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Translative [edit | edit source]
Pronunciation[edit | edit source]
- Pronunciation of translative morpheme was lately -ssi e.g. tēssi (" for the journey "), mälehtühsessi (" for memory ")
- Pronunciation of translative morpheme was -hsi in the 19. century e.g. tšivehsi (" stone " singular translative ), sue̮hsi (" wolf " singular translative, Jõgõperä )
- Translative of the interrogative pronoun mi (" what ? ") is still mihsi (" What for? ") in many dialects, as well as missi or mis̄ .
- The final vowel of the suffix may be omitted depending in it's position in a sentence , but this is rare e.g. huллus̄ meni (" (She) went crazy. "), ve̮лgas̄ ve̮tamma ("We shall borrow.").
- The final e of this suffix went through a protofinnic sound change * e > i in the end of a word , but was preserved between the ta infinitive marker and a possessive suffix e.g. anna tupa tuллasse̮ni, rihi sōja e̮ллasse̮ni, лautad ̮ лahti tšävvässeni (" Give me a chamber where I could come, a warm room where I could be, open byres where I could go . ").
Usage[edit | edit source]
Translative may express
- timeline - e.g. soлdatti tšüsü ȫssi ("The soldier asked permission to spend a night (here)."), ke̮лme̮ttomassi piäb ̮ e̮mme̮ллa tšiutto ("Before the third (? date) the shirt must be wowen.")
- duration - e.g. tulin siллe̮ ühessi tunnissi ("I came to you for an hour (only).")
- result, goal - e.g. lämmittǟs̄ tšihvassi ("It will be warmed up until boiling."), sai naize̮ssi t r i f o n ā tüttärē ("He married Trifona's daughter."), лauta krāzgattī musassi ("The table was painted black."), tē lühüpässi ("Make it shorter."), nī e̮li meil se̮nas̄ tehtü ("So was it agreed by us.")
- purpose, reason - e.g. nā tāria tēssi ("Here is some (local non-alcoholic) drink for you to your journey!"), antagā antē̮ssi ! ("Forgive!"), mis̄ tämä on hakka ? ("Why is she a crone?"), tē lühüpässi ("Make it shorter."), nī e̮li meil se̮nas̄ tehtü ("So was it agreed by us.")
- being in a certain condition or role - e.g. ī v a n a te̮i vīmezessi (" Ivan was the last one to bring something. "), ke̮лme̮ttomassi piäb ̮ e̮mme̮ллa tšiutto ("As a third task a shirt must be wowen."), tahte̮ e̮ллa ke̮ikke̮a ülepässi ("She wanted to be above everybody." Mati )
- a custom to do, a language to speak - e.g. pajatan vad́d́aлaize̮ssi ~ vad́d́akossi ~ vaissi ("I speak Votic (like a Votian)."), juttē̮ māssi ~ maissi ! ("Say it in Votic (or Ingrian = like they speak in the country side)."), kui on venäissi ? ("How is (it) in Russian?"), virossi (" in Estonian (Vironian) "), sōme̮ssi (" in Finnish (Lutheran way) ")
Dialectal alternatives[edit | edit source]
- Votic of Ingria
References[edit | edit source]
- Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 35
- Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.71
- Eastern Votic iIllative