).[31]
field
A column or attribute of a record in a relational database.[32]
geographical information system (GIS)
A system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of spatial or geographical data.[33]
hierarchical database
A data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure.[34]
import
The act or process of loading data into a data source.[35]
join (SQL)
combines columns from one or more tables in a relational database.[36]
migration
The process of transferring data between storage types, formats, or computer systems.[37]
multidimensional database
A database which uses aggregated, inter-related arrays to organize data and express the relationships between data and is used for online analytical processing.[38]
network model
A database model conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships.[39]
object oriented database
A database management system in which information is represented in the form of combinations of variables, functions, and data structures.[40][41]
query
A precise request for information retrieval with database and information systems.[42]
record
A row or collection of attributes in a relational database.[43]
relation (database)
A set of tuples (d1, d2, ..., dn), where each element dj is a member of Dj, a data domain.[44]
structured query language (SQL)
Is a special-purpose programming language designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). [45]
table
A collection of related data held in a structured format within a database.[46]
tuple
A finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.[47]
XML (Extensible Markup Language)
A markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding data in a format which is both human-readable and machine-readable.[48]

Review Questions[edit]

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  1. A database is an organized collection of _____.
    A database is an organized collection of data, including schemas, tables, queries, reports, views and other objects.
  2. A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that _____.
    A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data.
  3. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow _____.
    A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases.
  4. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is often used casually to refer to _____.
    Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is often used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it.
  5. A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that ______. The ______ represents _____.
    A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model. The relational model represents data terms of ordered sets of elements (tuples), grouped into relations (tables).
  6. A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data is organized into _____. The data is stored as ______.
    A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure. The data is stored as records which are connected to one another through links.
  7. A record is a collection of ______. The ______ type of a record defines which fields the record contains.
    A record is a collection of fields, with each field containing only one value. The entity type of a record defines which fields the record contains.
  8. The network model is a _____ model conceived as a ______. Its distinguishing feature is that the _____, viewed as a graph in which object types are nodes and relationship types are arcs, is not restricted to being a _____ or a _______.
    The network model is a database model conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships. Its distinguishing feature is that the schema, viewed as a graph in which object types are nodes and relationship types are arcs, is not restricted to being a hierarchy or lattice.
  9. Management strategies include _____ and _____ users, enforcing data _____, monitoring _____, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, and _____ information that has been _____ by some event such as an unexpected system failure.
    Management strategies include registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, and recovering information that has been corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure.
  10. A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database managment system (DMS) that is based on the _____. The _____ represents data terms of ordered sets of _____, grouped into _____.
    A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model. The relational model represents data terms of ordered sets of elements (tuples), grouped into relations (tables).
  11. Protecting data, such as those in a database, from destructive forces and from the unwanted actions of unauthorized users is _____.
    Protecting data, such as those in a database, from destructive forces and from the unwanted actions of unauthorized users is Data security.
  12. Computing process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems is ____.
    Computing process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems is Data mining.
  13. Process that provides certain well-defined guarantees for fitness, accuracy, and consistency for any of various kinds of user input into an application or automated system is ____.
    Process that provides certain well-defined guarantees for fitness, accuracy, and consistency for any of various kinds of user input into an application or automated system is Data validation.
  14. The process of transferring data between computer storage types or file formats is ____.
    The process of transferring data between computer storage types or file formats is Data migration.

Assessments[edit]

See Also[edit]

How to build your own Database and Database Management https://www.ibm.com/analytics/data-management/resources/what-is-hybrid-data-management/?S_PKG=ov63404&cm_mmc=Search_Google-_-Analytics_Database+-+Data+Warehousing+-+Hadoop-_-WW_IAN-_-+data++management_Broad_ov63404&cm_mmca1=000026OP&cm_mmca2=10007844&cm_mmca7=9021430&cm_mmca8=kwd-19431832427&cm_mmca9=629e5a11-81f3-4444-b34b-fc771a70a6f9&cm_mmca10=267820585630&cm_mmca11=b&mkwid=629e5a11-81f3-4444-b34b-fc771a70a6f9%7C470%7C158051&cvosrc=ppc.google.%2Bdata%20%2Bmanagement&cvo_campaign=000026OP&cvo_crid=267820585630&Matchtype=b

References[edit]

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  1. Wikipedia: Databases
  2. CLEP: Information Systems
  3. Wikipedia: Database
  4. Wikipedia: Database
  5. Wikipedia: Database
  6. Wikipedia: Database
  7. Wikipedia: Data warehouse
  8. Wikipedia: Data mining
  9. Wikipedia: Relational database management system
  10. Wikipedia: Relational model
  11. Wikipedia: Tuple
  12. Wikipedia: Hierarchical database model
  13. Wikipedia: Network model
  14. Wikipedia: Data migration
  15. Wikipedia: Data warehouse
  16. Wikipedia: Centralized database
  17. Wikipedia: Client-server model
  18. Wikipedia: Data Cleansing
  19. Wikipedia: Data mining
  20. Wikipedia: Data security
  21. Wikipedia: Data Networking
  22. Wikipedia: Data validation
  23. Wikipedia: Data warehouse
  24. Wikipedia: Database administrator
  25. "What is database management system (DBMS)? - Definition from WhatIs.com". SearchSQLServer. Retrieved 2018-06-22. 
  26. Wikipedia: Database model
  27. Wikipedia: Database
  28. Wikipedia: Database schema
  29. Wikipedia: Digital obsolescence
  30. Wikipedia: Distributed database
  31. Wikipedia: Data extraction
  32. Wikipedia: Field (computer science)
  33. Wikipedia: Geographic information system
  34. Wikipedia: Hierarchical database model
  35. Wikipedia: Extract, transform, load
  36. Wikipedia: Join (SQL)
  37. Wikipedia: Data migration
  38. Wikipedia: Multidimensional database
  39. Wikipedia: Network Model
  40. Wikipedia: Object database
  41. Wikipedia: Object (computer science)
  42. Wikipedia: Query
  43. Wikipedia: Record (computer science)
  44. Wikipedia: Relation (database)
  45. Wikipedia: SQL
  46. Wikipedia: Table (database)
  47. Wikipedia: Tuple
  48. Wikipedia: XML