Motivation and emotion/Book/2021/Work and passion

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Work and passion:
What is the relationship between work and passion?

Overview[edit | edit source]

Figure 1: Motivation steps for success

Passion should be the fire that drives your life's work - Michael Dell. Motivation is characterized as an excitement and activation toward certain activities or behaviour (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

Passion for work is tremendous pleasure and motivation for what you do. One thing that makes a difference in your profession and your productivity is a passion for working. While some people perceive their employment as a payday or a step upward, others appreciate their work so much that it is a passion (Forest et al., 2011). In fact, for some people profession is so significant that it gives value to people and makes them part of their personality. It creates the passion necessary to conquer the greatest barriers and problems. It motivates sincerity, collaboration, hard work and ultimately achievement. Therefore, people should perform things which make them happy in the workplace since they can revive and rejoin what is meaningful to you.

The principles that account for a participant's strength, purpose, and willingness to exert toward achieving a goal are referred to as motivation. Work motivation is characterized by goal-oriented continuous process and a psychological phenomena that translates ability into performance. Motivation is important to a company and its workers. It promotes an individual in achieving personal aims. for example, a motivated employee will be more satisfied with their job, perform better, and be more eager to succeed. This is acknowledged by the entire team as well as the organisation.

The purpose of this book chapter is to present a synthesis of such work and passion research. This book chapter focuses on the relationship between work and passion on individuals life and the significant role of passion in people's lives by using three different models includes the dualistic model of passion, the self-determination theory, and cognitive evaluation theory. Passion is considered as affecting a variety of results like cognition, psychological well-being, physical health, expertise, emotions, creativity, and social implications. In psychology, these results are highly appreciated, and in a specific way (harmoniously) passion is, as this chapter demonstrates, a way of obtaining these goals. Furthermore, this book chapter demonstrates that being obsessive about an activity is a sure way of failing to achieve these great results and of even experiencing those that are weak.

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Key points:

  • Definition of work and passion
  • What is the relationship between work and passion?
  • Define the psychological needs for work and passion
  • Motivational theory related to work and passion

Definition of work and passion[edit | edit source]

Figure 2: Tea picker in Nilgiris - work with passion (happy person)

In the history of western philosophers like Plato and Descartes passion has been associated with strong, very exciting emotions that are counter to reason (Chen et al., 2020). Work passion is becoming more and more recognized as its accessibility in popular and empirical discussion is reflected. The significant of the work rather than the pure survival worth of the company has become increasingly important. Since most people work over half their working hours, it is no surprise they desire to love and fulfill their job. When the business magnate Warren Buffet was asked to succeed, it simply advised: "You discover your passion."

Vallerand et al. (2003) emphasized work passion for time and expenditures in work focused on enjoyable and significant activities. Although, Maslach and Leiter (2008) debated the passion for a strong commitment into rewarding and self-effective activities. In the new millennium, the concept of passion at work has been enhanced with an increasing number of practitioner articles highlighted the role of being passionate about one's job, and how industries benefit from having passionate employees (Ho et al., 2011). However, a study by Tucker (2002) found that organisations with only 29 percent of the US employee population claiming a passion for their occupations, and are finding that their workers are increasingly unpassionate and apathetic at work.

A famous example is the definition of work-passion (2004) by Baum and Locke as "emotions of love, attachment, and passion" which means that work and passion has been interpreted as a purely emotive experience. People are passionate about an activity, value it greatly and put energy and time in it. Essentially, work should be considered to become object of passion as a vital element of one's personality (Baum & Locke, 2004). Their excitement for the activity could take on numerous shapes, depending on how people interiorize it to their personality.

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Types of passion[edit | edit source]

"I have no special talents. I am only passionately curious". - Albert Einstein

Everybody always seems to be talking about passion. Why is it so obsessed by everybody? What is passion for success, and why should we look after it? How can passion or lack of enthusiasm affect our lives? Be passionate. Everything has been together without our consciousness when we are passionate about something. It's like the unconscious emerges and cares for us. Since we like the task, working on the task will be a bit easier, but additional time, passion and thinking about how to better the task are also needed. Think of a life of yours. Is something better if you do that just in order to achieve it or if you are actually engaged and fascinated by the task? This is passion's power.

Passion is the fuel that inspires and leads people to certain goals, no matter how implausible or difficult. Passion is defined as a strong desire to an activity (e.g., work), in which time and energy have been spent, which one cherishes and truly fascinating, which is part of our personality (Perrewé et al., 2014). Research presented by Robert Vallerand at the Western Positive Psychology Conference shows that passion is broken up into two types: harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) (Forest et al., 2011). Harmonious passion defines a passion which is adaptive to other parts of life. Obsessive passion, however, portrays a maladaptive passion which is often at odds with other aspects of life (Slemp et al., 2021).

Harmonious passion[edit | edit source]

Harmonious passion (HP) is psychologically separate from the concept of work-engagement, which is described as a mental state with tremendous strength, dedication and self-absorption (Hakanen et al., 2006). First, harmonious passion is a self-defining feature which is part of people's sense of who they are and not a state of mind (Vallerand et al., 2003). Second, without being passion for work it is possible to be highly dedicated and focused. for example, a teacher who loves and values teaching but who can equally freely and actively participate in his/her work without creating problems with the other essential areas of his/her life would be an example of harmonious passion (e.g. relationships with family and friends). Harmonious passion for work is associated dynamically with the integration of work, where individuals freely and voluntarily consider work to be of great importance to their identity for example, the job is challenging or meaningful. Consequently, they spend their time and energy working freely while managing their involvement in order to avoid conflict with other elements of their lives. Hence, harmonious work passion has been connected to positive work outcomes, includes higher psychological well-being, work participation, and task performance (Ho & Astakhova, 2018).

Obsessive passion[edit | edit source]

Obsessive passion (OP) relates to the powerful and effective immediate need for self-defining activities such as employment and professional work (Vallerand et al., 2003). In contrast, it is usually a strong but more determined desire, a powerful but harmonious passion for work. This type of passion is the outcome of a managed integration activity within a person's identity (Forest et al., 2012). In particular, interpersonal and/or intra activity factors such as delegation self-esteem, social acceptance or high performance contribute to the development and growth of an obsessive enthusiasm for this activity (Mageau et al., 2011). The obsessive work passion is also linked to the integration of controlled and suppressed work which implies that the participation of a person in work is influenced by internal or external circumstances such as recognition or social approval. Person with an intense enthusiasm for work feel that they are controlled by work and that they have to work, but they are not free to work. As a result, obsessive passion for work has a strong impacts on work conflicts and non-working activities, which leads to results that are more unclear, inconsistent, and perhaps contradicting (Vallerand et al., 2003).

What is the relationship between work and passion?[edit | edit source]

Passion at work is designed for people. Just as passion about work is embracing and understanding our personal relationships, which means that we will be unable to move on fast, that means that we are influenced by our work and will effects our own feelings. Passion does not go unrecognized. People will see how well you do your work and how well you are doing it. Passion is a natural incentive towards a loved, highly important , and self-conceived activity in which a large amount of energy and time is spent (Vallerand et al., 2003). This definition of passion ensures that passionate behaviour is incorporated in the personality of the person. For example, someone with a passion for teaching identifies him or herself as a 'teacher' and not as someone who teaches. Being a teacher is part of who that individual is.

Psychological needs[edit | edit source]

Figure 3: Basic three psychological needs

According to self-determination theory (SDT), there are three universally related to the psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) for psychological well-being and self-motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000). These universal requirements can be viewed of in the same manner that physiological demands are such as, hunger, thirst, and sleep. That is, if any of these demands are not met, health and motivation decreases. In contrast, if you feel independent, competent, and connected to others in a specific area of your life for example, physical exercise, you are more likely to feel autonomously motivated to pursue that behaviour.

Three psychological needs:


  • Making educated decisions based on your values and beliefs.
  • Accepting responsibility for your choices and actions.
  • Feel empowered and motivated.


  • Getting the right level of challenge for example, give you the opportunity to feel a sense of competence and not too easy or not too difficulty.
  • Feeling capable of taking on significant challenges.
  • Being self-assured in your capacity to perform tasks.
  • Targets are believed to be achievable.


  • Having a sense of belonging to others around you for instance, family, friends, co-workers
  • A strong social support network
  • Thinking as if other people are concerned for you.
Case Study:

Mary is a single mother of two children aged 6, and 3. She lives in government house. Mary used to work in a local supermarket but since having children, she has had give up full time work and doing casual basis work because she can not manage work and caring children at the same time. Mary's children are fussy eaters so she tends to give them unhealthy food such as chips, white bread, chicken nuggets which are cheaper too. When family are at home the children watch TV most of the time because there is nothing else to do. Mary gets tired of doing all household chores. Consider How satisfied Mary's psychological needs are in relation to the physical activity and diet for her children? What variable could be influencing Mary sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness?

Work passion is described as a crucial and preferred activity in which people devote considerably in these activities in time and energy. It is a motivating structure that explains the continuing behaviour of an individual towards a preferable work ((Vallerand et al., 2003). In regards to relationship with work and passion, there are three ways shows why passion are so much important at workplace.

  1. Passion encourage creativity - Passionate people are more innovative and show innovation in their work, not only in regards of interests, but creativity in their work. This involves bringing new ideas to the company which contributes to improved efficiency through frequent and demanding jobs.
  2. Passion drives direction - Motivated employee comprehend not just the organisation's goal and purpose but also its specific function in the organisation. A passionate employee will perceived the need to make a valuable contribution to the success of the plan.
  3. Passion drives excellence - Enthusiasm offers the motivation to pursue excel in all tasks, regardless of how major or minor. For example, you have met a waitress so on-site that you are amazed about doing and great job. By offering the best service, she had the passion to serve her customers, her job and herself well. You do not forget worker like them. You measure people and their contributions to the company by these passionate people.

Intrapersonal effects of passion[edit | edit source]

Interpersonal effects of passion[edit | edit source]

Theoretical frameworks of work and passion[edit | edit source]

There are various ideas that illustrate our understanding of passion, including education, training and learning (Burke et al., 2009). Employee motivation is critical to enhance employee satisfaction and productivity at work. So, for employee motivation, this chapter will focus on the dualistic model of passion, self-determination theory, and cognitive evaluation theory.

The dualistic model of passion[edit | edit source]

The dualistic model of passion describes passion as a strong attraction to self-defining activities, object or people that one love, finds important, and invests considerable energy and time (Vallerand et al., 2003; Vallerand et al., 2010). It should be emphasized that the foundation of a passion can be oriented toward an activity ( e.g., playing the piano), a person (e.g., the romantic partner), or an object (a baseball card collection). The dualistic model of passion suggests that a harmonious passion comes from the self-internalization of a person's identity activity (Vallerand et al., 2003). In particular, a harmonious passion arises when an activity is part of an individual's personality without any limits or restrictions involved with it and is freely selected for itself as extremely significant (Forest et al., 2012; Vallerand et al., 2003). The dualistic model of passion proposes that there are two types of passion; harmonious and obsessive, that might be recognized in terms of the internalization of passionate activity into one's identity (Vallerand et al., 2003; Vallerand, 2012).

Harmonious passion (HP) comes from the personal internalization through one's identity of activity representation (Vallerand et al., 2003). An independent internalization occurs if people embrace the action as essential for them freely without a certain or minor conditions. People with harmonious passion should be capable of concentrating completely on the job at hand and experiencing pleasant results both during for example, flow of work, positive affect, well-being and after the work engagement for example, job satisfaction (Birkeland & Buch, 2015). So, the passionate activity and other life activities of the individuals should have minimal or no conflict. In addition, persons with a harmonious passion should be able to adjust to the environment and focus their attention and energy on other things that are needed if they are not allowed to engage in their passionate occupation. The individual controls the activity with harmonious passion and may select when to and when not to take part in the event.

In contrast, obsessive passion (OP) means an emotional stress that compels the person to work (Vallerand et al., 2003). With obsessive passion, the person also loves his/her work and believes him/her as part of its identity. However, they also feel compelled to engage because of internal environment that come to control them for example, the need for social situations or self-esteem. People with an obsessive passion also can feel the overwhelming urge to participate in their activities, which they consider as crucial and delightful. The passion for work controls the individual. Obsessive passion has been associated with a number of adverse results, including burnout, misinformation, the role of conflict and the conflict between work and family (Forest et al., 2011; Vallerand et al., 2003).

Self-determination theory[edit | edit source]

Figure 4: Self-determination theory

The concept of self-determination theory is that has been used to explain motivation or why people do things they do. It suggest that people are motivated to grow and change by three psychological needs includes autonomy, competence, relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2000). The concept of self-determination theory hypotheses two main categories of motivation; intrinsic and extrinsic; who we are and how we act (Deci & Ryan, 2008).

Intrinsic motivation is characterized as performing an action or for its intrinsic satisfaction rather than just because of some indirect benefit (Ryan & Deci, 2000). According to Ryan and Deci (2000), psychological theories of motivation, the self-determination theory (SDT) has proven to be especially popular, with a wealth of research supporting its capacity to predict people's behaviour in a variety of settings. As per the self-determination theory, we are motivated to maximize our potential and achieve optimal psychological, social, and behavioral functioning as a result of the dynamic interactions between our personality, sociocultural factors, and the environment. Intrinsically inspired individuals perceive their work to be intrinsically engaging and compelling. The self-determination theory (SDT) emphasizes the importance of addressing our basic psychological needs at work - relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Research has shown that intrinsic motivation occurs when employees freely participate in work that they value and for which they feel appreciated and fairly compensated (Deci & Ryan, 2008).

So, how can you foster intrinsic motivation at work? Intrinsic motivation levels should be linked to self-determination theory performance via their impact on motivational persistence. Individuals who find a task entertaining or exciting should engage in it for extended periods of time, enduring beyond the point at which they are rewarded. For example, intrinsic motivated people tend to stick with tasks longer, resulting in higher academic success, work performance, and academic achievement among other things (Cerasoli et al., 2014). Intrinsic incentives are not the same for everyone; they must be adapted to the individual's need. For example, learning new skills, engagement in a high profile team or project.

Extrinsic motivation is defined as the desire to pursue an activity in order to obtain external incentives such as money prizes and work opportunities (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Extrinsic motivation influences a person's work and results and job performance. However, extrinsic motivation frequently happens when people perform under stress, and the application of external rewards frequently promotes motivation. The most prominent extrinsic motivators that influence employee attitudes and actions are income, bonuses, and job security (Ryan & Deci, 2000). People who are extrinsically driven will continue to do an action even if the task is not inherently rewarding. For example, performing something at work that you would not typically find delightful or rewarding in order to earn an income. Extrinsic motivation is involved in operant conditioning, which occurs when someone or something is conditioned to behave in a certain way as a result of a reward or consequence. For example, consider your reason for reading psychology book - motivation and emotion. Are you attempting to understand the subject in order to do well in your psychology unit? If this is the case, this is an example of extrinsic motivation because a good grade is external reinforcement. If, on the other hand , you are curious about human behavior, you are intrinsically driven as you are the driving factor for your motivation.

Ryan and Deci (2000) noted that fulfilling the requirements should be crucial for the optimum functioning as well as for the growth of social and personal well-being. Therefore, satisfaction of each one of these needs is essential. Furthermore, the fulfillment of three basic (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) requirements depends on a personal perception and not on an externally verified measure. For example, passing an exam that evaluates competency should not ensure that an individual has satisfied his or her personal requirement for competence in that field or in general.

1. Autonomy- It provides a feeling of willingness and a decision experience. In other words of philosophers such as Dworkin (1988), autonomy means that the greatest level of reflection endorses our activities. Intrinsic motivation is an example of autonomous motivation. When people are doing an activity because it is interesting, they do the activity voluntarily (e.g., I work because it is enjoyable).

Autonomy - Case study: 1

IT Google employees are allowed to spend 15% of their time working on their own projects. It has been extremely beneficial to them, as Google, Gmail, google scholar, are products of this program. this illustrates that when people are given autonomy, they tend to become more creative and imaginative rather than lazier.

2. Competency - Competency is a definition of the need for skill as mastery and a sense of effect if you do (Kajfez & Matusovich, 2017). Motivation is the will to make your environment and the result of the task feel successful and controlled. It can be addressed by assuring that everyone is assigned in the right position and is adequately trained. The abilities and strengths of your employee need to be expressed.

Competency - Case study:2

Athletic clothing professionals Nike work environment is focused on goal setting. Employees are particularly instructed on how to achieve goals, including their own personal aims that are irrelevant to the company's future. This type of targeted training is an excellent way of making employees feel competent and confident in their talents.

3. Relatedness - This relates to our demand for personal relationships and a sense of social group identity. It can be used by boosting workplace integration and embracing together wins and grieving losses. For example, in order to increase employee's performance, it would be good to encourage them through peer-to-peer mentoring in order to make sure that people of different background knowledge can train one another. This strengthens skills, promotes the sharing of knowledge and creates skilled workers. To promote relatedness by doing team night out, lunches and employee of the month rewards. Finally using autonomy through flexible working schedules, which ensures a healthy work-life balance.

Relatedness - Case study: 3

John is working in the accounting field. John is happy to enjoy working for his company for the last four years. As per John, his team are very helpful, they all are trustworthy. Trust will inspire John and his team to be honest and encourage everyone to be accountable for their actions.

Cognitive evaluation theory[edit | edit source]

Cognitive evaluation theory (CET) is a sub-theory of self-determination theory (Sheldon & Prentice, 2019). CET focuses on achievement and success while investigating how external factors affect intrinsic motivation in a process known as motivational "crowding out" (Ryan & Deci, 2000). CET further explains the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. For example, intrinsic motivators includes achievement, responsibility, and competence. Essentially, this is the motivation that come from the actual performance of the task- the intrinsic interest of the work. You may have found that while you are actively enjoying your work, it appears to be easier or more effective. In contrast, when you are not enjoying your work, it becomes boring.

Figure 5: Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation concept

Intrinsic motivation can be defined as an internal strength that motivates people to work harder and appreciate their work (Cerasoli et al., 2014). People are motivated by the enjoyment of doing the work rather than by money or other external rewards. For example, let's assume there is a student who is motivated to study psychology because he or she is interested. A student who is interested in a particular subject is going to do more study. As a result of that, his activities will be motivated by internal incentives. If, on the other hand, a student is merely obliged to study in order to satisfy his parent, he is motivated by extrinsic incentives.

Extrinsic motivators such as pay, promotion, working conditions, controlled by others (Cerasoli et al., 2014). These are the objects that emerge from the environment and are under the control of someone else. Any of these can be a significant motivator for some people. People who are genuinely inspired are simple motivated by a desire for a sense of accomplishment or the desire to excel at something. They are concerned with performance rather than the environment. Extrinsically motivated people are more concerned with the incentives on offer.

CET focuses on two core needs; perceived competence and autonomy which are influenced by environmental and social circumstances. It has been demonstrated that perceived competence combined with feelings of autonomy has a positive impact on intrinsic motivation.

CET hypotheses are:

  • The environment and social context promote emotions of competence, which have a positive effect on intrinsic motivation.
  • When individuals believe confident, independent, or self - determined, their intrinsic drive improves.
  • When people participate in tasks for internal rather than external reasons, intrinsic motivation improves.

According to the cognitive evaluation theory, extrinsic motivation, which decreases autonomy, reduces intrinsic motivation. For example, when we look at a task, we assess it in terms of how well it fulfills our desires to feel competent and in charge. If we believe we will be able to complete the goal, we will be innately motivated to complete the task, without no additional external rewards. When a person has a stronger internal locus of control, they believe they have a control over how they act. Where they have a stronger external locus of control, they will believe the situation or others have a bigger impact on what they do.

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Links[edit | edit source]

Psychologist Key concepts
Carl Rogers Personality psychology
Plato Philosophy of mind
Albert Bandura Self-efficacy
Aristotle Human nature
Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning

Table 1. Fourier's typology of passions

Charles Fourier believed that works is to carry the impression of the desire, because life is a misery for those who do not have a fun job (Karlsson, 2015). When passion is free, the people is relieved - a fundamental idea of Charles Fourier (Karlsson, 2015). Table 1. is showing of Charles three principles types and certain modifications of each. If passions grow, they bring together a new human and social community. a new society - harmony. The passive passions are aimed at pleasure and we can experience pleasure with our senses. Active passions sometimes termed as social passions which means dealing with people's relationships, where love and ambition are more vital for social development than friendship and the family or parental passion (Karlsson, 2015).

Passive passions

(directed toward pleasure)

Active passions

(directed toward social community)

Neutral passions

(directed toward organizing)

Sight Friendship Principle of competition Harmony
Hearing Ambition Principle of variety
Taste, smell, touch Love, family feeling Principle of combination

Quizzes[edit | edit source]

Choose the correct answers and click "Submit":

1 Self-determination theory refers to the amount of motivation:


2 The number of entrepreneurs agrees that success requires innovation:


3 Building an individual's skills is an intrinsic reward for work:


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Conclusion[edit | edit source]

  • Summarise the key points
  • Take home message 1- Passion is different word for individual, it all depends on how each one of us take it.
  • Take home message 2 - By demonstrating motivational theory includes the self-determination theory, cognitive evaluation theory and the dualistic model, it conclude that passion can be good or bad, depending on individual how they feels their own passion.

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See also[edit | edit source]

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References[edit | edit source]

Baum, J. R., & Locke, E. A. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 587–598.

Birkeland, I. K., & Buch, R. (2015). The dualistic model of passion for work: Discriminate and predictive validity with work engagement and workaholism. Motivation and Emotion, 39(3), 392–408.

Burke, R. J., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2009). Work motivations, work outcomes, and health: Passion versus addiction. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(S2), 257–263.

Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 980–1008.

Chen, P., Lee, F., & Lim, S. (2020). Loving thy work: developing a measure of work passion. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 29(1), 140–158.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology Psychologie Canadienne, 49(3), 182–185.

Forest, J., Mageau, G. A., Sarrazin, C., & Morin, E. M. (2011). “Work is my passion”: The different affective, behavioural, and cognitive consequences of harmonious and obsessive passion toward work. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 28(1), 27–40.

Forest, J., Mageau, G. A., Crevier-Braud, L., Bergeron, É., Dubreuil, P., & Lavigne, G. L. (2012). Harmonious passion as an explanation of the relation between signature strengths’ use and well-being at work: Test of an intervention program. Human Relations (New York), 65(9), 1233–1252.

Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43(6), 495–513.

Ho, V. T., Wong, S.-S., & Lee, C. H. (2011). A Tale of passion: Linking job passion and cognitive engagement to employee work performance. Journal of Management Studies, 48(1), 26–47.

Ho, V. T., & Astakhova, M. N. (2018). Disentangling passion and engagement: An examination of how and when passionate employees become engaged ones. Human Relations (New York), 71(7), 973–1000.

Kajfez, R. L., & Matusovich, H. M. (2017). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness as motivators of graduate teaching assistants. Journal of Engineering Education (Washington, D.C.), 106(2), 245–272.

Karlsson, J. C. (2015). Work, passion, exploitation. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 5(2), 3–.

Mageau, G. A., Carpentier, J., & Vallerand, R. J. (2011). The role of self-esteem contingencies in the distinction between obsessive and harmonious passion. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(6), 720–729.

Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 498–512.

Perrewé, P. L., Hochwarter, W. A., Ferris, G. R., McAllister, C. P., & Harris, J. N. (2014). Developing a passion for work passion: Future directions on an emerging construct. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(1), 145–150.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. The American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.

Sheldon, K. M., & Prentice, M. (2019). Self‐determination theory as a foundation for personality researchers. Journal of Personality, 87(1), 5–14.

Slemp, G. R., Zhao, Y., Hou, H., & Vallerand, R. J. (2021). Job crafting, leader autonomy support, and passion for work: Testing a model in Australia and China. Motivation and Emotion, 45(1), 60–74.

Vallerand, R. J., Blanchard, C., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., Ratelle, C., Léonard, M., Gagné, M., & Marsolais, J. (2003). Les Passions de l’Âme: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(4), 756–767.

Vallerand, R. J., Paquet, Y., Philippe, F. L., & Charest, J. (2010). On the role of passion for work in burnout: A process model. Journal of Personality, 78(1), 289–312.

Vallerand, R. J. (2012). The role of passion in sustainable psychological well-being. Psychology of Well-Being, 2(1), 1–21.

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