Project Management/Closure

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The Project Closure Phase is the fourth and last phase in the project life cycle. In this phase, you will formally close your project and then report its overall level of success to your sponsor. Project Closure involves handing over the deliverables to your customer, passing the documentation to the business, cancelling supplier contracts, releasing staff and equipment, and informing stakeholders of the closure of the project. After the project has been closed, a Post Implementation Review is completed to determine the projects success and identify the lessons learned. [1]

Objectives and Skills[edit]

Objectives and skills for the closure portion of Project+ certification include:[2]

  • Explain the importance and benefits of formal project closure
    • Confirm and document objectives that were completed/not complete
    • Release resources
    • Provide historical information for future projects
    • Close contracts
    • Standards compliance
      • Document retention compliance
    • Post-project review
      • Meeting to review what went right / what went wrong
  • Identify circumstances in which project/phase closure might occur and identify steps to take when closure occurs
    • Phase closure
    • Project completion
    • Stage completion
    • Component completion
    • Project cancellation
  • Identify the components and purpose of closing documentation
    • Lessons learned
      • Strengths / weaknesses
    • Close report
      • Historical data
      • Summary of costs
    • Post mortem analysis
      • Documents reasons for early closure and impact
    • Final individual performance appraisal
      • Final review of performance
    • Transition plan

Readings[edit]

  1. Read:4squareviews.com: 5th Edition PMBOK® Guide—Chapter 3: Closing Process Group
  2. Read:Whizlabs: 10 Steps at the time of project closure
  3. Read:Wikipedia: Lessons learned
  4. Read:Wikipedia: Postmortem documentation
  5. Read:prince2.wiki:Closing a project

Multimedia[edit]

  1. Watch: YouTube: Project Closure
  2. Watch: YouTube: Project Management Essentials : Closing
  3. Watch: YouTube: How and Why to Close a Project
  4. Watch: YouTube: Closing Phase
  5. Watch: YouTube: Closing a Project
  6. Watch: Youtube: Project Planning: How to Write a Postmortem Report - Project Management Made Easy

Activities[edit]

  1. Read Project lessons learned and watch Project Closure:
    • Why is Closure important in Project Management?
    • What are the steps in Project Closure?
  2. Watch the video YouTube: Closing a Project and review Wikipedia: Project Management
    • List and explain the 5 key actions that need to be performed to completely close a project.
    • List and explain the types of administrative duties during closing.
  3. Watch the video #Watch: Youtube: Project Planning: How to Write a Postmortem Report - Project Management Made Easy
    • Explain why postmortems are important to project management.
    • what are some best practices to follow when creating postmortems.
  4. Review scope documents, acceptance criteria, and confirm with the sponsor and stakeholders that all scope requirements, acceptance criteria and deliverables have been completed.
  5. Create a list or report to document any outstanding issues or information the future students may need as you turn the product or completed project over to their care.
    • Include project documentation like the scope, project plan deliverables, issue logs, change control logs, and budget documentation.
    • Include documentation to highlight best practices and project successes and also include lessons learned that will be important to future projects.

Lesson Summary[edit]

  • Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof.[3]
  • The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints.[4]
  • Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned. This phase consists of: Contract closure: Complete and settle each contract (including the resolution of any open items) and close each contract applicable to the project or project phase.Project close: Finalize all activities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or a project phase[5]
  • Lessons learned or lessons learnt are experiences distilled from a project that should be actively taken into account in future projects.[6]
  • Project post-mortems are intended to inform process improvements which mitigate future risks and to promote iterative best practices Post-mortems are often considered a key component of, and ongoing precursor to, effective risk management.[7]
  • Post-mortems can encompass both quantitative data and qualitative data.[8]
  • The project closure process is the last of the process groups, and is considered important for the project’s success.[9]
  • The Project Closure Report should include all important project information that would help stakeholders and future project managers to clearly understand what was accomplished during the project and how the work was completed.[10]
  • Closure Checklist: a closure checklist is a list of seemingly minor items that must be completed before a project can be closed. Many companies call this closure checklist a punch list.[11]
  • Before announcing a project's closure, project managers must create and complete a project closure checklist of any outstanding project tasks.[12]
  • Many different project management experts agree that the goals of a project closure report include: Review and evaluate the success of the project, Confirm outstanding issues, limitations and recommendations, Outline tasks and activities completed during the project.[13]
  • The purpose of the Closing Process Group according to the PMBOK® Guide is to conclude all activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations.[14]
  • Successful analysis of project estimate variance is dependent on accurate time tracking. The greater the granularity with which time is tracked, the more detailed an analysis can be performed during the project post-mortem.[15]
  • Contract Closure or Procurement Closure is done before the project can be closed completely.[16]
  • Administrative Closure is only done once per phase, or for the entire project. Project closure is not complete without procurement closure.[17]
  • A lesson learned is knowledge or understanding gained by experience.[18]
  • There are two triggers for the Closing a Project process: a natural close towards the end of the project and a premature close, which comes from the Project Board.[19]

Key Terms[edit]

closing
The formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof.[20]
contract closure
Complete and settle each contract (including the resolution of any open items) and close each contract applicable to the project or project phase.[21]
project close
Finalize all activities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or a project phase.[22]
post implementation review (PIR)
A vital phase of the project for the project team to learn from experiences and apply to future projects.[23]
lessons learned
Are experiences distilled from a project that should be actively taken into account in future projects.[24]
project post-mortem
A process, usually performed at the conclusion of a project, to determine and analyze elements of the project that were successful or unsuccessful.[25]
follow-on action recommendations
Comments that are given to the persons who will support the products.[26]
end project report
A report on the performance of the project.[27]

Review Questions[edit]

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  1. _______ includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof.
    Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof.
  2. The primary challenge of __________________ is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints.
    The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints.
  3. _________________________ include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned. This phase consists of: Contract closure: Complete and settle each contract (including the resolution of any open items) and close each contract applicable to the project or project phase.Project close: Finalize all activities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or a project phase.
    Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned. This phase consists of: Contract closure: Complete and settle each contract (including the resolution of any open items) and close each contract applicable to the project or project phase.Project close: Finalize all activities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or a project phase.
  4. _______________ or ______________ are experiences distilled from a project that should be actively taken into account in future projects.
    Lessons learned or lessons learnt are experiences distilled from a project that should be actively taken into account in future projects.
  5. Project ____________ are intended to inform process improvements which mitigate future risks and to promote iterative best practices. ____________ are often considered a key component of, and ongoing precursor to, effective risk management.
    Project post-mortems are intended to inform process improvements which mitigate future risks and to promote iterative best practices. Post-mortems are often considered a key component of, and ongoing precursor to, effective risk management.
  6. ___________ can encompass both quantitative data and qualitative data.
    Post-mortems can encompass both quantitative data and qualitative data.
  7. The project closure process is the_________ of the process groups, and is considered important for the project’s success.
    The project closure process is the last of the process groups, and is considered important for the project’s success.
  8. A Project Closure Report is the ______ document that assesses the success of the project, also catalogs project deliverables and officially ends the project.
    A Project Closure Report is the final document that assesses the success of the project, also catalogs project deliverables and officially ends the project.
  9. The ____________________ should include all important project information that would help sponsors, stakeholders and future project managers to clearly understand what was accomplished during the project and how the work was completed.
    The Project Closure Report should include all important project information that would help stakeholders and future project managers to clearly understand what was accomplished during the project and how the work was completed.
  10. A Closure checklist is a list of seemingly________ items that must be completed before a project can be closed.
    A closure checklist is a list of seemingly minor items that must be completed before a project can be closed.
  11. Before announcing a project's closure, project managers must create and complete a project _________ of any outstanding project tasks.
    Before announcing a project's closure, project managers must create and complete a project closure checklist of any outstanding project tasks.
  12. Many different project management experts agree that the _______ of a project closure report include: Review and evaluate the success of the project, Confirm outstanding issues, limitations, and recommendations, Outline tasks and activities completed during the project.
    Many different project management experts agree that the goals of a project closure report include: Review and evaluate the success of the project, Confirm outstanding issues, limitations, and recommendations, Outline tasks and activities completed during the project, Identify best practices and lessons learned for future projects
  13. The purpose of the _____________________ according to the PMBOK® Guide is to conclude all activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations
    The purpose of the Closing Process Group according to the PMBOK® Guide is to conclude all activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations
  14. Successful analysis of project estimate variance is dependent on_______________________. The greater the granularity with which time is tracked, the more detailed an analysis can be performed during the project post-mortem
    Successful analysis of project estimate variance is dependent on accurate time tracking. The greater the granularity with which time is tracked, the more detailed an analysis can be performed during the project post-mortem
  15. ________________ or ___________________ is done before the project can be closed completely
    Contract Closure or Procurement Closure is done before the project can be closed completely
  16. ______________________ is only done once per phase, or for the entire project. Project closure is not complete without procurement closure.
    Administrative Closure is only done once per phase, or for the entire project. Project closure is not complete without procurement closure.
  17. A ______________ is knowledge or understanding gained by experience
    A lesson learned is knowledge or understanding gained by experience
  18. There are two triggers for the Closing a Project process: a _____________ towards the end of the project and a _______________, which comes from the Project Board
    There are two triggers for the Closing a Project process: a natural close towards the end of the project and a premature close, which comes from the Project Board

Assessments[edit]

See Also[edit]

  1. Read Study.com: Project Closure Report: Definition & Contents
  2. Read:Mastering-project-management.com: Mastering Project Management
  3. Read:Simplilearn:How to close a project
  4. Read:4pm.com: Project lessons learned
  5. Watch: YouTube: Closing a Project
  6. Watch: YouTube: Closing Process

References[edit]

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