Windows Server Administration/Introduction

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This lesson introduces Windows Server administration by looking at servers in general, and Windows and Microsoft servers in particular. Activities include a comparison of Windows Server versions and editions.

Objectives and Skills[edit]

Objectives and skills for Windows Server Administration Fundamentals certification are covered in detail later in the course. This lesson helps you:

  • Understand server functionality, terminology, and licensing.

Readings[edit]

  1. Wikipedia: Server (computing)
  2. Wikipedia: Windows Server
  3. Wikipedia: Microsoft Servers
  4. Wikipedia: Client access license

Multimedia[edit]

  1. YouTube: Introductory Nugget: Microsoft MTA Windows Server Administration 98-365
  2. YouTube: Client Access Licenses (CALs) in Windows Server 2012

Activities[edit]

  1. Review Technet: Windows Server. Identify available Windows Server documentation resources.
  2. Review [1]. Identify major improvements from Windows Server from Windows Server 2008 to Windows Server 2012 and identify some of the new features in Server 2016.
  3. Review Windows Server editions and pricing. Identify CAL requirements for different editions. Using your preferred software vendor, determine the cost of client licenses for small (less than 25 user), medium (100+ user) and large (1,000+ user) organizations.
  4. Review Windows Server editions and pricing. Identify user and virtualization limits for different editions. Determine how many virtual servers are necessary to make the Enterprise edition a cost-effective solution.
  5. Using an Internet search, identify the top three server hardware vendors by market share. Using one of the three vendors' web sites or your preferred hardware supplier, identify the cost for an entry-level tower server, a midrange rack server, and a high-end blade server.

Lesson Summary[edit]

  • A server is a system (software and suitable computer hardware) that responds to requests across a computer network to provide, or help to provide, a network service.[1]
  • Servers often provide essential roles or services across a network, including file server, print server, directory services server, web server, mail server, database server, or other application server.[2]
  • While nearly any personal computer is capable of acting as a network server, a dedicated server will contain features making it more suitable for production environments. These features may include a faster or more processors, increased high-performance RAM, increased storage capacity in the form of a larger or multiple hard drives, and faster network connections.[3]
  • Servers also typically have reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) and fault tolerance features, such as redundancy in power supplies, storage (as in RAID), and network connections.[4]
  • Servers may incorporate larger computer fans or water cooling to help remove heat, and uninterruptible power supplies that ensure the servers continue to function in the event of a power failure.[5]
  • Modern operating systems such as Microsoft Windows or Linux distributions are designed with a client–server architecture in mind.[6]
  • Server-oriented operating systems tend to have features that make them more suitable for the server environment, including no or optional graphic user interface (GUI), reconfiguration without system restart, flexible and advanced networking capabilities, automation capabilities, and tight system security with advanced user, resource, data, and memory protection.[7]
  • Many desktop and server operating systems share similar code bases, differing mostly in configuration.[8]
  • Microsoft requires that all clients that connect to server applications have a license to connect to and use the services of that software. These special purpose licenses come in the form of a Client Access License (CAL).[9]
  • A Per-User CAL is purchased to allow one user to connect to the server software. Any user can connect, but only one user may use a given CAL at any given time. A Per-Device CAL operates in much the same way, but limits connections made by number of devices, rather than number of users. User CALs and device CALs are not interchangeable.[10]

Key Terms[edit]

Active Directory (AD)
A directory service created by Microsoft for Windows domain networks.[11]
application server
A server dedicated to running certain software applications.[12]
automation
The use of technologies to optimize productivity by greatly decreasing the need for human sensory and mental requirements while increasing load capacity, speed, and repeatability.[13]
availability
The degree to which a system, subsystem or equipment is in a specified operable and committable state at the start of a mission, when the mission is called for at an unknown, i.e. a random, time.[14]
Client Access License (CAL)
A proprietary software license distributed by software companies to allow clients to connect to its server software and use the software's services.[15]
Central processing unit (CPU)
The hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system.[16]
client–server model
A distributed application structure in computing that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.[17]
code base
The entire collection of source code used to build a particular application or component.[18]
database server
A computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or computers, as defined by the client–server model.[19]
directory service
The software system that stores, organizes and provides access to information in a directory.[20]
enterprise class
Designed for large-scale, high-technology environments of modern enterprises. When comparing to consumer class, it has higher scalability, higher reliability, better fault tolerance, and much higher initial price.[21]
fault tolerance
A design that enables a system to continue its intended operation, possibly at a reduced level, rather than failing completely, when some part of the system fails.[22]
file server
A computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for shared disk access, i.e. shared storage of computer files, that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the same computer network.[23]
Group Policy
Provides the centralized management and configuration of operating systems, applications, and users' settings in an Active Directory environment.[24]
graphical user interface (GUI)
A type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices using images rather than text commands.[25]
hard disk drive (HDD)
A data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using rapidly rotating discs (platters) coated with magnetic material which retains its data even when powered off.[26]
Hyper-V
Microsoft's hypervisor server and service.[27]
hypervisor
A piece of computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines.[28]
Internet Information Services (IIS)
A web server software application and set of feature extension modules created by Microsoft for use with Microsoft Windows.[29]
machine code
A set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).[30]
Microsoft SQL Server
A relational database management system developed by Microsoft.[31]
port
An interface between the computer and other computers or peripheral devices.[32]
RAID (redundant array of independent disks)
A storage technology that combines multiple disk drive components into a logical unit.[33]
Random-access memory (RAM)
A form of volatile computer data storage which allows stored data to be accessed directly in any random order[34]
redundancy
The duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the case of a backup or fail-safe.[35]
reliability
The ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time.[36]
scalability
The ability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work in a capable manner or its ability to be enlarged to accommodate that growth.[37]
service
A Windows service is a computer program that operates in the background, and is similar in concept to a Unix daemon.[38]
source code
Any collection of computer instructions (possibly with comments) written using some human-readable computer language, usually as text.[39]
storage
A technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data.[40]
uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
An electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source, typically main power, fails.[41]
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)
A desktop-centric service that hosts users desktop environments on remote servers and/or blade PCs, which are accessed over a network using a remote display protocol.[42]
virtualization
The various techniques, methods or approaches of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as a virtual hardware platform, operating system (OS), storage device, or network resources.[43]
Windows PowerShell
Microsoft's task automation framework, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language built on .NET Framework.[44]

Review Questions[edit]

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  1. A server is a _____ that responds to _____ across a computer network to provide, or help to provide, a _____.
    A server is a system (software and suitable computer hardware) that responds to requests across a computer network to provide, or help to provide, a network service.
  2. Servers often provide essential roles or services across a network, including _____.
    Servers often provide essential roles or services across a network, including file server, print server, directory services server, web server, mail server, database server, or other application server.
  3. While nearly any personal computer is capable of acting as a network server, a dedicated server will contain features making it more suitable for _____ environments. These features may include a faster _____, increased _____, increased _____, and faster _____.
    While nearly any personal computer is capable of acting as a network server, a dedicated server will contain features making it more suitable for production environments. These features may include a faster or more processors, increased high-performance RAM, increased storage capacity in the form of a larger or multiple hard drives, and faster network connections.
  4. Servers also typically have _____ and _____ features, such as _____.
    Servers also typically have reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) and fault tolerance features, such as redundancy in power supplies, storage (as in RAID), and network connections.
  5. Servers may incorporate _____ to help remove heat, and _____ that ensure the servers continue to function in the event of a power failure.
    Servers may incorporate larger computer fans or water cooling to help remove heat, and uninterruptible power supplies that ensure the servers continue to function in the event of a power failure.
  6. Modern operating systems such as Microsoft Windows or Linux distributions are designed with a _____ architecture in mind.
    Modern operating systems such as Microsoft Windows or Linux distributions are designed with a client–server architecture in mind.
  7. Server-oriented operating systems tend to have features that make them more suitable for the server environment, including no or optional _____, _____ without system restart, flexible and advanced _____ capabilities, _____ capabilities, and _____.
    Server-oriented operating systems tend to have features that make them more suitable for the server environment, including no or optional graphic user interface (GUI), reconfiguration without system restart, flexible and advanced networking capabilities, automation capabilities, and tight system security with advanced user, resource, data, and memory protection.
  8. Many desktop and server operating systems share similar _____, differing mostly in _____.
    Many desktop and server operating systems share similar code bases, differing mostly in configuration.
  9. Microsoft requires that all clients that connect to server applications have a _____ to connect to and use the services of that software.
    Microsoft requires that all clients that connect to server applications have a license to connect to and use the services of that software.
  10. Server access licenses come in the form of a _____.
    Server access licenses come in the form of a Client Access License (CAL).
  11. A _____ is purchased to allow one user to connect to the server software. Any user can connect, but only one user may use a given _____ at any given time.
    A Per-User CAL is purchased to allow one user to connect to the server software. Any user can connect, but only one user may use a given CAL at any given time.
  12. A _____ is purchased to allow one device to connect to the server software. Any device can connect, but only one device may use a given _____ at any given time.
    A Per-Device CAL is purchased to allow one device to connect to the server software. Any device can connect, but only one device may use a given CAL at any given time.
  13. User CALs and device CALs are _____.
    User CALs and device CALs are not interchangeable.

Flashcards[edit]

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

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  1. Wikipedia: Server (computing)
  2. Wikipedia: Server (computing)
  3. Wikipedia: Server (computing)#Usage
  4. Wikipedia: Server (computing)#Usage
  5. Wikipedia: Server (computing)#Server hardware
  6. Wikipedia: Server (computing)#Usage
  7. Wikipedia: Server (computing)#Server operating systems
  8. Wikipedia: Server (computing)#Server operating systems
  9. Wikipedia: Client access license
  10. Wikipedia: Client access license
  11. Wikipedia: Active Directory
  12. Wikipedia: Server (computing)#Types of servers
  13. Wikipedia: Automation
  14. Wikipedia: Availability
  15. Wikipedia: Client access license
  16. Wikipedia: Central processing unit
  17. Wikipedia: Client–server model
  18. Wikipedia: Codebase
  19. Wikipedia: Database server
  20. Wikipedia: Directory service
  21. Wikipedia: Enterprise storage
  22. Wikipedia: Fault-tolerant design
  23. Wikipedia: File server
  24. Wikipedia: Group Policy
  25. Wikipedia: Graphical user interface
  26. Wikipedia: Hard disk drive
  27. Wikipedia: Hyper-V
  28. Wikipedia: Hypervisor
  29. Wikipedia: Internet Information Services
  30. Wikipedia: Machine code
  31. Wikipedia: Microsoft SQL Server
  32. Wikipedia: Computer port (hardware)
  33. Wikipedia: RAID
  34. Wikipedia: Random-access memory
  35. Wikipedia: Redundancy (engineering)
  36. Wikipedia: Reliability engineering
  37. Wikipedia: Scalability
  38. Wikipedia: Windows service
  39. Wikipedia: Source code
  40. Wikipedia: Computer data storage
  41. Wikipedia: Uninterruptible power supply
  42. Wikipedia: Desktop virtualization#Virtual desktop infrastructure
  43. Wikipedia: Virtualization
  44. Wikipedia: Windows PowerShell