VOLUME 2 (2019)
Author: Collin Knopp-Schwyn , et al.
Widgiemoolthalite is a rare hydrated nickel(II) carbonate mineral with the chemical formula (Ni,Mg)5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O. Usually bluish-green in color, it is a brittle mineral formed during the weathering of nickel sulfide. Present on gaspéite surfaces, widgiemoolthalite has a Mohs scale hardness of 3.5 and an unknown though likely disordered crystal structure. Widgiemoolthalite was first discovered in 1992 in Widgiemooltha, Western Australia, which was its only known source as of 2016. It was named in 1993 by the three researchers who first reported its existence, Ernest H. Nickel, Bruce W. Robinson, and William G. Mumme.
Author: Ignacio L. B. Munguira , et al.
Lysenin is a pore-forming toxin present in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are proteinaceous virulence factors produced by many pathogenic bacteria. Following the general mechanism of action of PFTs, lysenin is secreted as a soluble monomer that binds specifically to the membrane receptor sphingomyelin. After attachment, lysenin forms a 9-copy oligomer (nonamer) prepore on the lipid bilayer before membrane insertion. The biological role of lysenin is still unclear, however the most plausible theory is that it is part of an immune-avoiding mechanism. There are many proposed technological applications proposed for lysenin, and understanding its molecular role in bacterial infection could help in developing different antibiotic strategies to solve the problem of multiple drug resistance in bacteria.
Author: Anthony Lin , et al.
In computer science, binary search, also known as half-interval search, logarithmic search, or binary chop, is a search algorithm that finds a position of a target value within a sorted array. Binary search compares the target value to an element in the middle of the array. If they are not equal, the half in which the target cannot lie is eliminated and the search continues on the remaining half, again taking the middle element to compare to the target value, and repeating this until the target value is found. If the search ends with the remaining half being empty, the target is not in the array.
Authors: Michael A. Stear , David Piedrafita , Sarah Sloan , Dalal Alenizi
One of the most important parasites of sheep and goats is the nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta. This is common in cool, temperate areas. There is considerable variation among lambs and kids in susceptibility to infection. Much of the variation is genetic and influences the immune response. The parasite induces a type I hypersensitivy response which is responsible for the relative protein deficiency which is characteristic of severely infected animals. There are mechanistic mathematical models which can predict the course of infection. There are a variety of ways to control the infection and a combination of control measures is likely to provide the most effective and sustainable control.
Author: Michael Bech , et al.
Baryonyx () is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in the Barremian stage of the Early Cretaceous Period, about 130–125 million years ago. The first skeleton was discovered in 1983 in the Weald Clay Formation of Surrey, England, and became the holotype specimen of B. walkeri, named by palaeontologists Alan J. Charig and Angela C. Milner in 1986. The generic name, Baryonyx, means "heavy claw" and alludes to the animal's very large claw on the first finger; the specific name, walkeri, refers to its discoverer, amateur fossil collector William J. Walker. The holotype specimen is one of the most complete theropod skeletons from the UK (and remains the most complete spinosaurid), and its discovery attracted media attention. Specimens later discovered in other parts of the United Kingdom and Iberia have also been assigned to the genus.
Author: Mike Christie , et al.
Ice drilling allows scientists studying glaciers and ice sheets to gain access to what is beneath the ice, to take measurements along the interior of the ice, and to retrieve samples. Instruments can be placed in the drilled holes to record temperature, pressure, speed, direction of movement, and for other scientific research, such as neutrino detection.
Author: Natalie A. Borg
RIG-I (retinoic-acid inducible gene I, also known as DDX58) is the best characterized receptor within the RIG-I like receptor (RLR) family. Together with MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated 5) and LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2), this family of cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are sentinels for intracellular viral RNA that is a product of viral infection. The RLR receptors provide frontline defence against viral infections in most tissues.