Project Management/Schedule

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In project management, a schedule is a listing of a project's milestones, activities, and deliverables, usually with intended start and finish dates.[1]

Objectives and Skills[edit]

Objectives and skills for the schedule portion of Project+ PK0-003 certification include:[2]

  • Develop a project schedule based on WBS, project scope and resource requirements
    • Schedule to milestones
    • Analyze Gantt chart
    • Identify dependency types
    • Determine the critical path of a project schedule
    • Establish schedule baselines
  • Given a desired deliverable, apply the appropriate tool and/or method to produce the appropriate outcome
    • Tools
      • PERT
      • Gantt
    • Methods
      • CPM
  • Given a scenario, interpret the results of using the following tools and/or methods
    • Tools:
      • GERT
    • Methods:
      • Network diagram (ADM, PDM, CPM, CCM)

Objectives and skills for the schedule portion of Project+ PK0-004 certification include:[3]

  • Given a scenario, execute and develop project schedules.
    • Work breakdown structure
    • Scheduling activities
      • Determine tasks
      • Determine task start/finish dates
      • Determine activity/task durations
      • Determine milestones
      • Set predecessors
      • Set dependencies
      • Sequence tasks
      • Prioritize tasks
      • Determine critical path
      • Allocate resources
      • Set baseline
      • Set quality gates
      • Set governance gates
        • Client sign off
        • Management approval
        • Legislative approval

Readings[edit]

  1. Wikipedia: Schedule (project management)
  2. Wikipedia: Program evaluation and review technique
  3. Wikipedia: Critical path method
  4. Wikipedia: Dependency (project management)
  5. Wikipedia: Gantt chart
  6. Wikipedia: Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique

Multimedia[edit]

  1. YouTube: Project Schedule Management
  2. YouTube: Project Scheduling with Milestones
  3. Youtube: Using Project 2013 to Create a Gantt Chart
  4. YouTube: How to perform Critical Path Method (CPM) and find Float
  5. YouTube: Precedence Diagramming Method
  6. Youtube: How to Create a Pert Chart
  7. Youtube: How to Schedule Your Next Project

Activities[edit]

  1. Watch YouTube: MS Project 2013 Entering Tasks, Durations and Creating a WBS Use existing WBS to apply your schedule.
  2. Read Understanding Task Dependencies in Project Management Answer the following questions:
    • Define dependency.
    • How many different kinds of dependency are there?
    • Name the different kinds of dependency.
    • What is the most common dependency relationship?
  3. Read Wikipedia: Program evaluation and review technique Then answer the following questions:
    • Define PERT chart
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of PERT chart?
  4. Review What is a Gantt chart? Learn the history of Gantt chart.
    • Define Gantt chart
    • List the benefits of Gantt chart
  5. Learn The six steps in the critical path method The Ultimate Guide to the Critical Path Method:
    • List the six steps in the Critical Path Method
    • Define each step

Lesson Summary[edit]

  • In project management, a schedule is a listing of a project's milestones, activities, and deliverables, usually with intended start and finish dates. Those items are often estimated by other information included in the project schedule of resource allocation, budget, task duration, and linkages of dependencies and scheduled events. A schedule is commonly used in the project planning and project portfolio management parts of project management.[4]
  • Milestones are tools used in project management to mark specific points along a project timeline. These points may signal anchors such as a project start and end date, a need for external review or input and budget checks, among others. In many instances, milestones do not impact project duration. Instead, they focus on major progress points that must be reached to achieve success.[5]
  • A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. This chart lists the tasks to be performed on the vertical axis, and time intervals on the horizontal axis. The width of the horizontal bars in the graph show the duration of each activity. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements constitute the work breakdown structure of the project.[6]
  • Sequencing activities are usually used by scheduling dependencies. A dependency is a logical relationship with is a dependency between two activities or between an activity and a milestone. There are 4 standard types of dependencies; Finish to Start, Finish to Finish, Start to Start, Start to Finish. [7]
  • Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique, commonly known as GERT, is a network analysis technique used in project management that allows probabilistic treatment both network logic and estimation of activity duration.[8]
  • Critical Path Method (CPM) is an algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. The model should include a list of all activities required to complete the project, the time each activity will take, the dependencies between activities, and logical end points, such as milestones of deliverable items. CPM calculates the longest path of planned activities. [9]
  • Arrow diagramming method (ADM) is a network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. Precedence relationships between activities are represented by circles connected by one or more arrows. The length of the arrow represents the duration of the relevant activity. ADM only shows finish-to-start relationships, meaning that each activity is completed before the successor activity starts.[10]
  • Precedence diagram method (PDM) is a tool for scheduling activities in a project plan. It is a method of constructing a project schedule network diagram that uses boxes, referred to as nodes, to represent activities and connects them with arrows that show the dependencies.[11]
  • Critical chain method (CCM) is a technique based on network changes project schedule taking into account scarce resources.[12]
  • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty about the individual activity duration estimates. PERT uses probabilistic time estimates – duration estimates based on using optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of activity durations – instead of one specific or discrete duration estimate, as CPM does.[13]
  • To use PERT, you calculate a weighted average for the duration estimate of each project activity using the following formula:[14]
  • PERT weight average = (O + 4M + P)/6
  • (O) - Optimistic time, (M) - most likely time, (P) - pessimistic time
  • As part of schedule development, project managers may establish quality gates, which provide acceptance criteria to ensure that project tasks are completing deliverables within the quality control guidelines established during project planning.[15]
  • A governance gate is similar to a quality gate in that it marks acceptance criteria for the project tasks, but a governance gate is more about client sign-off, management approval, or legislative approval. A governance gate should be set up whenever the project manager must obtain formal approval prior to proceeding with the project activities.[16]

Key Terms[edit]

ADM (Arrow Diagramming Method)
A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. ADM is also known as the activity-on-arrow (AOA) method.[17]
CCM (Critical Chain Method)
A technique based on network changes project schedule taking into account scarce resources. [18]
CPM (Critical Path Method)
A method commonly used with all forms of projects, including construction, aerospace and defense, software development, research projects, product development, engineering, and plant maintenance, among others. Any project with interdependent activities can apply this method of mathematical analysis. [19]
Gantt Chart
Illustrates the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project.[20]
GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique)
A network analysis technique used in project management that allows probabilistic treatment both network logic and estimation of activity duration. [21]
Governance Gate
This should be set up whenever the project manager must obtain formal approval prior to proceeding with the project activities.[22]
Milestone
A tool used in project management to mark specific points along a project timeline. These points may signal anchors such as a project start and end date, a need for external review or input and budget checks, among others. In many instances, milestones do not impact project duration. Instead, they focus on major progress points that must be reached to achieve success. [23]
PDM (Precedence Diagram Method)
The precedence diagram method (PDM) is a tool for scheduling activities in a project plan. It is a method of constructing a project schedule network diagram that uses boxes, referred to as nodes, to represent activities and connects them with arrows that show the dependencies. It is also called the activity-on-node (AON) method. [24]
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
A network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty about the individual activity duration estimates.[25]
Quality Gates
This provides acceptance criteria to ensure that project tasks are completing deliverables within the quality control guidelines established during project planning.[26]

Review Questions[edit]

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  1. ______________ are tools used in project management to mark specific points along a project timeline.
    Milestones are tools used in project management to mark specific points along a project timeline.
  2. A ________________ illustrates the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project.
    A Gantt chart illustrates the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project.
  3. The ___________________ is a project network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration.
    The Critical Path Method is a project network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration.
  4. ___________________ is a project network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty about the individual activity duration.
    Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a project network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty about the individual activity duration.
  5. _______________ is a network analysis technique that allows probabilistic treatment both network logic and estimation of activity duration.
    Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) is a network analysis technique that allows probabilistic treatment both network logic and estimation of activity duration.
  6. ___________________ is a network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. Also known as the activity-on-arrow.
    Arrow Diagramming Method is a network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. Also known as the activity-on-arrow.
  7. ____________________ is a network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities.
    Precedence Diagramming Method is a network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities.
  8. _______________________ is a technique based on network changes project schedule taking into account scarce resources.
    Critical Chain Method is a technique based on network changes project schedule taking into account scarce resources.
  9. During project planning, a project _____ is developed by allocating a time component to each task of a work breakdown structure.
    During project planning, a project schedule is developed by allocating a time component to each task of a work breakdown structure.
  10. ______________ provides acceptance criteria to ensure that project tasks are completing deliverables within the quality control guidelines established during project planning.
    Quality Gates provides acceptance criteria to ensure that project tasks are completing deliverables within the quality control guidelines established during project planning.
  11. __________________should be set up whenever the project manager must obtain formal approval prior to proceeding with the project activities.
    Governance Gate should be set up whenever the project manager must obtain formal approval prior to proceeding with the project activities.
  12. The four standard types of dependencies are _______________, ________________, ______________, and ________________.
    The four standard types of dependencies are Finish to Start, Finish to Finish, Start to Start, and Start to Finish.
  13. ____________________ calculates the longest path of planned activities.
    Critical Path Method calculates the longest path of planned activities.

Assessments[edit]

See Also[edit]

  1. Read Techniques for shortening project schedules Fast-tracking and crashing can get your project back on schedule.

References[edit]

Nuvola apps edu miscellaneous.svg Type classification: this is a lesson resource.
  1. Wikipedia: Schedule (project management)
  2. CompTIA: Project+ Certification Exam Objectives: PK0-003
  3. CompTIA: Project+ Certification Exam Objectives: PK0-004
  4. Wikipedia: Schedule (project management)
  5. Wikipedia: Milestone (project management).
  6. Wikipedia: Gantt Chart.
  7. Wikipedia: Dependency (project management).
  8. Wikipedia: Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique
  9. Wikipedia: Critical path method.
  10. Wikipedia: Arrow diagramming method.
  11. Wikipedia: Precedence diagramming method
  12. Wikipedia: Project Management/PMBOK/Time Management
  13. Kathy Schwalbe (2015). “Information Technology Project Management 8th Edition”. Cengage Learning. ISBN 1-2854-5234-8
  14. Kathy Schwalbe (2015). “Information Technology Project Management 8th Edition”. Cengage Learning. ISBN 1-2854-5234-8
  15. Robin Abernathy (2018). “CompTIA Project+ Cert Guide: Exam PK0-004 (Certification Guide) 1st Edition”. Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-7897-5883-0
  16. Robin Abernathy (2018). “CompTIA Project+ Cert Guide: Exam PK0-004 (Certification Guide) 1st Edition”. Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-7897-5883-0
  17. Wikipedia: Arrow diagramming method
  18. Wikibooks: Project Management/PMBOK/Time Management
  19. Wikipedia: Critical path method
  20. Wikipedia: Gantt chart
  21. Wikipedia: Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique
  22. Robin Abernathy (2018). “CompTIA Project+ Cert Guide: Exam PK0-004 (Certification Guide) 1st Edition”. Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-7897-5883-0
  23. Wikipedia: Milestone (project management)
  24. Wikipedia: Precedence diagram method
  25. Kathy Schwalbe (2015). “Information Technology Project Management 8th Edition”. Cengage Learning. ISBN 1-2854-5234-8
  26. Robin Abernathy (2018). “CompTIA Project+ Cert Guide: Exam PK0-004 (Certification Guide) 1st Edition”. Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-7897-5883-0