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1950s[edit | edit source]

1950 Rapoport[edit | edit source]

1950 Strawson[edit | edit source]

1951 Lewin[edit | edit source]

1952 Hutchins[edit | edit source]

1953 Deutsch[edit | edit source]

1953 Wittgenstein[edit | edit source]

1954 Black[edit | edit source]

  • Black, Max (1954). "Metaphor." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 55, pp. 273-294. [^]

1954 Chase[edit | edit source]

1955 Austin[edit | edit source]

  • Austin, J. L. (1955). How to Do Things with Words. The William James Lectures delivered at Harvard University in 1955, ed. by J. O. Urmson. Oxford: Clarendon, 1962. [^]

1955 McCarthy[edit | edit source]

1956 Whorf[edit | edit source]

1957 Cherry[edit | edit source]

  • Cherry, Colin (1957). On Human Communication: A Review, a Survey, and a Criticism . The M.I.T. Press, 1966. [^]

The suggestion that words are symbols for things, actions, qualities, relationships, et cetera, is naive, a gross simplification. Words are slippery customers. The full meaning of a word does not appear until it is placed in its context, and the context may serve an extremely subtle function -- as with puns, or double entendre. And even then the "meaning" will depend upon the listener, upon the speaker, upon their entire experience of language, upon their knowledge of one another, and upon the whole situation. Words do not "mean things" in a one-to-one relation like a code. Words, too, are empirical signs, not copies or models of anything; truly, onomatopoeia and gestures frequently seem to possess resemblance, but this resemblance does not bear too close examination. A cockerel may seem to say cook-a-doodle-do to an Englishman, but a German thinks it says kikeriki, and a Japanese kokke-kekko. Each can paint only with the phonetic sound of his own language. (p. 10-11)

From What Is It That We Communicate?

See also[edit | edit source]

1957 Osgood[edit | edit source]

1957 Skinner[edit | edit source]

1958 Polanyi[edit | edit source]

1959 Chomsky[edit | edit source]

1959 Gellner[edit | edit source]

  • Gellner, Ernest (1959). Words and Things: A Critical Account of Linguistic Philosophy and a Study in Ideology. London: Gollancz. [^]

1959 Snow[edit | edit source]

Notes[edit | edit source]