Reproductive health/Secondary characteristics
Estrogenic hormones are responsible for secondary sexual characteristics of the female anatomy. This affects voice, bone structure, body composition and body hair.
This section is about body shape and adipose tissue body composition. Estrogen lowers belly fat, and it redistributes this fat to other places like the hips. Estrogen is responsible for body fat distribution and accumulation. Alternatively, there is a correlation between obesity and low estrogen levels.
Foods high in phytoestrogens may help balance hormones, and balance estrogenic fat.
Exercising the gluteal muscles can increase buttock size. Gradually increasing resistance amount in exercise training, and eating more calories may be required for continued results. One set of exercises using the near max weight that can safely be lifted is enough, and preventative against over-training. Resting from exercise for an increasing amount of time for up to two weeks may help with overcoming plateaus. Over-training may cause the need for an even longer recovery time.
The Lunge, single leg dead-lift, and step exercise all three of the Gluteus Maximus, Gluteus Minimus, and Gluteus Minimus. The squat exercises only the Gluteus Maximus of these three. Abdominal exercises involving leg movement exercise the Tensor Fasciae Latae. Many bodyweight exercises can be done with dumbbells or other weights. An exercise that works all of the lower body muscles to different extents is the leg press. Sprinting exercises the Gluteus Maximus, and other lower body muscles. For a list of exercise examples and muscle diagrams, see http://exrx.net/Lists/ExList/HipsWt.html.
Muscle tissue naturally promotes fatty tissue around it, which it can use for energy. Phytoestrogens that work on Estrogen Receptor Beta, such as from legumes, could also promote adipose tissue gain surrounding gluteal muscles.
Some research suggests the possibility of noninvasive breast enhancement. There is also some evidence of herbal breast reduction.
Hormone effects and the mind
Hormones and possibly xenohormones have an effect on the mind.
Androgens, phytoandrogens, and few other phytohormones increase body hair. Daidzein, mostly present in legumes, is a phytoestrogen that also acts as a phytoandrogen since it activates androgen receptors. Phytohormones from legumes, velvet bean, coffee, tongkat ali, or huanarpo macho increase body and facial hair. Some of these may increase scalp hair-loss or alopecia. Other phytohormones have minimal effect on body hair.
Nettle and saw palmetto may reduce body hair and have preventative effects against alopecia. Saw palmetto has effects that may lower dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which may be responsible for scalp hair loss, and body hair growth. Mints (mentha) and green tea (camellia) are also useful against hirsutism.
There is a relation between chin and abdominal size to body hair amount. This is influenced by androgenic hormones. For women, this makes sense as a heavy chin is a masculine feature, and estrogen reduces abdomen size.
There is an imaging technology that uses the aid of algorithms that can scan for hair distribution, patterns and other data.
Human hormones are synthesized by and have specialized effects on different organ tissues which form an intricate system that is often oversimplified.
- "Estrogen". Britannica. (2012).
- Estrogen’s Effects on Fat Depends on Where It’s Located, American Physiological Society, 2013, http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/605836/?sc=rssn&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+NewswiseScinews+%28Newswise%3A+SciNews%29
- Estrogen Reason Why Women Store Fat More Efficiently Than Men, Science 2.0, 2009, http://www.science20.com/news_releases/estrogen_reason_why_women_store_fat_more_efficiently_men
- Molecular Imaging Finds Link Between Obesity and Low Estrogen Levels, Science Daily, 2011, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110606131709.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Latest+Science+News%29
- By modulating androgen receptor coactivators, daidzein may act as a phytoandrogen
- Serenoa Repens: Does It have Any Role in the Management of Androgenetic Alopecia?, 2009, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2840915/
- An Update on Plant Derived Anti-Androgens, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3693613/
- Women's chin, abdomen are good indicators of excessive hair growth, November 11, 2011, http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-11-women-chin-abdomen-good-indicators.html
- Hair today, gone tomorrow: tracking hair loss and growth, PhysOrg.com, Oct 31, 2008, http://phys.org/news144675412.html