Web Science/Part1: Foundations of the web/Web Architecture

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Completing the second block of the first part of the Web Science MOOC you will

  • learn that the basic form of the web consisted of 3 main technologies (URI, HTTP, HTML).
  • see that the concepts and ideas of each of these technologies wasn't new but the combination of all of them created such a tremandous extra value.
  • realize how there where similar systems like the web and why the open (licence) structure of the web as well as compatibility added to the success of the web.
  • have implemented a simple web server and web client
  • know the basic components of HTML
  • understand the importance of the 404 for web scale
  • know the most important historical events that influenced the rise of the web



understanding HTTP 1.0[edit]

Theory[edit]

  • protocol for requesting files (especially hypertext) from URIs
  • HTTP header
  • GET, POST,...
  • status codes
  • content negotiation
  • request / response protocol (stateless)

Implementation[edit]

In order to get a better understanding we will implementing a web client and web server which understands HTTP 1.0 and only uses socket libraries.

Discussion[edit]

  • the importance of 404 with respect to web scale
  • what are the bad design issues of HTTP 1.0
  • theoretical discussion of HTTP 1.0 and newer versions
  • comparison: Stateless vs connection oriented vs connectionless protocols. Which part of the http protocol belong to which of the concepts?

understanding HTML[edit]

  • linked documents
  • The link as a directed edge (again 404 and web scale)
  • mark up language
  • open format is included into the text to be displayed
  • different HTML elements

Web technologies[edit]

REST[edit]

  • RESTful services

Cookies[edit]

as part of http or as a result of the flexibility of http?

JavaScript[edit]

Hacked in by Netscape navigator.

historical overview[edit]

CERN[edit]

  • information management systems at CERN
  • ENQUIRE
  • How the web was deleted

Computing compatibility problems[edit]

  • Compatibility problems of hardware: TimBL's NextStation

Industry[edit]

  • Microsoft's Internet Explorer (Why is it actually called internet explorer? What a stupid name!) (inventing cookies)
  • Netscape (e.g. inventing java script)

politics[edit]

  • Bill Clinton's role in making the Web high priority.

similar applications and technologies[edit]

  • Goopher
  • usenet
  • Compuserve
  • compatibility of HTTP with other protocols in order to have all the content accessible
  • open, non commercial and free nature of HTTP