Public assembly risk management

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This examination of public assembly risk management considerations is under development by University of Florida, College of Health and Human Performance, Department of Sport Management, SPM 4724 Risk Management in Live Entertainment and Sports undergraduate students. This ongoing coursework initiative started Fall 2020 and is being led by the students at the direction of Brian D. Avery, UF SPM Faculty member.

Students will develop a foundation based on consensus defining and outlining risk management considerations including safety, security, business continuity, legal, and regulatory issues impacting the live entertainment and sport industry. Students will focus on new and existing assembly occupancies (both indoor and outdoor) accommodating 250 patrons or more with an emphasis on occupancy in excess of 6000 (large-scale).

Learning Objectives

  1. Analyze and define prevailing public assembly risk management theories;
  2. Analyze and define applicable public assembly risk management standards and practices;
  3. Evaluate and define prevailing public assembly continuity plans;
  4. Analyze and define public assembly safety and security protocols;
  5. Evaluate and define public assembly incident trends and accepted responses; and,
  6. Analyze and define public assembly legal considerations regarding matters of negligence.

Topics

  • History and introduction of public assembly risk management;
  • Typology of risk management as it relates to public assemblies;
  • Accepted risk management frameworks for public assemblies;
  • Management roles and practices as it relates to public assemblies;
  • Public assembly risk considerations related to spectators, participants, staff, and vendors;
  • Theories of accident / ancient causation as it relates to public assemblies;
  • Hazard recognition, mitigation and/or elimination practices as it relates to public assemblies;
  • Regulations, standards, and practices as they release to public assemblies;
  • Business continuity planning for public assemblies;
  • Security and loss prevention planning for public assemblies;
  • Medical and first aid considerations for public assemblies; and,
  • Occupational safety and health considerations as they relate to public assemblies.

Medical and First Aid Considerations for Public Assemblies[edit | edit source]

A description of a key principle associated with the topic[edit | edit source]

A key principle associated with medical and first aid considerations for public assemblies is determining the type of public assembly and associated risk levels. Depending on these two factors, it will determine what level of medical/first aid equipment is needed on-scene of the event. According to an article by Arthur Hsieh, there are several factors during an event that can have an impact on public safety. These include weather, age, drugs and alcohol, location, timing, and potential for violence (Hsieh, 2020). For example, an outdoor event in Florida in July would require different precautions than one in December because of extreme heat. An event hosting an older crowd has a greater risk of falls, slips, or health emergencies than a children’s event. A heavy metal concert would be more likely to attract alcohol and drug users and violence versus a Little League World Series game. All of these factors have an impact on how many medical personnel should be on scene, whether basic life support (BSL) or advanced life support (ASL) are preferred, and what other first aid services should be offered on scene.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

The World Health Organization notes characterization of risk in determining the extent of medial/first aid at an event. Their chart characterizes risk from minimal to severe, and understanding what can happen at each level is an important practice for those frequently involved in the implementation of large events or public assemblies. Minimal risk is characterized by little or no consequences (World Health Organization, 2015). This could include no injuries or very small ones such as cuts/abrasions. The next level is minor, characterized by low risk of injury or illness (World Health Organization, 2015) such as the potential for broken bones, food poisoning, etc. Next is moderate, characterized by having the potential for death or serious injury (World Health Organization, 2015). This could include a carnival event. A major risk event is characterized by substantial loss of life or injury (World Health Organization, 2015) which could include an event at which the likelihood of alcohol/drug overdoses are prevalent. Lastly, risks classified as severe include extreme loss of life or serious injury (World Health Organization, 2015) which could be attributed to an act of terrorism. The WHO characterization of risk is applicable when looking at medical and first aid considerations because it can help determine appropriate courses of action and what medical devices/personnel should be nearby and ready to go. A second practice associated with medical and first aid considerations is the event classification matrix that scores event risk on a 0-6 scale, with 0 being the least risk and 6 being the most (Avery, 2020). This looks at characteristics such as weather, attendance, predicted alcohol consumption, crowd age and intent, and transport time to hospital to determine how high risk the event is and the associated medical and first aid components that should be present at the given event (Avery, 2020). The three levels of event risk are high, intermediate, and low. High-risk events (5-6) should have a licensed physician and ALS equipment on-site (Avery, 2020). By having ALS equipment on site at events that are expected to produce a significant amount of injuries (i.e. an event in which a high amount of drugs and/or alcohol is being consumed), the probabilities of death decreases as patients can be treated sooner. Especially if transport time to a hospital is not reasonable and risk is inherent to the event, this will be very important for public safety. An intermediate risk event (3-4) should have a mix of BLS/ALS components and should consider appropriate staff, stations, and equipment based on the nature of the event (Avery, 2020). It is always better to be prepared and ready for any feasible incident to occur, which is why medical and first aid considerations are a necessary factor at places of public assembly. A low risk event (0-2) should have BLS equipment ready to go. Looking at the event classification risk matrix is an important practice when assessing medical and first aid considerations. It gives event organizers a proper gauge on the safety of their event, an idea of what could happen (extreme weather, overdose, various injuries, etc.), and time to prepare safety stations for maximum patron safety.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice  [edit | edit source]

To mitigate the risk of an event, it must first be considered if the risks are avoidable or not. Some may be, such as moving an outdoor event indoors if the location is under a severe storm warning. Some risks, however, are unavoidable, such as the use of drugs and alcohol at an EDM concert, for example. The use of drugs at these festivals could be considered a part of the environment, and precautions are not typically taken to eliminate the drug use but instead to monitor the use of ‘safe’, non-poisoned drugs (Avery, 2020). This is why the event classification matrix is such a helpful practice for medical and first aid considerations. The matrix helps determine what risks are avoidable and which ones are not and can therefore help mitigate extreme occurrences (i.e. death) by having appropriate personnel and equipment on-scene to handle an emergency. Each public assembly occurrence should also have an emergency action plan (EAP) if there is to be an emergency requiring medical attention/first aid. The EAP assigns specific roles to various staff members so they know what their course of action and duties are in a situation. Especially for high risk events, the EAP is necessary to ensure there is no chaos or confusion on part of anyone during a situation. By looking into the World Health Organization’s risk classification system, it can help determine the depth and scope of the EAP. For example, if risk at an event is minimal the EAP will not have that many components because the extent of an injury may simply be a cut or a broken bone. However, if the perceived risk is to be severe (an example being the potential for an act of terrorism), there would have to be strict EAP guidelines and assurance that everyone could do their part.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic[edit | edit source]

A method of applying a risk assessment is to do a facility inspection before the event. This can help determine if there are any falling/trip hazards, if and how weather can be an issue, if the facility is appropriate for the demographic (for example, you would not want to host an event for wheelchair-bound individuals in the sand), and more. A facility inspection can help determine the avoidable and unavoidable risks and can perhaps determine if the venue should be changed in the best interest of public safety. A method of applying the emergency action plan would be to run a drill with all members of the emergency response team before the event. Going back to the EDM concert example, maybe a scenario is run in which a patron experiences an overdose. On-scene EMTs would retrieve the individual and bring them to a critical care medical station. As this would be a high-risk event by the event classification matrix, the individual would probably then be treated by appropriate personnel and equipment. By running a practice scenario, the EAP can be practiced and the mitigation of a real overdose during the event would go a lot smoother. There would be no question as to what medical and first aid services would be needed, and there would be appropriate personnel on-scene to take care of the situation.

A citation[edit | edit source]
  1. Avery, B. (2020). Health, Medical, and Safety: Best Practices for Mass Gatherings [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/jordi/Downloads/Health-Medical_Event-Planning.pdf
  2. Hsieh, A. (2020, May 28). EMS coverage for mass gatherings and public events. Retrieved November 10, 2020, from https://www.ems1.com/ems-products/incident-management/articles/ems-coverage-for-mass-gatherings-and-public-events-KQdJ0H4MfeULbEtS/
  3. World Health Organization. (2015). Public Health for Mass Gatherings: Key Considerations [PDF]. Retrieved from WHO_HSE_GCR_2015.5_eng.pdf


Public assembly risk considerations related to spectators, participants, staff, and vendors.

 A description of a key principle associated with the topic;

A key principle in regard to risk considerations for those involved with public assemblies is fire safety. There is always a risk of a fire in any situation but in a public assembly where many lives are involved security and proper training on fire safety is paramount. In an event where there may be fireworks or pyrotechnics involved there is an additional fire risk involved. The operator for the pyrotechnics holds the overall responsibility in safely using them.


Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory;

     The NFPA 1126 standard for use of pyrotechnics before an audience provides safety training and guidance on appropriate measures to take when dealing with pyrotechnics in front of a large gathering. There needs to be at least one license holder on hand with adequate training although all members of the staff should be well equipped with this training.  


A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice;

                       Fire alarms systems used to detect fires shall they occur can help to mitigate the hazard. Making sure fire alarm systems are functioning are also part of the training and setup for an event with pyrotechnics involved. Portable fire extinguishers should also be present should they need to be used by trained personnel in the event of an emergency. Make sure to type up all loose wires and make sure that there is only one plug in per outlet. These are risks that can cause sparks, leading to fires. Furthermore, the best elimination tactic is doing a run through before events and keeping all running wires separate from each other. This would be placed on both maintenance and fire protection crews to do a run through before events and after as well.


A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic; and,

                       All events using pyrotechnics are required to have a trained professional in direct supervision of the pyrotechnics operator at all times. This is not a suggestion but a requirement. In doing so the hope is that the likelihood of a fire occurring is lessened with supervision taking place during the display. There should also be a written checklist that has to be run through in order for an event to occur. Making these sweeps through mandatory might seem tedious, but it can be life or death if an accident occurs. Citation        

Fire safety in public assemblies. (2004). Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/Staying-safe/Safety-in-living-and-entertainment-spaces/Nightclubs-assembly-occupancies/Fire-safety-in-assembly-occupancies

Preventing a Home Electrical Fire. (n.d.). Retrieved February 1, 2021, from https://www.thehartford.com/about-us/junior-fire-marshal/electrical-fire-safety

Theories of accident / ancient causation as it relates to public assemblies[edit | edit source]

A description of a key principle associated with the topic[edit | edit source]

A key principle associated with the theories of accident/ancient causation is determining the type of event and audience that will be in attendance at the event. Without knowing the type of event, it is hard to pinpoint exactly what the potential risks would be. This information is necessary because different crowds act differently at different events. An example of this could be music genres in concert. If someone is at an EDM concert they should expect to see some head-banging, but mainly some fun dancing. If that same person then went to a Metal concert, they should expect to see mosh pits and fist fights. With out knowing the type of event or audience, event staff struggle to prepare for potential accidents they could experience.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory[edit | edit source]

There are multiple theories associated with accident causation. There is the Domino theory which states that an injury is caused by the preceding factors. This means that the moments and actions that one makes before an accident are what caused it. Another theory is the Human Factor Theory which states that a chain of events caused by human error will lead to an accident. This essentially means that what someone does is what will lead to an accident, not the forces around them. Another applicable theory is the Incident Theory which is a build off of human factors but accounting for system failure and err. Another theory is the Epidemiological Theory which studies the relationship between environmental factors and disease and can be used to study causal patterns in a relationship. This theory is used to study how everything interacted to cause the accident. Another theory that is applicable is the Systems Theory which states accidents arise from interactions among humans, machines, and the environment. All of the forces interacted in such a way that it caused a problem. The final theory is the Combination Theory which states accidents may/may not fall under one model and that they result from factors from multiple models. This is the one that most people agree upon when looking at the cause of an accident.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice [edit | edit source]

When trying to figure out the root cause of an accident, these theories can each be applied in some way or another to find the cause of an accident. Using these theories, companies can then trace the data to the root cause and fix it so that it will not happen again. An example of this as it pertains to public assemblies would be if a stage fell apart in the middle of an event. By looking at the damage organizations are able to see the cause of the problem and change it so that it does not happen again. Unfortunately, it is hard to predict an accident to happen unless something seems out of place. These theories if studied properly can give employees the information they need to plan out how the assembly will be run correctly and with minimal risk. The main tactic that can be used is the pulley system in order to prevent stage collapses during outdoor shows. One of the worst stories was at the Indiana State Fair where a massive windstorm caused the collapse of the stage killing several people. Outside of clearing people out in time, the stage did not have the proper backdrop with holes through them to allow wind to go through. Furthermore, the stage should be tied down with attachments so that it does not lean one one, but can be supported from all angles.

A method of applying a mitigation/elimination tactic[edit | edit source]

By studying Systems Theory in this example, employees are able to see how people, machines, and the environment are all interacting. This gives employees insight of how to set up the event to properly protect all three areas. If the assembly is a music concert, the stage shouldn’t be too close to the crowd in case it collapses, and the crowd should stay away from the stage because they could make the stage collapse, and both parties need to be wary of the weather because rain could cause injuries to people or machines. In the event that a problem happens, event planners can accurately forecast potential risks before they happen through use of the Domino Theory. If it is supposed to rain, then event planners will be able to lay out tarps to prevent people from slipping or getting electrocuted. These theories each work differently to help event planners account for risk.

A Citation[edit | edit source]

1. Avery, B. (2020). Theories of Accident Causation [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from   file:///C:/Users/jordi/Downloads/Theories_of_Accident_Causation.pdf 2. Duffy, S. “Theories of Accident Causation.” Powerpoint, academic.csuohio.edu/duffy_s/Section_03.pdf.

2. Avery, B (2021). Intro to Risk Management; “EMBOK Facets and Applications” 2016

Occupational Safety and Health Considerations for Public Assemblies[edit | edit source]

A Description of a Key Principle Associated with the Topic[edit | edit source]

Slip and Falls[edit | edit source]

One of the most dangerous incidents under the umbrella of occupational safety and health is falls/slips. This type of accidental event is responsible for the second most fatalities according to OSHA, only behind motor vehicle accidents. Many occupational hazards are thought to be related to specific job fields, but slip and fall risk can be present in any career, including live event hosting. It is important that we don’t forget about the safety of our own employees while watching out for our patrons. There are a number of walking-working areas in a venue for public assembly that are only accessible to employees, and it is critical that we show those areas of our facility the same care we would to the entrance of the building.

While slip and fall accidents are one of the top leading causes of accidents in the work field, it is important to understand where they come from and how they are created. It is important according to OSHA standards, that we foresee these hazards and implement the correct strategies to prevent them.OSHA recommends that all surfaces be even flooring, spillage is immediately reported, waxed surfaces are encouraged, proper footwear, only property maintained ladders, no sharp corners, and areas from from clutter and disorganization. With these adjustments, slip and fall hazards are not only addressed, but mitigated.

Covid-19 Precautions[edit | edit source]

A relatively new principle in Occupational Safety and Health for public assemblies is the new guidance on preparing Workplaces for Covid-19. A large focus in the media has been made on guests to stores and venues not wearing masks or practicing safe social distancing, but there is also a large list of responsibilities we have to prepare our space before any patrons are permitted to enter. This is done not only for the safety of those guests but for the safety of our employees who spend the most time in our assembly. This specific guidance has been developed on the fly this year, but it is based on years and years of preparation for the spread of infectious diseases. This is just specific for the risks imposed by Covid-19 on our facilities.

NRTL Requirements[edit | edit source]

Another key principle associated with occupational safety and health in public assemblies is staying up to date with required testing and certification of life saving devices in our facilities. In particular, fire prevention devices such as fire extinguishers and automatic sprinkler systems in areas of indoor public assembly need to be functional and up to code, and should be regularly inspected to ensure this. There is also a strict testing method put into place for certain products before these devices are ever approved for use in any facility that many people may not be aware of, but it is a requirement for all employers who have any of these products anywhere in their facilities. These tests are carried out by laboratories designated by OSHA at the manufacturing level, but employers need to be aware of changes in certification over time. OSHA states in order to suffice the requirements of qualifying as a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory one must: Have the “capability to test and evaluate equipment for conformance with appropriate test standards”; possess “adequate controls for the identification of certified products, conducting follow-up inspections of actual production”; Establish “complete independence from users (i.e., employers subject to the tested equipment requirements) and from any manufacturers or vendors of the certified products"; and acquire "effective measures for producing its findings and for handling complaints and disputes."

Cooking Ventilation[edit | edit source]

One hazard that is applicable to many different types of public assemblies is the risk posed by cooking. This hazard can apply to purpose built facilities such as arenas or stadiums, as well as mobile and temporary cooking set ups such as those found at fairs or festivals. It is important that we remain aware of the risks posed when we allow fresh cooked food to be a part of our event. Maintaining the safety of guests and employees requires proper training, effective protocols, and scheduled inspection and maintenance to ensure cooking devices are up to code. These devices can range from cotton candy machines to deep oil fryers, and the consequences can be wide ranging as well. If these precautions are not taken thoroughly, event hosts run the risk of severe burns, ventilation issues, and possibly life-threatening fires. It is our duty as event risk managers to double check any vendors bringing in outside materials for compliance.

Severe Injury Reporting[edit | edit source]

A relatively new principle in the world of Occupational Safety and Health is the recent requirement for businesses to report serious injuries to the OSHA offices. OSHA knew that they did not have the requisite injury data to efficiently respond to accidents. On January, 1, 2015 OSHA officially made it a requirement for workplaces to report serious injuries suffered on the job in a timely manner, within twenty four hours. Serious injuries are classified by OSHA as “Amputations, in-patient hospitalization, or the loss of an eye”. The goal of this program was too properly allocate resources to where workers were most in danger as well as to effectively engage with high risk industries to improve worker safety in general. (OSHA, 2016)

Use of an Applicable Regulation, Standard, and/or Practice Associated with the Topic or a Prevailing Theory[edit | edit source]

Slip and Falls[edit | edit source]

OSHA 1910 Subpart D outlines the basic protections that should be given for walking-working surfaces in general industry. This includes a declaration that “All places of employment… are kept in a clean, orderly, sanitary condition” as well as outlining the need for regular and “as necessary” inspection of walking-working surfaces in and around our building. This OSHA statute clearly covers any area of our building where “an employee walks, works, or gains access to a work area or workplace location.” And it also stipulates that walkways should not be used by any employee if any of those conditions are not met. OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.22 requires that an employer must supply, and warrant each employee uses, a safe means of access and egress to and from walking-working surfaces. Additionally, the standard dictates "walking-working surfaces are maintained free of hazards such as sharp or protruding objects, loose boards, corrosion, leaks, spills, snow, and ice." Furthermore, these walking-working surfaces must be able to support the maximum intended load for that particular surface.

Covid-19 Precautions[edit | edit source]

OSHA 3990-03 lays out guidance for “Preparing Workplaces for Covid-19”, but it states clearly at the beginning of the journal that “this guidance is not a standard or regulation and it creates no new legal obligation”. Simply put, this reference serves as an effective guide and is not required to be adhered to nationwide, yet, making it an applicable practice/prevailing theory within the world of Occupational Safety and Health. Following the practices outlined in this guidebook will have our organization operating at the peak of Covid prevention protocols.

NRTL Requirements[edit | edit source]

OSHA, per provisions of the General Industry Standards 29 CFR Part 1910 has established the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) program to govern certain product certification. This program compiles guidelines and statutes in and outside of OSHA across all industries into a collection of 37 different product categories that are required to be certified by one of 20 different NRTL’s currently designated by OSHA. These products tend to be life saving devices or products that are prone to fail or cause injury/fire. Some example products that must be NRTL certified include fire sprinklers, fire doors, and portable fire extinguishers, all common products that should be located in large indoor venues for public assembly. The list of NRTL’s approved by OSHA and the requirements for testing are always liable to change as new information becomes available, so it is important that we insure we are up to date in our compliance.

Cooking Ventilation[edit | edit source]

NFPA standard 96 is written with a focus on ventilation and fire prevention in cooking operations across many industries. Chapter 4 specifically governs the “General Requirements for Cooking Operations in Buildings and Mobile and Temporary Operations”, which suffices to cover all forms of cooking likely to be found in public assemblies. The focus of this manual is to provide preventative and operative fire safety requirements in order to significantly reduce the potential fire hazard of public and private cooking facilities. Ensuring our facility remains up to these standards is the best recognized method for fire prevention. OSHA standard 1926.57(b) is applicable to cooking due to exhaust fumes which are prevalent in many forms of cooking in the kitchen. The standard states, “Local exhaust ventilation when used as described in (a) shall be designed to prevent dispersion into the air of dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and gases in concentrations causing harmful exposure. Such exhaust systems shall be so designed that dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases are not drawn through the work area of employees.”

Severe Injury Reporting[edit | edit source]

Considering this requirement is less than 6 years old, it is reasonable to expect some lag in effectively administering the regulation in a public assembly. I would not expect most live events or assemblies to be considered a high risk event in the eyes of OSHA, but that does not mean the risk of serious injury is not present at every single event. Even a simple slip and fall could result in an injury requiring hospitalization, which rises to the level of a serious injury. This data is critical to continuing OSHA’s mission of minimizing the risk of workplace injury regardless of industry, and we must follow all OSHA requirements as an employer in general industry, meaning any private sector business outside of agriculture. When an employee experiences a work-related hospitalization amputation, or the loss of an eye, it must be reported to OSHA within 24 hours of the incident occurring at the workplace. On the other hand, in the situation of a fatality happening at the workplace, this must be reported to OSHA within 8 hours of the event. To make a report, you must call the nearest OSHA office or contact the OSHA 24-hour hotline at 1-800-321-6742. Upon reaching one of these two parties, employers must be prepared to answer questions pertaining to the injury or death including: Business name; names of employees affected; time and location of the incident; a brief description of what happened during the incident and how it may have occurred; and the contact person for the business supplied with a phone number.

A Recognized or Potential Mitigation/Elimination Tactic or Rationale for the Theory/Practice[edit | edit source]

Slip and Falls[edit | edit source]

The mitigation technique for this issue is twofold. First, the organization must show that they have a set schedule for inspecting walking-working surfaces. Inspections must also be done “as necessary” meaning that some conditions or incidents may lead to another requisite inspection. Second, there must be an ability to resolve any issues that are found in the walking-working surface before allowing any employees to utilize that surface. It is estimated by the U.S. Department of labor that net reduction in costs associated with following the updated version of OSHA regulation 1910 subsection D is over 300$ million per year.

Covid-19 Precautions[edit | edit source]

Some of the mitigation/elimination tactics for this practice are simple and already enforced by the health department, such as frequent employee handwashing. A few however are newly recommended since the outbreak of Covid-19. This guide outlines the development of policies and procedures for “Prompt Identification and Isolation of Sick People, if Appropriate”. This is a new responsibility that very few people in the world of Public assemblies were professionally prepared for, but it is a critical step to slowing the spread of Covid-19 and other highly infectious respiratory diseases that may appear in the future. This is an especially important consideration for employees at places of public assemblies, as the potential for spread is amplified with so many guests from different areas.

NRTL Requirements[edit | edit source]

In accordance with this policy, all products certified by an NRTL will have a printed certificate insignia proving that they are seen as  fit for use in a facility under OSHA guidelines. The testing laboratories ensure that these devices meet the stringent requirements placed forth OSHA, to help prevent failure and streamline the process of finding approved devices for use by employers. Five NRTLs have seen their status removed since the year 2000, showing the importance of staying up to date with this information. If our devices have the NRTL approval removed by OSHA, we will need to buy all new equipment that has been certified by a currently approved NRTL.

Cooking Ventilation[edit | edit source]

There are a number of steps organizations must take for safe operation of potentially dangerous cooking devices in public assembly. First, and kitchen appliance that could produce smoke or “grease-laden vapors” must be equipped with a compliant exhaust system, and a measurement must be done of the approximate output of grease. Certain items in the kitchen are required to be kept in working order at all times, including cooking equipment, hoods, ducts, fans, fire extinguishing equipment, and energy control equipment. Guidance is given for when a dedicated overhead hood is required and outlines the specific design requirements for different situations. There is even a need to have several devices certified by an OSHA NRTL despite this being an NFPA standard. There is a section outlining the need for regular inspection and maintenance at intervals determined by the device in question. Furthermore, this guide lays the ultimate responsibility for inspection, testing, maintenance, and cleanliness at the hands of the owner of the operation.

Severe Injury Reporting[edit | edit source]

According to Weekly Safety, there is a great deal of information that must be reported along with a description of the severe injury itself. (Weekly Safety, 2017) This information includes the location of the accident, business and affected employee(s) names, date and time of incident, as well as a description of how the injury-causing incident occurred. This information must be sent to  an OSHA field office within 24 hours of the injury occurring. Furthermore, this information must be submitted by the direct supervisor of the worker on a day to day basis. This report may or may not lead to an OSHA investigation of the premises so managers should be prepared for all of these responsibilities.

A Method of Applying the Mitigation/Elimination Tactic[edit | edit source]

Slip and Falls[edit | edit source]

The best way to apply this tactic is firstly to have a dedicated employee area janitorial staff who is adequately trained to address simple issues with the surface, such as spills, leaks, obstruction of walkways. The response here is to block off the walkway and commence fixing the issue. They should also be trained to block off and call in issues that they cannot fix to be inspected. Our venue should also have a dedicated construction consultant who specializes in repairing dangerous issues with the surface, such as corrosion, loose construction material, or sharp protruding objects.

Covid-19 Precautions[edit | edit source]

The method provided by OSHA is to develop policies and procedures to educate employees about the signs and symptoms of infectious respiratory diseases, and to train your employees to isolate themselves if they feel there is any chance they may be sick. OSHA 3990-03 encourages employers to designate a room with a closed door as a temporary “isolation space” for immediate removal of potentially sick persons from the healthy population. This could be especially effective for public assembly venues. If an employee begins exhibiting symptoms after arriving to an event, swift isolation could limit the number of contracts they have and slow the spread. Further, employers should make moves to protect uninfected workers by enforcing 6 feet of social distance between all people in the venue when possible, and creating additional engineering and administrative controls when 6 feet of social distance is not possible. An example of this would be OSHA regulated sneeze guards installed at point of sale terminals in arenas. Although OSHA explains that there is not a legal obligation for businesses to follow, they do object that there are safety measures that can be taken in the workplace to prevent a breakout from occurring. These practices are (from most effective to least effective): engineering controls, administrative controls, safe work practices, and PPE. Engineering controls are safety measures taken that limit exposure without depending on worker behavior. An example of this is installing high-efficiency air filters or installing physical barriers between employees.Administrative controls, on the other hand, involve actions taken by the worker himself in order to reduce exposure to one another. This could include establishing alternating shifts or work schedules for employees, limiting contact among workers, and encouraging workers to stay home if sick. Safe work practices are a form of administrative control which include procedures for safe work. These actions promote personal hygiene and health. Requiring hand washing prior to working, providing no touch trash cans or disposable towels for workers to clean all fall under this category. Proper Protective equipment (PPE) may be necessary in addition to another control in order to eliminate or mitigate the hazard of COVID-19. Appropriate proper protective equipment in the fight against the disease might include: goggles, gloves, face shields, face masks and respiratory equipment, if needed.

NRTL Requirements[edit | edit source]

As part of our organizations policy for testing the working condition of fire prevention products found within our public assembly space, considerations should also be made to ensure our devices are up to date in their NRTL certification. Products such as fire extinguishers and fire sprinklers should be tested at regular intervals to ensure that the devices are working when needed most, and it is simple to include up to date NRTL certification as a part of that checklist.

Cooking Ventilation[edit | edit source]

With the number of responsibilities and potential hazards laid on the shoulders of the owner-operator of kitchen facilities under NFPA 96.4, it is important that all employees are trained on proper operation and cleaning techniques. Our cooking operations should adhere to a strict inspection and maintenance schedule, and cleaning of grease heavy machinery should be conducted daily. All kitchen equipment, particularly overhead hoods and exhaust systems should be designed and installed according to NFPA guidelines intended to significantly reduce fire risk. All kitchen employees must be trained in proper use of ventilation systems and prepared to identify issues with increased grease production in certain machinery. This training will be beneficial to the safety of everyone involved in a public assembly with cooking structures.

Severe Injury Reporting[edit | edit source]

Knowing the importance of following this new regulation as well as the requirements for reporting within the scope of the regulation, we can determine a course of action to prepare our staff. Employees and supervisors should already be prepared with a plan for mitigating workplace injuries. With this added requirement we should also ensure they are prepared and vigilant in looking out for themselves and those around them, and be concscious of all of their actions in the workplace. It is also possible to install publicly known cameras in the workplace to ensure the direct supervisor can see and explain exactly how the incident occurred to the OSHA field office if necessary, and considering most public sporting venues have cameras for security purposes, this seems like a potential solution for reporting serious workplace injuries in places of public assembly.

A Citation[edit | edit source]

Slip and Falls[edit | edit source]

A Guide to OSHA’s Revised General Industry Walking-Working Surfaces and Fall Protection Standards (2020). Diversified Fall Protection. Retrieved from Diversified Fall Protection: https://www.fallprotect.com/wp-content/uploads/Diversified-Fall-Protection-Guide-OSHA-Updates-Slips-Trips-Falls.pdf

Covid-19 Precautions[edit | edit source]

OSHA. (2020). Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for COVID-19. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

NRTL Requirements[edit | edit source]

OSHA. (2020). Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Intertek. (2018). What is an "NRTL" and what is it's role? Retrieved from Intertek: https://www.intertek.com/knowledge-education/partners-in-product-safety/nationally-recognized-testing-laboratories/

Cooking Ventilation[edit | edit source]

NFPA. (2020). Codes & Standards. Retrieved from National Fire Protection Association: https://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=96

NV Fire Department. (2019). Module Public Assembly. Retrieved from Nevada State Fire Marshal: https://fire.nv.gov/uploadedfiles/firenvgov/content/bureaus/fst/publicassemblysm.pdf

Severe Injury Reporting[edit | edit source]

OSHA. (2016). Year One of OSHA's Severe Injury Reporting Program. Retrieved from OSHA: https://www.osha.gov/injuryreport/2015.pdf

Weekly Safety. (2017). How to Report Injuries and Fatalities to Osha. Retrieved from Weekly Safety: https://weeklysafety.com/blog/reporting-injuries-and-fatalities-to-osha

Regulations, Standards, and Practices As They Relate To Public Assemblies[edit | edit source]

A Description of a Key Principle Associated with the Topic[edit | edit source]

A key principle associated with this topic is that regulations, standards, and practices are codified and published so that parties are on notice and up to date on what is and is not legal. They describe the standards that administrative agencies adopt and how such laws will be enforced. An example of this is the Fire Marshal’s office in a particular county having its own regulations and rules for enforcing safety and how they investigate but, the state in which they county resides outlines statutes to comply with fire investigations. They exist for the purpose of enforcing safety, quality, and etc. it also outlines the necessary signage and terminology required based on the probability and severity of injuries. Practices may be established by authorities or internally by a company’s management team.

Use of an Applicable Regulation, Standard, and/or Practice Associated with the Topic or a Prevailing Theory[edit | edit source]

One of the biggest parts of this would be the portion that deals exclusively with terminology, signage, and marking requirements that are meant to keep people out of danger. The signage, terminology, and markings are different based on the severity of harm and the probability of an accident occurring.

  • Instructional signage
    • Informs how to act in certain areas, what to expect, and where to go
    • Describes behavior, rules, or tasks
    • Graphics and/or typographics
  • ADA Compliance signage
  • Warning signage
    • Redirect people away from performing unsafe acts
    • OSHA 29 CFR 1910.145
      • DANGER- white on red on black
        • Used to indicate immediate danger
      • WARNING- black on orange
        • Used to warn against hazards
      • CAUTION-black on yellow
        • Used to warn against potential hazards
      • SAFETY- white on green
        • Used where there is a need for general instructions
    • ANSI Standard, Z535.4-2007
      • Probability of Accident if Hazardous Situation is not Avoided and Probability of Death or Serious Injury if Accident Occurs
        • WILL & WILL
          • Danger
        • WILL & COULD
          • Warning
        • COULD & WILL
          • Warning
        • COULD & COULD
          • Warning
      • If Worst Credible Severity of Harm is Moderate or Minor Injury
        • For all Probabilities
          • CAUTION
      • If Worst Credible Severity of Harm is Property Damage
        • Preferred
          • NOTICE
        • Alternate
          • CAUTION

A Recognized or Potential Mitigation/Elimination Tactic or Rationale for the Theory/Practice[edit | edit source]

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale would be to ensure that employees and staff are properly trained and informed on all of the regulations, standards, and practices that company and higher authorities have in place. This would ensure that everything is done to the standards that it is supposed to. Also, ensuring that all signage, terminology, and markings are consistent and that no misunderstanding can occur. Making sure that signs are easily interpreted and that there is no room for misinterpretation is key to safety and the prevention of accidents that could have been otherwise avoided.

A Method of Applying the Mitigation/Elimination Tactic[edit | edit source]

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination is completing a facility inspection prior to the event occurring. This would make sure that all signage, marking, and terminology around the event is correct and is simple, yet descriptive. You should also have your employees complete a practice/run-through day or scenario to see how they respond to the standards, regulations, and practices in place and to ensure that they are fully knowledgeable on all of them. This makes sure that they are able to keep things running exactly how they are supposed to be. They should also be knowledgeable about all of the areas where patrons are not allowed and the most dangerous areas. They should patrol these areas often to ensure there is not trespassing or unauthorized personnel in those areas to help reduce the risk of injury and even death. Teaching employees what to do in the event of an emergency will also aid in the mitigation in the event that something occurs.

A Citation[edit | edit source]

  • Avery, B. (2020). Regulations, Standards and Practices
  • Avery, B. (2020).  Display and Patron Acknowledgement of Signs

Typology of Risk as it Relates to Public Assembly[edit | edit source]

Description of Key Principle: Typology of Risk[edit | edit source]

Typology of risk management refers to specific ordinances, regulations, and standards that events must adhere to and consider when conducting a venue. In order to understand more about the typology of risk, we must understand what are ordinances and regulations.

  • Ordinance:
    • An ordinance is a local law that is passed by municipal governing authorities. Enforcement measures include penalties.
  • Regulation:
    • standards and rules adopted by administrative agencies that govern how laws will be enforced. Regulations are used with the same force as laws and used to enforce laws.

There are four different types of risk that were discussed throughout this course: objective risk, subjective/perceived risk, virtual risk, and inherent/real risks:

  • Objective risk: The experts’ or scientists’ definition of risk, who (in theory) make probability risk assessments in an unbiased, unemotional manner, usually based on statistical evidence.
  • Subjective/Perceived risk: The laypersons, or non-expert assessment, which can be biased or distorted by a person’s preconceived views, emotions, experiences, or a lack of information. Subjective risk can be controlled through skill, judgment, and equipment.
  • Virtual Risks: The areas which are contested between research and people’s direct experiences, or even perceptions of fear.
  • Inherent/real risks: the risks associated with the activity, but which cannot be removed without destroying the essence of the activity.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice[edit | edit source]

There are multiple standards that have been focused on in respects to risk management in public assemblies. The standards we focused on the most were OSHA, NFPA 101, NFPA 102, ANSI Z535, ASTM 1673, DOT/MOT,  FEMA, and ICC.

  • OSHA: Occupational health and safety administration
  • NFPA 101: National Fire Protection Association, life safety codes
  • ANSI Z535: Signage requirements
  • NFPA 102: Temps or temporary membrane structures, larger than 10x10 installations and maintenance.
  • ICC: International Code Council
  • ASTM 1637: Lighting and walkway requirements. Permisibilities.
  • DOT/MOT: Department of transportation and management of transportations plans.
  • FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency.
  • NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


A Recognized or Potential Mitigation/Elimination Tactic or Rationale for the Theory/Practice[edit | edit source]

  • Identify:
    • Determine the facts and documenting internal and external risks
    • A continuing process that should be done periodically throughout the event.
  • Analyze:
    • each risk is analyzed based on an assessment of likelihood and impact

Additional uses or Risk Matrices can be used to determine the inherent risk of an event by considering the typical impact and likelihood of the event occuring.

Methods of Applying the Mitigation/Elimination Tactic[edit | edit source]

When there are a lack of standards it is essential for businesses and organizations to avoid liability for public assemblies and control inherent risk. Ways to avoid liability include: legislation checks, manufacturers materials check, associations check, and case law checks.

Overview of the Risk Management Process:

  1. Establish the context-Once in your place of work or your event setting, walk through your environment. See where people will be located and where staff will be as well. Keep a checklist with you as you begin the analyzing process.
  2. Identify Risk-Throughout your walk throughs, begin to take note of where potential risks are located. Make sure to also note the seriousness of them and if they are likely to occur or not. This is important for us to understand how we would like to treat the risk.
  3. Analyze Risk-As noted prior, this is where we would decide the level of risk there is per one found. It is important to not shy away from all methods of treatment when deciding how to analyze specific risks.
  4. Evaluate Risk-The risks need to be ranked and organized, with a thoughtful list coming out so that there will be a proper use of resources dedicated to the right risks. It is important to consider whether or not the business would be hurt by each risk when building this list.
  5. Treat Risk-There are several methods that can be used to treat risk. The first is avoidance, which is eliminating the risk all together, but often this is not fathomable. The next would be retention, this would be not touching the risk at all. In order to meet in the middle one could always transfer the risk. This can be done through waivers and different insurance companies.

Risk Planning is an essential mitigation tactic for all risk typologies. Avoiding 5 pitfalls can help elimiminate risk.

5 Pitfalls

  1. Planning -last minute changes that go unchecked
  2. Supervision - Do certain people need extra guidance
  3. Communication - How are messages being relayed?
  4. Site Selection - Purpose vs. non-purpose built
  5. Activities - Venue Limitations

A Citation[edit | edit source]

  • Avery, B. (2020). Risk Management Framework
  • Avery, B. (2020). Intro-Risk Management
  • Yu, J. (2020, October 07). 5 basic methods for risk management. Retrieved February 09, 2021, from https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing-strategy/082816/methods-handling-risk-quick-guide.asp#:~:text=The%20basic%20methods%20for%20risk,the%20management%20of%20health%20risks.

Business Continuity Planning for Public Assemblies[edit | edit source]

A description of a key principle associated with the topic[edit | edit source]

The idea of Risk management is reducing and mitigating the risk associated with a particular event. Unfortunately, perfect risk management does not exist, and we need to plan on how we as a company will continue operations during or after an unplanned disruption. There are several incidents that can occur that would require a business continuity plan when running an event. Factors that can lead to the occurrence of a disaster is human behavior, environmental, design, and system and procedures. From random acts of terror to natural disasters, there always has to be a plan to act accordingly. The location of an event can factor into what incidents you should plan for. For example, an event in Florida would not be worried about potential earthquakes happening, but they would consider other meteorological instances. Each event and event coordinator has to consider how their event could be affected. The main idea of Business continuity is to expect the unexpected. In the event of a disaster, a coordinated continuity plan would:

  • Define a response team
  • Roles of each team and team member
  • Response protocols
  • Evacuation plans
  • External resources
  • Means of communication
  • Aftermath response
  • Public response
  • Ect.

Some disasters are harder to predict than others and it is very important that a plan is in place to act accordingly. Team members should run drills and constantly be trained on potential disasters. A team must also be prepared for unprecedented instances such as COVID-19.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory[edit | edit source]

The idea of a Business Continuity plan is very broad as it is hard to determine exactly what disaster you will be facing. For this reason, the standards and protocols that are to be followed are infinite. Protocols for a mass shooting will vary from a tornado, responding to COVID-19 will be different from a structural disaster. According to the Heinrich's accident pyramid the more accidents that occur the higher the likely hoof of a major accident occurring. Due to the vast number of threats an event faces, you must be familiar with the general practice of many different standards. This list includes; OSHA 1910.6, ANSI, ASTM, NFPA, and numerous others. These practices will help mitigate and eliminate the odds of disasters. Most important of all is the NFPA 1600 as it specifically addresses the standards for Continuity, Emergencies, and Crisis Management. With this information is important to apply it to whatever particular event is being hosted. Many factors must be considered when hosting an event, and those factors will help determine the necessary equipment and personnel for crisis response and management.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice[edit | edit source]

The main course of action for a Business Continuity Plan is constant training and practice. The is no telling when a disaster will occur and it is most important that you actively participate in training drills. The elimination of a disaster happening is near impossible so the best we can do is reduce the threat and minimize the harm to the patrons. Without proper training, the occurrence of said disaster will not be the only issue you will face. The chaos that will erupt can cause just as much damage as the disaster itself. For this very reason, it is important to always have qualified persons at every event as well as the necessary equipment and plans to face whatever disaster comes your way. The type of event you are hosting will determine the required personnel and equipment to act in the event of a disaster occurring. If we can constantly maintain a safe environment we can reduce the odds of a serious disaster occurring at an event. Most important of all, to mitigate the results of a disaster at an event you increase your awareness and have a properly trained staff to act in the event of an emergency.

A Method of Applying the Mitigation/Elimination Tactic[edit | edit source]

A good method to mitigate the effects of a crisis occurrence is to ensure your staff are properly qualified. This would include out sourced licensing required as necessary. Some options would be having your staff trained and licensed by another company or hiring an out sourced staff completely. It would be more effective to have your staff trained on a regular basis as each location, event and crisis brings about its unique characteristics. Drills should also be conducted regularly to practice what to do in the event of a disaster. The main goal of a business continuity plan is reduce the effects of a crisis. The only way to do so is to have well equipped team that is ready to perform in the event of an emergency. A big concern in the event of disaster is the evacuation process. This is a process that is most in control by the event staff and coordinators. A useful tool to help with the evacuation process is to comply with other standards such as ingress/egress laws as well as proper signage and capacity regulations.

Citations[edit | edit source]

Avery, B. (2020) Theories of Accident Causation

Avery, B. (2020) Crisis Management

NFPA 1600, (2013)

Risk in the Context of Implementation Strategies[edit | edit source]

Description of a key principle associated with the topic[edit | edit source]

A key principle associated with implementing risk management is to determine the strategies being used to prevent risks as well as the potential positive or negative effects of those strategies. This is vital to understand the potential risks at hand as well as making sure they are prevented or handled with the correct strategies. Without understanding these completely or not following them with precision could allow these potential risks to occur.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory[edit | edit source]

The common practice that is being shown here is the risk analysis. Following this is the implementation of the different practices needed to follow to ensure safety for everybody attending. This is an important step in ensuring that the many different risks involved are prevented.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice[edit | edit source]

Following the elements to implement risk prevention, the 3rd step would be to determine the potential for the hazard to occur. By doing this, the team can work on every aspect involved in that potential hazard and pinpoint the areas to focus on. The fourth step is to estimate the level of risk which involves the consequences and likelihood of the potential risks. Lastly, make sure to go over any types of uncertainties there may have been regarding the steps involved in the risk prevention for that event.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic[edit | edit source]

The best way to put the risk implementation stage into action is to ensure that whoever is giving the message is respected, as well as being clear and concise about the risks involved with each persons area. The times when hazards occur are when there is a lack of communication in regards to how to prevent or stop a hazard. Without good communication from the top management, there will be increased chances of injury or damage due to lack of correct implementation of risk strategies. Outside of communication, there should be signage in order to warn of potential hazards. According to OSHA, one of the main causes of injuries and dangers is fall damage, especially on construction sites. Many work sites have created verbal warning and also signage that shows it is needed to put up guardrails on the sides of elevated work surfaces. Furthermore, it is important to make sure that each worker can speak back to you what they learned and what is being communicated so that everyone is on the same page.

Citation[edit | edit source]

Avery, B (2021) Implementation of Risk Management

Standards for Field Safety for Athletes[edit | edit source]

Description of a key principle associated with the topic[edit | edit source]

A key principle associated with on field safety is having every person associated with the athletes aware of the proper precautions to take on specific turf including coaches, personnel staff, and turf managers. It is important to understand that these different types of jobs can be cause or prevention of a player’s injury. There is also the inclusion of medical staff who need to understand the turf so they know what types of injuries to look for.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory[edit | edit source]

A common theory that is becoming used is the “beadup” theory. This theory applies to artificial turfs, which talks about perspiration buildup rolling off the turf rather than penetrating the turf and causing weak spots. These weak spots are areas that can cause divots within the ground and cause loose traction, resulting in potential non-contact injuries.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice[edit | edit source]

As stated from the theory, an elimination tactic is having turf that features micro fibers and small beads. These beads are compiled and stop the moisture from slipping through and soaking into the ground. However, there has not been long term effects of many of these fields, which means that yearly maintenance and examinations must be done.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic[edit | edit source]

The easiest way to apply these tactics is to simply use the turf. On spots where the surface might be weaker it is important to use more beads and provide a cushion to prevent soft spots within the field. On baseball fields it is important to find a balance between clay and turf, so that there is not an imbalance which can lead to players having slippage and more injuries might occur.

Citation[edit | edit source]

McNitt, A., & Adviser, D. (2020, December 21). Evaluation of Playing Surface Characteristics of Various In-Filled Systems. Retrieved January 19, 2021, from https://extension.psu.edu/evaluation-of-playing-surface-characteristics-of-various-in-filled-systems

See Also[edit | edit source]