IT Fundamentals/Devices

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Personal computer

This lesson introduces computing devices and common units of measure for data.

Objectives and Skills[edit]

Objectives and skills for the devices portion of IT Fundamentals certification include:[1]

  • Compare and contrast common computing devices and their purposes.
    • Mobile phones
    • Tablets
    • Laptops
    • Workstations
    • Servers
    • Gaming consoles
    • IoT
      • Home appliances
      • Home automation devices
        • Thermostats
        • Security systems
      • Modern cars
      • IP cameras
      • Streaming media devices
      • Medical devices
  • Compare and contrast common units of measure.
    • Storage unit
      • Bit
      • Byte
      • KB
      • MB
      • GB
      • TB
      • PB
    • Throughput unit
      • bps
      • Kbps
      • Mbps
      • Gbps
      • Tbps
    • Processing speed
      • MHz
      • GHz

Readings[edit]

  1. Wikipedia: Computer
  2. Wikipedia: Mobile device
  3. Wikipedia: Internet of things
  4. Wikipedia: Units of information

Multimedia[edit]

  1. YouTube: Common Computing Devices & Their Purposes
  2. YouTube Units of Measure

Activities[edit]

  1. Together with classmates or friends, gather as many different types of computing devices as you have access to. If you are working alone, consider visiting your favorite electronics store to "comparison shop", but don't buy anything! Compare and contrast different computing devices. What do you like and dislike about each one? Is your opinion based on physical characteristics of the device (size, shape, appearance, etc.), performance characteristics, ergonomics (usability, operating system, software design, etc.), or vendor reputation?
  2. Compare and contrast workstations, servers, and gaming computers. Which companies are the top three vendors in each category? What is the price range for a typical device in each category and what usage differentiates when someone would purchase each one? How are storage and processing speed measured for these devices (KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, MHz, GHz)?
  3. Compare and contrast mobile phones, tablets, and laptops. Which companies are the top three vendors in each category? What is the price range for a typical device in each category and what usage differentiates when someone would purchase each one? How are storage and processing speed measured for these devices (KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, MHz, GHz)?
  4. Review How-To Geek: How to Pair a Bluetooth Device to Your Computer, Tablet, or Phone. Practice pairing a Bluetooth device to your computer or mobile device.
  5. Review CNet: Everything you need to know about NFC and mobile payments. Consider configuring your mobile device for NFC payments.
  6. Consider the impact of Internet-of-Things (IoT) on your daily life. What Internet-enabled devices are currently in use in your home, school, and/or work environments? What benefits do these devices provide? What risks come with using these devices? Include devices such as home appliances, home automation, thermostats, security systems, cars, IP cameras, streaming media, and medical devices.

Lesson Summary[edit]

Smartphone
Tablet
Laptop
Workstation
All-in-one
Servers
Game controller

Common Computing Devices[edit]

Common computing devices include mobile phones, tablets, laptops, workstations, servers, and gaming consoles.

  • A mobile phone is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture. In addition to telephony, current mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games, and digital photography.[2]
  • A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display and a rechargeable battery in a single, thin and flat package. Tablets, being computers, do what other personal computers do, but lack some input/output (I/O) abilities that others have. Modern tablets largely resemble modern smartphones, the only differences being that tablets are relatively larger than smartphones, with screens 7 inches (18 cm) or larger, measured diagonally, and may not support access to a cellular network.[3]
  • A laptop is a small, portable personal computer (PC) with a "clamshell" form factor, typically having a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the clamshell and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.[4]
  • A workstation is a stationary personal computer, typically with a separate case holding the system components. Workstations have an external monitor with a display screen and an external keyboard, which are plugged into USB ports on the back of the computer case. Traditionally, the term workstation referred to systems used in high-end technical applications, and desktop computer referred to systems used in more common applications.[5]
  • An all-in-one desktop computer or workstation integrates the system's internal components into the same case as the display, thus occupying a smaller footprint (with fewer cables) than desktops that incorporate a tower.[6]
  • A server is a computer that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers. Hardware requirement for servers vary widely, depending on the server's purpose and its software. Servers are typically more powerful and expensive than the clients that connect to them.[7]
  • A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.[8]

Internet of Things (IoT)[edit]

Internet of things

The Internet of things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.[9] Common IoT devices include:

  • Home appliances
  • Home automation devices
    • Thermostats
    • Security systems
  • Modern cars
  • IP cameras
  • Streaming media devices
  • Medical devices

Common Units of Measure[edit]

  • A bit is the smallest unit of information. The name bit is a portmanteau of binary digit. Bits have only one of two possible values, most commonly represented as either 0 or 1.[10]
  • A byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. There are 256 possible values for a byte (28), and the range of values for an unsigned byte is 0 - 255.[11]
  • Units of information are typically measured in multiples of either bits or bytes. Bits are abbreviated with a lower-case b. Bytes are abbreviated with an upper-case B.[12]
  • Traditionally, bits and bytes were measured in multiples of 2, so a kilobit was 1,024 bits (210). A lower-case prefix is used to indicate multiples of 10. An upper-case prefix is used to indicate multiples of 2.[13]
Storage
Prefix Common Bits Bytes Base 10 Base 2
kilo thousand kb, Kb kB, KB 103 210 (1024)
mega million mb, Mb mB, MB 106 220 (10242)
giga billion gb, Gb gB, GB 109 230 (10243)
tera trillion tb, Tb tB, TB 1012 240 (10244)
peta thousand trillion pb, Pb pB, PB 1015 250 (10245)
  • Data transfer rates, sometimes referred to as throughput, are typically measured in multiples of bits per second (bps), such as:[14]
Data Transfer (Throughput)
Prefix Common Bits Base 10 Base 2
kilo thousand kbps, Kbps 103 210 (1024)
mega million mbps, Mbps 106 220 (10242)
giga billion gbps, Gbps 109 230 (10243)
tera trillion tbps, Tbps 1012 240 (10244)
  • Processing speed is measured in Hertz, or cycles per second.[15]
Processing Speed
Prefix Common Hertz
mega million MHz
giga billion GHz

Key Terms[edit]

AC (Alternating Current)
An electric current which periodically reverses direction, and the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug devices into a wall socket.[16]
airplane mode
A setting available on smartphones and other portable devices that, when activated, suspends the device's radio-frequency (RF) signal transmission technologies (i.e., Bluetooth, telephony and Wi-Fi), effectively disabling all voice, text and phone services.
AIO (All In One)
A desktop computer that integrates the system's internal components into the same case as the display, thus occupying a smaller footprint (with fewer cables) than desktops that incorporate a tower.[17]
DC (Direct Current)
The unidirectional flow of an electric charge, and the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they run devices from a battery.[18]
Gb (Gigabit)
A unit of digital storage in bits equivalent to 109 (1 billion) for gb or 230 (1,0243) for Gb.[19]
GB (Gigabyte)
A unit of digital storage in bytes equivalent to 109 (1 billion) for gB or 230 (1,0243) for GB.[20]
Gbps (Gigabit per second)
A unit of data transfer in bits per second equivalent to 109 (1 billion) for gbps or 230 (1,0243) for Gbps.[21]
GHz (Gigahertz)
A unit of processing speed equivalent to 109 (1 billion) cycles per second.[22]
IoT (Internet of Things)
A system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.[23]
Kb (Kilobit)
A unit of digital storage in bits equivalent to 103 (1 thousand) for kb or 210 (1,024) for Kb.[24]
KB (Kilobyte or Knowledge Base)
A unit of digital storage in bytes equivalent to 103 (1 thousand) for kB or 210 (1,024) for KB.[25]
Kbps (Kilobit per second)
A unit of data transfer in bits per second equivalent to 103 (1 thousand) for kbps or 210 (1,024) for Kbps.[26]
Mb (Megabit)
A unit of digital storage in bits equivalent to 106 (1 million) for mb or 220 (1,0242) for Mb.[27]
MB (Megabyte)
A unit of digital storage in bytes equivalent to 106 (1 million) for mB or 220 (1,0242) for MB.[28]
Mbps (Megabit per second)
A unit of data transfer in bits per second equivalent to 106 (1 million) for mbps or 220 (1,0242) for Mbps.[29]
MHz (Megahertz)
A unit of processing speed equivalent to 106 (1 million) cycles per second.[30]
PB (Petabyte)
A unit of digital storage in bytes equivalent to 1015 (1,000 trillion) for pB or 250 (1,0245) for PB.[31]
PC (Personal Computer)
A multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.[32]
Tb (Terabit)
A unit of digital storage in bits equivalent to 1012 (1 trillion) for tb or 240 (1,0244) for Tb.[33]
TB (Terabyte)
A unit of digital storage in bytes equivalent to 1012 (1 trillion) for tB or 240 (1,0244) for TB.[34]
Tbps (Terabits per second)
A unit of data transfer in bits per second equivalent to 1012 (1 trillion) for tbps or 240 (1,0244) for Tbps.[35]

Assessments[edit]

See Also[edit]

References[edit]