World History/Honors World History Guide

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This is a rough guide to global history as taught in a 2008 class by Mr Wood at a school in Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District, United States.

Bellwork[edit]

  • Athenian Jurors expressed their verdicts using round disks. If the center was hollow, the defendant was guilty. If the center was filled, the defendant was innocent.
  • Justinian regulated the Byzantine Empire by ordering legal experts to create 100s of years of laws & opinion to create one uniform code for his "New Rome." This legal code was his lasting constitution in western civilization.
  • The Scientific Revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world. It occurred in the mid-1500s.
  • The Bill of Rights and the cabinet system came from England.
  • The Enlightenment was a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were philosophes.
  • Rousseau argued that laws established for and by the people are the hallmark of a free society.
  • The cartoon shows the 3rd estate heavily burdened at the bottom.
  • George Danton was a lawyer who led the Indulgent group. He was executed as a famous Jacobin because he defended himself very well.
  • La Marseillaise is a song written to inspire French people to fight. It gave people a sense/reason to stick with France. It aroused people in Marseilles to March.
  • The Directory lost control of the political situation and the confidence of the French people. A coup d'État is a sudden seizure of state.
  • At Trafalgar Horatio Nelson split the larger French fleet while capturing many ships. It was successful because the French had less cannons in the front and back than on the sides.
  • The Congress of Vienna was a forerunner of the United Nations.
  • The bonds that create a nation-state are culture, language, history, religion, nationality, and territory.
  • The two groups that made up the majority of the population of Spanish America were peninsulares and Creoles.
  • For a state building to occur, culturally distinct groups must form into a new state by accepting a single culture. For separatists groups to form, culturally distinct groups needs to resist being added to a state or break away.
  • Beethoven was deaf.
  • The first industry to industrialize was the textile industry. The flying shuttle speedily carried threads of yarn back and forth when the weaver pulled a handle on the loom.
  • Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow, and London grew during the Industrial Revolution.
  • There are 5 communist countries today: China, North Korea, Laos, Vietnam, and Cuba.
  • Imperialism is the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country. Imperialists brought railways for better transportation. Imperialists took away other people's farms and families.
  • Ottomans are followers of the most successful warrior of Islam, Osman. By 1566 Ottomans controlled Hungary, Crimea, Mesopotamia, Syria, Egypt, Tripoli, Algeria, Balkans, and Greece.
  • India was considered the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire because of its potential.
  • Gandhi adopted the spinning wheel as a symbol because he suggested Indians spin their own cloth instead of getting it from the English.
  • Queen Liliuokalani was Hawaii's only queen and last monarch. She tried increasing her power and restoring political power of Hawaiians at the expense of wealthy planters. American businessmen overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy.
  • At least 20 million people died from the Taiping Rebellion.
  • Commodore Perry was an American diplomat who astounded the Japanese with his black wooden steam powered ships. He threatened the Japanese to open free trade between the United States and Japan.
  • Japan's social class (highest to lowest): emperor, shogun, daimyo, samurai, (merchant, peasant, farmer)
  • American engineers built the Panama Canal to destroy the mosquitoes that carried diseases and rats that carried bubonic plague. It was also built to shorten trade routes through Central America.
  • Tiananmen Square the site of many political activities during the 20th century.

Ancient Greece and Rome[edit]

  • democracy - rule by the people; everyone has power
  • anarchy - freeform rule; no one has power
  • monarchy - rule by one king/queen; no one else has power
  • aristocracy - rule by the noble or wealthy class
  • dictatorship - complete rule by one person
  • Aristotle - language was important to him because it could explain reason; polis; middle class should rule
  • Augustus - ended Roman republic; 1st emperor of Rome; led a 200 year period of stability called Pax Romana
  • Classical Rome and Greece's legacy to the modern world
  • Roman Republic compared to Athenian Democracy

Enlightenment[edit]

  • Hobbes - wrote Leviathan; believed absolute monarchy was the best type of government; because everyone is equal there is a war for power; men are naturally in war; give up rights to the leviathan
  • Montesquieu - wrote Spirit of the Laws; favored division of government; argued for a system of checks and balances; admired Britain
  • Rousseau - believed that obedience would preserve freedom; wrote the Social Contract
  • Voltaire - used satire to avoid being caught writing; criticized French society; believed in freedom of religion and right to a fair trial
  • Locke - freedom is law; wrote Two Treatises on Civil Government; everyone has life liberty and property
  • Glorious Revolution of 1688 - a bloodless revolution that overthrew King James II of England and replaced him with William of Orange
  • William & Mary - first monarchs under a constitutional monarchy in Britain
  • English Bill of Rights - (1689) changed England to a constitutional monarchy
  • philosophes - French word for philosopher (lovers of wisdom)
  • Women's roles
  • salons - women set up salons to spread enlightenment ideas
  • Habeas Corpus - undeniable right to petition against charges in court
  • Magna Carta - (1215) influenced development of the common law
  • Petition of Right - Charles I signed it; originated from Sir Edward Coke's list of complaints; it argued for no unlawful arrests, no quartering of soldiers, due process (respect all legal rights), and no unjust punishment
  • US War of Independence
  • Declaration of Independence - (1776) served as a basis for other declarations of independence
  • Example of U.S. Constitution to the world

French Revolution[edit]

  • old regime - the name of the era in France before the French revolution
  • 3 Estates
    • First Estate - had the king
    • Second Estate - consisted of the nobles & clergy
    • Third Estate - consisted of laborers and peasants
  • Louis XVI - king during the French Revolution
  • National Assembly - consisted of the third estate, vowed to the Tennis Court Oath to not disband until a new constitution was drafted
  • Bastille - In 1789, the National Assembly stormed it looking for weapons to avoid threat from Louis XVI's army
  • Bourgeoisie - upper middle class above proletariat; power comes from employment, education, or wealth
  • Versailles - former capital of France
  • cahiers - lists of grievances compiled in a notebook by each estate.
  • La Marseillaise
  • Estates General - Louis XVI summoned it to compiled cahiers
  • Tennis Court Oath - oath taken in a tennis court by the National Assembly; would not disband until there was a constitution for France
  • March on Versailles - march for bread led by women because prices were very high
  • Declaration of the Rights of man and the Citizen (1789) - based on U.S. Declaration of Independence; focused on universal natural rights
  • Constitution of 1791 - made constitutional monarchy and legislative assembly
  • Marie Antoinette - Austrian who became queen of France; was married to Louis XVI; executed by guillotine in 1793 for treason; said "Let them eat cake!" (did not actualy say but this rumor was created to anger the 3rd Estate all the same)
  • Bastille Day - (July 14th) day celebrated in France to honor the short constitutional monarchy in France
  • Declaration of Pillnitz - (1791) Leopold II and Frederick William II issued it to prevent French revolutionaries from taking away Louis XVI's power
  • Robespierre - led the Reign of Terror; believed the only form of punishment was the guillotine; eventually he was executed in the guillotine
  • Reign of Terror - 12 months in which mass guillotine executions occurred
  • deficit spending - spending more money than gained, leads to debt; led France into financial crisis
  • Napoleon Bonaparte - a Corsican-born man who sought expansion of the French empire
  • 1st Republic - (1792-1804)
  • Napoleonic Code - Napoleon Bonaparte's laws
  • Austerlitz - one of Napoleon's most successful victories; destroyed the Third Coalition against the French empire
  • Waterloo (Battle of) - (1815) Napeoleon's last battle; exiled into St. Helena afterwards; constitutional monarchy set up afterwards
  • Battle of Nations (aka Battle of Leipzig) - (1813) Napoleon's last battle before abdication to ELBA
  • nationalism - feeling that one should be loyal to one's nation instead of leaders
  • guerrillas - hit and run style of attacks
  • Congress of Vienna - group formed to redraw the map of Europe; surrounded France with stronger countries; unified the 39 German states; recognized Switzerland as independent nation; consisted of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, France, and Klemens von Metternich; combined Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic
  • Prince Metternich - attempted to create a balance of power; had idea of aiding other nations if revolutions broke out

The Industrial Revolution[edit]

  • Jethro Tull - inventor of the seed drill
  • Putting Out System - old system of industry; predecessor of factory system; central agent contracted subcontractors to do work in their own home; then central agent collected goods
  • Luddites - minority group against industrialization, broke machines and favored traditionally made goods
  • John Wesley - early leader of the Methodist movement; Christian theologian
  • laissez-faire - economy without the interference of the government
  • steam engine - James Watt improved it
  • Malthus - believed population would increase more rapidly than food supply; believed most people were destined to be poor and miserable
  • Enclosure Movement - wealthy land owners set boundaries on their land making it unavailable to others
  • causes and effects of British industrialization
  • Transportation Revolution
  • socialism - economic system in which the people would own the means of production
  • methodism - a group of Protestant Christianity
  • utilitarianism - a type of govern in which moral worths of actions are based on their utility, or how useful it is; John Stuart Mill was a follower of this
  • communism - a type of government in which there is no private property; everything is operated for the people, by the people
  • seed drill - planted seeds in even rows, more effective than planting seeds by hand
  • flying jenny (flying shuttle or spinning jenny?)
    • spinning jenny - (James Hargreaves) a multi-spool spinning wheel
    • flying shuttle - (John Kay, 1773) sped up weaving
  • water table - place where water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure
  • spread of Industrial Revolution - spread through study-touring

Latin American Revolutions[edit]

  • peninsulares - Spanish born people who held power
  • Creoles - 2nd generation of peninsulares
  • mestizos - people of mixed European descent living in Latin America
  • role of enlightenment
  • Miguel Hidalgo - started El Grito de Dolores
  • José Morelos - led the Mexican independence movement
  • El Grito de Dolores - call for insurrection against authorities of mexico
  • Itúrbide - emperor of Mexico from 1822-1823
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture - led a slave revolt in Haiti
  • yellow fever - hindered Napoleon's army's ability to stop the revolution in Haiti
  • Napoleon's invasion of Spain
  • Bolívar - liberator of southern Latin American nations
  • San Martín - leader of southern South America's independence from Spain; won Chile's independence
  • Gran Colombia - republic of Colombia; located in northern South America
  • Dom Pedro and Brazil - leader of Brazil's independence (from Portugal)

Romanticism and Realism[edit]

  • neoclassicism - a type of art that utilized reason
  • romanticism - a type of art that reflected emotions
  • realism - a type of art that tried to express the world how it was
  • impressionism - a type of art that tried to give the artist's impression of a subject or moment in time
  • Jacques Louis David - neoclassic artist; highly influential; painted pictures of the French Revolution
  • Byron
  • Dickens - depicted life in industrial cities in his works
  • Beethoven- deaf musician; composed Eroica (heroic)

New Imperialism[edit]

  • Queen Victoria
  • King Leopold II - sent Henry Stanley to claim territory in the land he called Congo
  • Shaka Zulu - almost defeated the British without guns
  • Menelik II - emperor of Ethiopia who strategically avoided imperialism
  • Livingstone - missionary sent to go to Africa and got lost; when Henry Stanley found his body, Stanley was presumed to have said "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
  • colony - a form of imperial control
  • protectorate - a form of imperial control
  • Kipling - English author/poet born in Bombay, India; wrote The Jungle Book
  • sphere of influence - a form of imperial control; a region where another entity indirectly dominates the region
  • Berlin Conference (1884) - conference set up to decide the division of Africa, no Africans were invited
  • Imperialists' motives - political, economic, and military interests
  • social Darwinism - a type of racism based on the concept that more developed countries have an advantage over less developed countries, making the less developed countries seem inferior to the more developed countries
  • how, why, and where the Imperialists were largely successful - because they had superior weapons
  • Boer War (2nd) - (1899-1902) war between Britain and South Africa
  • Ottoman Empire - a Turkish-ruled empire that was the center for Western and Eastern worlds
  • efforts at reform
  • Armenian genocide - slaughter of many Armenians during World War I.
  • young Turks
  • Egyptian modernization
  • Muhammad Ali - sometimes referred to as the one who modernized Egypt
  • Suez Canal - artificial port that joined the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea
  • British protectorate
  • British East India Company - Mughal emperor Jahangir gave trade rights for this company
  • Mughal Empire - ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent and part of present-day Afghanistan. when it became weak the British Raj (rule) took over
  • British improvements in India - they brought a railway system to India
  • Sepoy Rebellion - a rebellion led by Indians who refused to work because their guns were oiled in beef (which Hindus do not eat) and pork (which Muslims do not eat) fat
  • Growing Indian nationalism - grew after the Sepoy Rebellion
  • Indian National Congress - nationalist group (mostly Hindu) that fought for India's independence
  • Muslim League - a nationalist Muslim group that fought for the Muslim state of Pakistan
  • Gandhi's civil disobedience - Gandhi realized civil disobedience as the only way to combat against British colonization of India
  • Salt March - 241 mile long march to Dandi; Gandhi led it to get salt from sea water instead of getting it from Britain
  • Qing Dynasty - last imperial dynasty of China
  • Opium War - when Britain refused to stop trading opium with China, war started
  • Treaty of Nanjing - marked the end of the first opium war
  • Taiping Rebellion - a rebellion led by Hong Xiuquan with a goal to end poverty
  • Boxer Rebellion - a group that wanted to end poverty and make every place a utopia. they killed foreigners and were against imperialism
  • Sun Yixian - leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party, aka the kuomintang/guomindang
  • Chulalongkorn - successed Mongkut
  • Liliuokalani - last Hawaiian monarch and only queen. see bellwork for more info
  • Aguinaldo - played an important role for the Philippines' independence.
  • Spanish-American War - (1898) United States aided Cuba and the Philippines to liberate them form Spain's control
  • Philippine Insurrection - 11 campaigns from 1899 to 1913
  • Tokugawa Shogunate - predecessor of Meiji Restoration
  • Isolation - Japan stayed in this to avoid imperial powers
  • Commodore Perry - president Millard Fillmore sent him with black wooden steam ships (which the Japanese feared) to negotiate the Treaty of Kanagawa
  • Treaty of Kanagawa - (1854) allowed free trade between Japan and the United States in 2 Japanese ports
  • Meiji Restoration - occurred in later half of 19th century; Japan went under big changes during this era; began industrialization in Japan
  • industrialization - Japan sent people to study Western nations to learn new ways of industrializing
  • nationalization - a feeling that one should stay loyal to one's country and not its leaders
  • constitution - (1854) based on the German constitution
  • diet - a bicameral legislature in Japan; consists of House of Representatives (lower) and House of Councillors (upper)
  • zaibatsu - families that controlled banking
  • Russo-Japanese War - (1904) a war between the Japanese and Russians held at Manchuria. caused by Russia and Japan's want to expand their empires
  • annexation of Korea - (1910-1945) the Japanese tried to eliminate Korean existence during this period. they taught Japanese in schools instead of Korean

World War I[edit]

How did it start?[edit]

When the news of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria's trip to Sarajevo was announced, Serbian revolutionaries were outraged. A young Serbian peasant named Gavrilo Princip joined the terrorist group called the Black Hand. Seven members of the Black Hand were at the trail with instructions to kill Franz Ferdinand. When Gavrilo Princip noticed that Franz Ferdinand's driver's car's gears shut off, he took his chance and shot Franz and his wife Sophie. They both died on June 28th, 1914. On July 23rd, Austria-Hungary sent an ultimatum, or harsh set of demands, to Serbia. These demands mostly tried to get rid of Anti Austria-Hungary opposition. On July 25th, Serbia refused some of these demands. As a result, Russia gave Serbia support. On July 26th, Russia asked Germany to ask Austria-Hungary to lower its response to Serbia. Germany issued a blank check to Austria-Hungary. Since Serbia failed to comply to the July ultimatum, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28th, 1914. On July 30th Russia asked France for help, and France issued a blank check to Russia. From there Russia began mobilization of its army. On August 1st, Germany declared war on Russia. On August 3rd, Germany declared war on France. Germany also invaded Belgium. On August 4th, Britain declared war on Germany.


Russian Revolution[edit]

  • collective farms - farms compiled from farms of individuals to produce one big farm with modern equipment owned by the government
  • Great Purge - the police and terror part of Stalin's rule
  • NEP (New Economic Policy) - a policy that Lenin issued, it included a little bit of capitalism (peasants could keep or sell surplus crops); Lenin said it was one step back to go to two steps ahead; government would only control large business but not small ones
  • 5 year plans - set impossible quotas for Russia's economy at a harsh human cost; never was achieved
  • Karl Marx - influenced Lenin's ideology
  • Comintern (Communist International) - a communist group founded in Moscow
  • gulags - Russian labor camps
  • War Communism - aimed to keep the Red Army with enough supplies2
  • Cheka - the secret police working for communist Russia
  • Red Guard - armed groups of workers
  • soviets - councils of workers
  • Nicholas II - czar who abdicated after March Revolution
  • whites - loyalists to the czar
  • Rasputin - believed to be a "mad monk," czarina Alexandra believed god sent him to save Russia
  • Duma - parliament of Russia
  • Trotsky - led the Red Army in civil war
  • Lenin - leader of the Bolsheviks, had some Marxist thought
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - a treaty that stopped Russia's involvement in World War I
  • "Peace, Land, and Bread" - a slogan during the Russian Revolution
  • Stalin - totalitarian leader who tried to greatly improve Russia's economy
  • Bloody Sunday (1905) - a march against the czar in St. Petersburg at the winter palace, many were shot, Father Gapon led it
  • bolsheviks - followers of Lenin's plan for a communist revolution
  • "All power to the Soviets" - slogan during Russian revolution
  • redemption payments - annual payments that peasants made to the government
  • totalitarianism - a form of government in which the leader controls every aspect of public and private life
  • autocracy - the form of government in Russia before the Bolshevik Revolution
  • reds - followers of Lenin's beliefs
  • Communist Party - formerly Bolsheviks, name was changed after the Bolshevik/October Revolution
  • USSR - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • atheism - under Stalin's rule, this is what was taught

Rise of Dictators in the 1930s[edit]

  • dadaism - a form of "anti-art"; went against everything in classical art
  • surrealism - a type of art that used surprise and unexpected juxtapositions
  • Lost Generation - generation of people after World War I
  • Weimar Republic - Germany's form of government before Hitler's rule
  • Flappers - young women who wore short skirts, put on a lot of makeup, and listened to jazz
  • Popular Front
  • New Deal - Franklin D. Roosevelt's plan for building the United States up after the Great Depression
  • stock market crash - triggered the Great Depression
  • Great Depression - caused people to lose faith in the ability of western democracies to solve problems
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt - president of the during
  • Hitler - Nazi dictator who defied the Treaty of Versailles
  • Mussolini - leader of Fascist Italy; teamed up with Hitler
  • Il Duce - Mussolini's title during his rule
  • Nazism - Hitler formulated it; encouraged racism and Hitler's view
  • Mein Kampf - written by Hitler; a book of Nazism; said Germans were superior
  • lebensraum - "living space", a phrase for the expansion of Germany to take Austria and Czechoslovakia
  • Führer - Hitler's title during his rule
  • anti-Semitism - racism against Jews
  • Guernica - Nazi Germans attacked this Spanish city
  • (Hitler's) Third Reich
  • cubism - a type of art that broke down objects into simpler shapes; Picasso was a famous cubist artist
  • spirit of Locarno - symbolized banishment of war
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact - further banished war after treaties at Locarno, Switzerland
  • swastika - Nazis adopted this as their symbol
  • kristallnacht - a Nazi rampage against German Jews
  • black shirts
  • brown shirts - "stormtroopers"; helped Hitler gain power
  • King Emmanuel
  • Hindenburg
  • Franco - a cautious Spanish dictator who battled in the Spanish Civil War; ruled until his death
  • Second Spanish Republic
  • Lincoln Brigade
  • Nuremburg laws
  • Maginot Line - provided a false sense of security to France
  • fascism - militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader

Upheavals in China and Japan[edit]

  • Sun Yixian
  • Jiang Jieshi - leader of Chinese nationalists
  • Chinese Republic
  • May 4th Movement
  • Nationalists - supported republic of China (aka Taiwan)
  • Communists - supported people's republic of China
  • Mao Zedong - leader of Chinese communists
  • Long March
  • Japanese Invasion
  • 21 Demands
  • Rape of Nanjing

Japan[edit]

  • 1920's Liberalization
  • Militarists
  • Manchuria/Manzhouguo
  • Hirohito - emperor of Japan from
  • Greater East-Asia Co-prosperity Sphere

Between the Wars in Europe[edit]

See rise of dictators in the 1930s

World War II[edit]

  • Spanish Civil War
  • sanctions
  • appeasement
  • pacifism
  • Axis Powers
  • Guernica
  • Austrian Anschluss
  • Munich Pact
  • Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
  • blitzkrieg - German word for lightning war
  • Dunkirk
  • London Blitz/Battle of Britain
  • Operation Barbarossa
  • Atlantic Charter
  • Lend-lease
  • Pearl Harbor
  • El Alamein
  • Stalingrad
  • D-Day
  • Holocaust
  • kamikaze - Japanese suicide crashing technique
  • Battle of the Coral Sea
  • Midway
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • VE Day
  • Hiroshima
  • VJ Day
  • Nuremburg Trials - tried to punish leaders of the holocaust to ensure responsibility of leaders
  • FDR
  • Churchill
  • de Gaulle
  • Stalin
  • Marshall
  • Eisenhower
  • MacArthur
  • Nimitz
  • Rommel

Cold War[edit]

  • Yalta Conference
  • Potsdam Conference
  • Iron Curtain - symbolized division between communism and democracy in Europe
  • Containment
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Marshall Plan
  • Berlin Airlift
  • NATO
  • arms race
  • Sputnik
  • Khrushchev
  • Warsaw Pact
  • United Nations
  • nonaligned nations
  • Greek Crisis
  • Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
  • brinkmanship - policy of being on the edge of war
  • Imre Nagy
  • Hungarian Crisis
  • Brezhnev
  • Prague Spring
  • Alexander Dubček
  • Fidel Castro
  • Cuban Revolution
  • Bay of Pigs
  • JFK/Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Korean War
  • domino theory
  • Vietnam War
  • Reagan
  • Strategic Defense Initiative
  • Berlin Wall
  • Lech Walesa/Solidarity

Modern World[edit]

China[edit]

  • Mao
  • Great Leap forward - Mao Zedong's "great leap backward", emphasized non-industralized practices
  • Cultural Revolution
  • Four Modernizations
  • Deng Xioping
  • Tiananmen Square
  • Hu Jintao

Africa[edit]

  • Negritude movement

Kenya[edit]

  • Jomo Kenyatta
  • 1963 Independence
  • Rwandan genocide

South Africa[edit]

  • apartheid
  • FW de Klerk
  • Mandela
  • ANC

Mideast[edit]

  • Israel
  • Zionists
  • Balfour declaration
  • 1948 Independence
  • 1956 crisis
  • 1967 War
  • 1973 War
  • Anwar Sadat
  • Camp David Accords
  • Palestinians
  • Menachem Begin
  • Yasir Arafat
  • Global Economic Development
  • developed nations
  • emerging nations
  • globalization

Terrorism[edit]

  • cyberterrorism
  • narcoterrorism

World Leaders (2008)[edit]

  • Felipe Calderon - Mexico
  • Nikolas Sarkozy - France
  • Yasuo Fukuda - Japan
  • Kevin Rudd - Australia
  • Hu Jintao - China
  • Steven Harper - Canada
  • Angela Merkel - Germany
  • Ban Ki Moon - UN Secretary General
  • Gordon Brown - United Kingdom
  • Thabo Mbeki - South Africa
  • Vladimir Putin - (old) Russia
  • Dmitry Medvedev - Russia
  • Kim Jong-Il - North Korea
  • Nouri al-Maliki - Iraq
  • Hamed Karzai - Afghanistan
  • Manmohan Singh - India
  • Mahmoud Ahmedinejad - Iran
  • Altaf Hussain - Pakistan
  • Ehud Olmert - Israel
  • Sylvio Berlusconi - Italy