Votian/Translative

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Translative [1][edit]

 

Singular

Plural

Translative marker

-kse -ikse


Pronunciation[edit]

  • Pronunciation of translative morpheme was lately -ssi e.g. ssi (" for the journey "), mälehtühsessi (" for memory ")
  • Pronunciation of translative morpheme was -hsi in the 19. century e.g. tšivehsi (" stone " singular translative ), sue̮hsi (" wolf " singular translative, Jõgõperä )
    • Translative of the interrogative pronoun mi (" what ? ") is still mihsi (" What for? ") in many dialects, as well as missi or mi .
  • The final vowel of the suffix may be omitted depending in it's position in a sentence , but this is rare e.g. huллu   meni (" (She) went crazy. "), ve̮лga   ve̮tamma ("We shall borrow.").
    • The final e of this suffix went through a protofinnic sound change * e > i in the end of a word [2], but was preserved between the ta infinitive marker and a possessive suffix e.g. anna tupa tuллassni, rihi sōja e̮ллassni, лautad ̮ лahti tšävvässeni   (" Give me a chamber where I could come, a warm room where I could be, open byres where I could go . ").


Usage[edit]

Translative may express

  1. timeline - e.g. soлdatti tšüsü ȫssi   ("The soldier asked permission to spend a night (here)."), ke̮лme̮ttomassi piäb ̮ e̮mme̮ллa tšiutto   ("Before the third (? date) the shirt must be wowen.")
  2. duration - e.g. tulin siллe̮ ühessi tunnissi   ("I came to you for an hour (only).")
  3. result, goal - e.g. lämmittǟs̄   tšihvassi ("It will be warmed up until boiling."), sai naize̮ssi   t r i f o n ā   tüttärē ("He married Trifona's daughter."), лauta krāzgattī musassi ("The table was painted black."), tē lühüpässi ("Make it shorter."), nī e̮li meil se̮na   tehtü ("So was it agreed by us.")
  4. purpose, reason - e.g. nā tāria tēssi ("Here is some (local non-alcoholic) drink for you to your journey!"), antagā antē̮ssi ! ("Forgive!"), mi   tämä on hakka ? ("Why is she a crone?"), tē lühüpässi ("Make it shorter."), nī e̮li meil se̮na   tehtü ("So was it agreed by us.")
  5. being in a certain condition or role - e.g. ī v a n a   te̮i vīmezessi (" Ivan was the last one to bring something. "), ke̮лme̮ttomassi piäb ̮ e̮mme̮ллa tšiutto   ("As a third task a shirt must be wowen."), tahte̮   e̮ллa ke̮ikke̮a ülepässi   ("She wanted to be above everybody." Mati )
  6. a custom to do, a language to speak - e.g. pajatan vad́d́aлaize̮ssi ~ vad́d́akossi ~ vaissi ("I speak Votic (like a Votian)."), juttē̮   māssi ~ maissi ! ("Say it in Votic (or Ingrian = like they speak in the country side)."), kui on venäissi ? ("How is (it) in Russian?"), virossi (" in Estonian (Vironian) "), sōme̮ssi (" in Finnish (Lutheran way) ")


Dialectal alternatives[edit]


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 35
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.71
  3. Eastern Votic iIllative

See also[edit]

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