Information Systems/Networking

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Networking consists of a group of computer systems and computer hardware that connect together through different channels to facilitate sharing and receiving of data and information.[citation needed]

Objectives and Skills[edit]

Objectives and skills for the networking portion of CLEP Information Systems include:[1]

  • Devices (processing, storage, input and output, telecommunications, networking)
  • Functions (computer, telecommunications, network hardware)
  • Concepts of network architectures (local area, wide area, VPN (virtual private network), enterprise)
  • Wireless computing/communication devices (Wi-Fi, cellular, satellite, PDA, GPS)

Readings[edit]

  1. Wikibooks: Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Computer Networks
  2. Wikibooks: Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Computer Networks and the Internet
  3. Wikibooks: Internet Technologies/Protocols
  4. Wikipedia: Computer network
  5. Wikipedia: Wireless network
  6. Wikipedia: Wireless security
  7. Wikipedia: Node (networking)

Multimedia[edit]

  1. YouTube: Introduction to Computer Networks Part 1 - Easy to understand basics
  2. YouTube: Introduction to Computer Networks Part 2 - Easy to understand basics
  3. YouTube: Introduction to Computer Networks Part 3 - Easy to understand basics
  4. YouTube: Introduction to Networking
  5. YouTube: How Wireless Works
  6. YouTube: How to check whether you have a static or dynamic ip address and how to change it
  7. YouTube: Computer Information Systems—Networking
  8. YouTube: Management Information system: Networking Technologies
  9. YouTube: Introduction to Computer Networks
  10. YouTube: The Internet and the World Wide Web
  11. YouTube: The Internet: IP Addresses & DNS

Activities[edit]

  1. Review IP address settings for your local network:
  2. Verify Internet connectivity:
    1. Verify a physical connection:
      • Wired: Check for connectivity lights on the network adapter and switch or router.
      • Wireless: Check for connectivity through the user interface.
    2. Verify ip address settings.
      • Windows: Use ipconfig.
      • OS X: Use Network Utility, System Preferences / Network, or ifconfig.
      • Linux: Use Network Configuration, System Settings / Networking, or ifconfig.
    3. Review Ping/Host. Verify local and remote connectivity using ping.
      • Ping your local IP address.
      • Ping your local default gateway address.
      • Ping an Internet host such as 8.8.8.8.
    4. Review Nslookup. Verify name resolution using nslookup and an Internet host name, such as en.wikiversity.org.
  3. Share a folder and connect to the shared folder:
  4. Experiment with the Wireshark open source packet analyzer. Follow the activities to install Wireshark and capture network traffic. Then view the captured information.
  5. Play the GoCertify: OSI Networking game to practice matching protocols to their corresponding OSI layer.
  6. Research Bureau Of Labor Statistics: Network and Computer Systems Administrators careers. Identify education requirements, job outlook, and median pay.

Research and Discussion[edit]

  1. You are interested in setting up an Internet connection on your new computer. Compare and contrast different options on how you can access the Internet. Which type would you prefer to use from your results? Support your answer.
  2. Computer users should be aware of the different wireless security options. Identify different wireless network security vulnerabilities and their potential risks. Discuss solutions to resolve those identified threats.
  3. Explore different network design types. Select one network design type based on performance, hardware, cost and setup requirements. Justify your answers with supported research.

Lesson Summary[edit]

  • A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data. Networked computing devices pass data to each other in the form of packets across connections established using either cable or wireless media.[2]
  • Computer networks support applications such as the access to the World Wide Web, storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications. Two devices are said to be networked when they can exchange information between them.[3]
  • The different networks are nanoscale communication network, personal area network, local area network, home area network, storage area, campus area, backbone network, metro area, enterprise private network, virtual private network, and global area network.
  • A network packet is a formatted unit of data sent through a network to the destination. Once packets arrive, they are reassembled into their original message.[4]
  • Wired media includes coaxial cable, twisted-pair cable, and optical fiber.[5]
  • Wireless local area network connections use spread spectrum technology based on a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology defined as IEEE 802.11 and known as Wi-Fi.[6]
  • A network interface controller (NIC) is hardware that provides a computer with the ability to access the transmission media, and has the ability to process low-level network information.[7]
  • In Ethernet networks, each NIC has a unique 48-bit Media Access Control (MAC) address.[8]
  • A repeater or hub is an electronic device that receives a network signal in the form of bits. Most organization have replaced hubs with switches.[9]
  • A bridge or switch is a device that connects and filters multiple network segments or devices, by forwarding data only to one or multiple devices that need to receive the data based on destination MAC address.[10]
  • A router is a device that forwards data packets between different computer networks based on the network address (IP address).[11]
  • A modem is a device used to connect network nodes via wire not originally designed for digital network traffic, by modulating the digital signal to produce an analog signal for transmission.[12]
  • A firewall is a device used to control network security and access rules by rejecting access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing actions from recognized ones.[13]
  • An access point is a device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi, or related standards.[14]
  • An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device participating in a network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host identification and network addressing.[15]
  • IP addresses are 32-bit (IPv4) or 128-bit (IPv6) numbers usually written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 198.51.100.1 (IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (IPv6).[16]
  • IP addresses are assigned to a host either anew at the time of booting, or permanently by fixed configuration of its hardware or software. Persistent configuration is also known as using a static IP address. In contrast, in situations when the computer's IP address is assigned newly each time, this is known as using a dynamic IP address.[17]
  • Static IP addresses are manually assigned to a computer by an administrator.[18]
  • Dynamic IP addresses are assigned either by the computer interface or host software itself through automatic configuration, or assigned by a server using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).[19]
  • A shared resource, or network share, is a computer resource made available from one host to other hosts on a computer network.[20]
  • In SOHO networks, a decentralized approach is often used, where every user may make their local folders and printers available to others. This approach is sometimes denoted as a workgroup or peer-to-peer network.[21]
  • In a workgroup, each computer is responsible for its own security, rather than relying on centralized authentication.[22]
  • Windows 7 and later Microsoft operating systems extend the workgroup with a homegroup option that uses a password to join computers into the group, and allows users' libraries, along with individual files and folders, to be shared between multiple computers.[23]
  • In larger networks, a centralized file server or print server, sometimes denoted client–server network is typically used. A client process on the local user computer takes the initiative to start the communication, while a server process on the file server or print server remote computer passively waits for requests to start a communication session.[24]
  • The centralized authentication approach used in larger networks is referred to as a domain, where all user accounts, computers, printers and other security principals, are registered with a central directory service.[25]
  • Users and network administrators typically have different views of their networks. Users can share printers and some servers from a workgroup, which usually means they are in the same geographic location and are on the same LAN, whereas a Network Administrator is responsible to keep that network up and running.[26]
  • Network administrators can see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. The physical perspective involves geographic locations, physical cabling, and the network elements (e.g., routers, bridges and application layer gateways) that interconnect via the transmission media. Logical networks, called, in the TCP/IP architecture, subnets, map onto one or more transmission media.[27]
  • Over the Internet, there can be business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C) and consumer-to-consumer (C2C) communications. When money or sensitive information is exchanged, the communications are apt to be protected by some form of communications security mechanism. Intranets and extranets can be securely superimposed onto the Internet, without any access by general Internet users and administrators, using secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology.[28]
  • The word Cyberspace became popular in the 1990s when the uses of the Internet, networking, and digital communication were all growing dramatically and the term "cyberspace" was able to represent the many new ideas and phenomena that were emerging.[29]
  • As a social experience, individuals can interact, exchange ideas, share information, provide social support, conduct business, direct actions, create artistic media, play games, engage in political discussion, and so on, using this global network.[30]
  • Computer networking may be considered a branch of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines.[31]
  • A computer network may be used by computer crackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing the network via a denial of service attack.[32]

Key Terms[edit]

bandwidth
The amount of information that can be sent through a given communication channel in a given amount of time.[33]
blog
A discussion or informational site published on the World Wide Web and consisting of discrete entries ("posts") typically displayed in reverse chronological order (the most recent post appears first).[34]
Bluetooth
A wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz[4]) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).[35]
broadband
A wide bandwidth data transmission with an ability to simultaneously transport multiple signals and traffic types.[36]
chat room
Describes any form of electronic conferencing, but traditionally refers to synchronous text-based communications with a group of users.[37]
client
A piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server.[38]
cyberspace
The notional environment in which communication over computer networks occurs.[39]
coaxial cable
copper or aluminum cables widely used for cable television systems, office buildings, and other work-sites for local area networks.[40]
download
To receive data to a local system from a remote system, or to initiate such a data transfer.[41]
dynamic IP address
An address assigned either by the computer interface or host software itself, or assigned by a server using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).[42]
Ethernet
A family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs) and metropolitan area networks (MANs), standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3.[43]
file server
A computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by workstations attached to the same computer network. [44]
forum
An online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.[45]
global positioning system (GPS)
A space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.[46]
instant messaging (IM)
A type of online chat which offers real-time text transmission over the Internet.[47]
local area network (LAN)
A computer network that interconnects computers within a limited geographic area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building.[48]
mesh network
A network topology in which each node relays data for the network.[49]
network
Telecommunications network which allows computers to exchange data.[50]
network administrator
An individual responsible for the maintenance of computer hardware and software systems that make up a computer network.[51]
network adapter (NIC)
A computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network. [52]
network architecture
The layout of the network. [53]
network operating system (NOS)
Software that implements an operating system of some kind that is oriented to computer networking.[54]
network packet
Formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network. Computer communications links that do not support packets, such as traditional point-to-point telecommunications links, simply transmit data as a bit stream. When data is formatted into packets, the bandwidth of the communication medium can be better shared among users than if the network were circuit switched.[55]
network switch
A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub,) is a computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the destination device.[56]
network topology
Arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network.[57]
node
A connection point, a redistribution point, or a communication endpoint (e.g. data terminal equipment). The definition of a node depends on the network and protocol layer referred to. A physical network node is an active electronic device that is attached to a network and is capable of creating, receiving, or transmitting information over a communications channel.[1] A passive distribution point such as a distribution frame or patch panel is consequently not a node. [58]
optical fiber
A glass fiber that carries pulses of light that represent data which can be used for long runs of cable carrying very high data rates, and are used for undersea cables to interconnect continents.[59]
packet switching
A digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data into suitably sized blocks, called packets, that are transmitted via a medium that may be shared by multiple simultaneous communication sessions.[60]
peer-to-peer (P2P) protocol
An application layer distributed networking protocol that can be used to form and maintain an overlay network among participant nodes.[61]
POP Point of presence
An artificial demarcation point or interface point between communicating entities.[62]
protocol
A system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communication system to communicate between them to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.[63]
Radio-frequency identification (RFID)
The wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects.[64]
router
A networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet.[65]
static IP address
An address manually assigned to a computer by an administrator.[66]
SSID or Service Set Identifier
The technical term for a network name.[67]
TCP/IP
The computer networking model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.[68]
telecommunication
The exchange of information between two or more entities using technology in the form of signals over a physical medium or in the form of electromagnetic waves.[69]
text message
A brief, electronic message sent between two or more mobile phones, or fixed or portable devices over a phone network.[70]
twisted-pair
A type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources.[71]
upload
The sending of data from a local system to a remote system such as a server or another client with the intent that the remote system should store a copy of the data being transferred, or the initiation of such a process.[72]
virtual private network (VPN)
A private, secure path over the Internet that provides authorized users a secure means of accessing a private network via the Internet.[73]
wide area network (WAN)
A network that covers a broad geographic area using leased telecommunication lines.[74]
WI-Fi
A local area wireless computer networking technology based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards.[75]
wireless access point (AP or WAP)
A device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi, or related standards. [76]
wireless local area network (WLAN)
Links two or more devices over a short distance using a wireless distribution method.[77]

Review Questions[edit]

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  1. A computer network or data network is a _____. Networked computing devices pass data to each other in the form of _____ across connections established using _____.
    A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data. Networked computing devices pass data to each other in the form of packets across connections established using either cable or wireless media.
  2. A network packet is a _____. Once packets arrive, they are _____.
    A network packet is a formatted unit of data sent through a network to the destination. Once packets arrive, they are reassembled into their original message.
  3. Wired media includes _____, _____, and _____.
    Wired media includes coaxial cable, twisted-pair cable, and optical fiber.
  4. Wireless local area network connections use _____ technology based on a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology defined as _____ and known as _____.
    Wireless local area network connections use spread spectrum technology based on a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology defined as IEEE 802.11 and known as Wi-Fi.
  5. A network interface controller (NIC) is _____.
    A network interface controller (NIC) is hardware that provides a computer with the ability to access the transmission media, and has the ability to process low-level network information.
  6. In Ethernet networks, each NIC has a unique _____.
    In Ethernet networks, each NIC has a unique 48-bit Media Access Control (MAC) address.
  7. A repeater or hub is _____. In local area networks, hubs have been replaced by _____.
    A repeater or hub is an electronic device that receives a network signal in the form of bits, cleans it of unnecessary noise, and regenerates it. In local area networks, switches have replaced hubs.
  8. A bridge or switch is _____.
    A bridge or switch is a device that connects and filters multiple network segments or devices, by forwarding data only to one or multiple devices that need to receive the data based on destination MAC address.
  9. A router is _____.
    A router is a device that forwards data packets between different computer networks based on network address (IP address).
  10. A modem is _____.
    A modem is a device used to connect network nodes via wire not originally designed for digital network traffic, by modulating the digital signal to produce an analog signal for transmission.
  11. A firewall is _____.
    A firewall is a device used to control network security and access rules by rejecting access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing actions from recognized ones.
  12. An access point is _____.
    An access point is a device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi, or related standards.
  13. An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is _____. An IP address serves two principal functions: _____ and _____.
    An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device participating in a network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host identification and network addressing.
  14. IP addresses are _____-bit (IPv4) or _____-bit (IPv6) numbers usually written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as _____ (IPv4), and _____ (IPv6).
    IP addresses are 32-bit (IPv4) or 128-bit (IPv6) numbers usually written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 198.51.100.1 (IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (IPv6).
  15. IP addresses are assigned to a host either _____, or _____.
    IP addresses are assigned to a host either anew at the time of booting, or permanently by fixed configuration of its hardware or software. Persistent configuration is also known as using a static IP address. In contrast, in situations when the computer's IP address is assigned newly each time, this is known as using a dynamic IP address.
  16. Static IP addresses are assigned _____.
    Static IP addresses are assigned to a computer manually by an administrator.
  17. Dynamic IP addresses are assigned _____.
    Dynamic IP addresses are assigned either by the computer interface or host software itself through automatic configuration, or assigned by a server using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
  18. A shared resource, or network share, is _____.
    A shared resource, or network share, is a computer resource made available from one host to other hosts on a computer network.
  19. In SOHO networks, a decentralized approach is often used, where _____. This approach is sometimes denoted as a _____ or _____ network.
    In SOHO networks, a decentralized approach is often used, where every user may make their local folders and printers available to others. This approach is sometimes denoted as a workgroup or peer-to-peer network.
  20. In a workgroup, each computer is responsible for _____.
    In a workgroup, each computer is responsible for its own security, rather than relying on centralized authentication.
  21. Windows 7 and later Microsoft operating systems extend the workgroup with _____.
    Windows 7 and later Microsoft operating systems extend the workgroup with a homegroup option that uses a password to join computers into the group, and allows users' libraries, along with individual files and folders, to be shared between multiple computers.
  22. In larger networks, a centralized file server or print server, sometimes denoted _____, is typically used. A _____ process on the local user computer takes the initiative to start the communication, while a _____ process on the file server or print server remote computer passively waits for requests to start a communication session.
    In larger networks, a centralized file server or print server, sometimes denoted client–server network, is typically used. A client process on the local user computer takes the initiative to start the communication, while a server process on the file server or print server remote computer passively waits for requests to start a communication session.
  23. The centralized authentication approach used in larger networks is referred to as a _____, where all _____ are registered with _____.
    The centralized authentication approach used in larger networks is referred to as a domain, where all user accounts, computers, printers and other security principals, are registered with a central directory service.

Assessments[edit]

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

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  1. CLEP: Information Systems
  2. Wikipedia: Computer network
  3. Wikipedia: Computer network
  4. Wikipedia: Computer network
  5. Wikipedia: Computer network
  6. Wikipedia: Computer network
  7. Wikipedia: Computer network
  8. Wikipedia: Computer network
  9. Wikipedia: Computer network
  10. Wikipedia: Computer network
  11. Wikipedia: Computer network
  12. Wikipedia: Computer network
  13. Wikipedia: Computer network
  14. Wikipedia: Wireless access point
  15. Wikipedia: IP address
  16. Wikipedia: IP address
  17. Wikipedia: IP address
  18. Wikipedia: IP address
  19. Wikipedia: IP address
  20. Wikipedia: Shared resource
  21. Wikipedia: Shared resource
  22. Wikipedia: Workgroup (computer networking)
  23. Wikipedia: Features new to Windows 7
  24. Wikipedia: Shared resource
  25. Wikipedia: Windows domain
  26. Wikipedia: computer network
  27. Wikipedia: computer network
  28. Wikipedia: computer network
  29. Wikipedia: cyberspace
  30. Wikipedia: cyberspace
  31. Wikipedia: Computer Network
  32. Wikipedia: Computer Network
  33. Wikipedia: Bandwidth
  34. Wikipedia:Blog
  35. Wikipedia: Bluetooth
  36. Wikipedia: Broadband
  37. Wikipedia: Chat room
  38. Wikipedia: Client (computing)
  39. Wikipedia: Cyberspace
  40. Wikipedia: Computer Network
  41. Wikipedia: Download
  42. Wikipedia: IP address
  43. Wikipedia: Ethernet
  44. Wikipedia: File server
  45. Wikipedia: Internet forum
  46. Wikipedia: Global Positioning System
  47. Wikipedia: Instant Messaging
  48. Wikipedia: Local area network
  49. Wikipedia: Mesh network
  50. Wikipedia: Computer network
  51. Wikipedia : Network Administrator
  52. Wikipedia: Network interface controller
  53. Wikibooks: Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Computer Networks
  54. Wikipedia: Network Operating System
  55. Wikipedia: Network Packet
  56. [[1]]
  57. Wikipedia: Network Topology
  58. Wikipedia: Node (networking)
  59. Wikipedia: Computer network
  60. Wikipedia: Packet switching
  61. Wikipedia: Peer-to-Peer Protocol (P2PP)
  62. Wikipedia: Point of presence
  63. Wikipedia: Protocol
  64. Wikipedia: Radio-frequency identification
  65. Wikipedia: Router (computing)
  66. Wikipedia: IP address
  67. https://support.bell.ca/Internet/Connection-help/What-do-SSID-and-WPA2-mean
  68. Wikipedia: Internet protocol suite
  69. Wikipedia: Telecommunication
  70. Wikipedia: Text messaging
  71. Wikipedia: Twisted pair
  72. Wikipedia: Upload
  73. Wikipedia: Virtual private network
  74. Wikipedia: Wide area network
  75. Wikipedia: Wi-Fi
  76. Wikipedia: Wireless access point
  77. Wikipedia: Wireless LAN