PD Neuroprotection/Co-Enzyme Q10
Co-Enzyme Q10 is also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q and CoQ10 and is found in all eukaryotic cells, where it forms a key component of the metabolism of oxygen into Adenisone TriPhosphate (ATP) by mitochondria.
Schults et al  found that oral CoQ10 protected the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in one-year-old mice treated with MPTP.
Schults et al  took 80 subjects with early PD who did not require treatment for their disability and made a random assignment to placebo or coenzyme Q10 at dosages of 300, 600, or 1200 mg/d.
The progress of their PD was measured over 16 months. The adjusted mean total UPDRS changes were +11.99 for the placebo group, +8.81 for the 300-mg/d group, +10.82 for the 600-mg/d group, and +6.69 for the 1200-mg/d group. The conclusion was that the administration of CoQ10lows down the progresssion of PD.
Schults  reviewed the evidence that CoQ10 can slow the functional decline in PD.
Schults et al  assessed the optimum level of CoQ10 that could be tolerated. They gave increasing doses to 17 patients together with a stable dosage of Vitamin E (apha-tocopherol). and measured the corresponding levels in serum.
The results suggested that a dosage of 2400 mg/day (with vitamin E/alpha-tocopherol 1200 IU/day) is an appropriate highest dosage to be studied.
Galpern and Cudkowicz  make the case for treating neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease with CoQ10, which is safe and well tolerated.
Cleren et al  established a number of benefits of CoQ 10 in animal models.
1. Administration in the diet resulted in significant protection against loss of dopamine (DA), which was accompanied by a marked increase in plasma concentrations of CoQ10.
2. Neuroprotection was stablished against MPTP -induced loss of DA using both CoQ10, and reduced CoQ10.
3. They found neuroprotective effects against DA depletion, loss of tyrosine hydroxylase neurons and induction of alpha-synuclein inclusions in the substantia nigra pars compacta.
Faust et al  reported on a series of experiments on fruit flies:-
In the present study, a Drosophila DJ-1A model of PD was used to test potential neuroprotective drugs. The drugs applied are the Chinese herb celastrol, the antibiotic minocycline, the bioenergetic amine coenzyme Q10 (coQ10), and the glutamate antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo[f]-quinoxaline (NBQX). All of these drugs target pathogenic processes implicated in PD, thus constitute mechanism-based treatment strategies. We show that celastrol and minocycline, both having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, confer potent dopaminergic neuroprotection in Drosophila DJ-1A model, while coQ10 shows no protective effect. NBQX exerts differential effects on cell survival and brain dopamine content: it protects against DN loss but fails to restore brain dopamine level.
Spindler, Meredith; Beal, M. .Flint and Henchcliffe, Claire. Full Text Neuropsychiatr. Dis. Treatm. 5, 597
Coenzyme Q10 effects in neurodegenerative disease.
Elble, Rodger J.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Shaftman, Stephanie; Weiner, William J.; Huang, Peng and Tilley, Barbara. Full Text: Mov. Disord. 25 (8): 1082–1086.
Impact of belief in neuroprotection on therapeutic intervention in Parkinson disease
Yang, Lichuann; Noel Y. Calingasan, Noel Y,; Wille, Elizabeth J.; Kerry Cormier, Kerry; Smith, Karen; Ferrante, Robert J. and Beal, M. Flint. Full Text J. Neurochem. 109 (50 1427 – 1439.
Combination Therapy with Coenzyme Q10 and Creatine Produces Additive Neuroprotective Effects in Models of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s Diseases
Mallika Somayajulu-Niţu, Mallika; Sandhu, Jagdeep K,; Cohen, Jerome; Sikorska, Marianna; Sridhar, T. S.; Matei, Anca; Borowy-Borowski, Henryk and Pandey, Siyaram. Full Text BMC Neurosci. 2009; 10: 88.
Paraquat induces oxidative stress, neuronal loss in substantia nigra region and Parkinsonism in adult rats: Neuroprotection and amelioration of symptoms by water-soluble formulation of Coenzyme Q10
Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Co-enzyme Q10.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
- Substances with possible neuroprotective properties:
- Caffeine,--Celastrol,--Co-Enzyme Q10,--Creatine,--DHA,--Exendin-4 (EX-4),--GDNF,--Glutathione (GSH),--GM1,--Isradipine,--Melatonin,--Minocycline,--Nicotine,--NSAIDs,--Phenylbutyrate,--Phytic Acid,--Probucol,--Quinoxaline,--Rasagiline,--Riboflavin,--Statins,--Tolcapone,--Urate & Uric Acid,--Vitamin D,--Vitamin E,--
- Shults, C. W.; Haas. R. H. and Beal, M. F. (1999) Abstract Biofactors. 9 (2-4):267 - 272. A possible role of coenzyme Q10 in the etiology and treatment of Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10416040
- Shults, C. W.; Oakes, D.; Kieburtz, K.; Beal, M. F.; Haas, R.; Plumb, S.; Juncos, J. L.; Nutt, J.; Shoulson, I.; Carter, J.; Kompoliti, K.; Perlmutter J. S.; Reich, S.; Stern, M.; Watts, R. L,; Kurlan, R.; Molho, E.; Harrison, M.; Lew, M. and Parkinson Study Group (2002) Abstract Arch. Neurol.59 (10):1541 - 1550. Effects of coenzyme Q10in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12374491
- Schults, C. W. (2003) Abstract< Curr. Med. Chem. 10 (19):1917 - 1921. Coenzyme Q10 inneurodegenerative diseases. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12871093
- Shults, C. W.; Flint Beal, M.; Song, D. and Fontaine, D. (2004) Abstract< Exp. Neurol.188(2):491 - 494. Pilot trial of high dosages of coenzyme Q10 in patients with Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15246848
- Galpern, W. R. and Cudkowicz, M. E. <font (2007) Abstract< Mitochondrion. Jun;7 Suppl:S146 - 153. Coenzyme Q treatment of neurodegenerative diseases of aging. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17485247
- Cleren, C.; Yang, L.; Lorenzo, B.; Calingasan, N. Y.; Schomer, A.; Sireci, A.; Wille, E. J. and Beal, M. F. (2008) Abstract< J Neurochem. 104 (6) 1613 - 1621. Therapeutic effects of coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ10) and reduced CoQ10 in the MPTP model of Parkinsonism. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17973981
- Faust, K,; Gehrke, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, L.; Beal M. F. and Lu, B. (2009) Abstract< BMC Neurosci. Sep 1;10:109. Neuroprotective effects of compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723328