Motivation and emotion/Book/2021/Survival needs and motivation

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Survival needs and motivation:
What are survival needs and how do they influence motivation?

Overview[edit | edit source]

[Provide more detail]

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At the top of the chapter, the title and sub-title should match the exact wording and casing as shown in the book chapter table of contents. The sub-titles all end with a question mark.

This Overview section should be concise but consist of several paragraphs which serve to engage the reader, illustrate the problem, and outline how psychological science can help.

Focus questions:

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  • What is the second focus question?
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Survival needs and motivation[edit | edit source]

[Provide more detail]

What are survival needs and how do they influence motivation?[edit | edit source]

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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs[edit | edit source]

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs2.svg
  • Overview on Maslow’s theory of motivation in a hierarchical order.
  • Most basic survival needs that need to be addressed that motivates behaviour.
  • Notes: The model has since been expanded, other motivational theories that have built off Maslow's motivation theory.

> Prolonged deprivation of a particular need results in an individual becoming preoccupied with that need (Winston, 2016).

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Physiological Needs[edit | edit source]

  • Fundamental motivational driver for behaviour change in order to satisfy basic needs.
  • Food, water, sleep – when these survival needs are not met, human behaviour changes in order to satisfy these needs such as theft & violence
  • Sexual Needs - pleasure, hormonal drives that influence sexual behaviour.
  • Hormones (testosterone) as significant motivational influences to sexual behaviour, as well as the hypothalamus and endocrine system (Bhasin, et, al, 2007).

Safety Needs[edit | edit source]

  • Safety needs are personal security, financial security, and health and well-being - multiple elements that contribute to meeting safety needs.
  • Safety worrying is the major reason for mental disorders, such as anxiety, phobia, depression, and PTSD (Zheng, et, al. 2016)
  • Motivation for safety needs - when barriers of safety needs are present, no other needs are fulfilled, motivation to satisfy safety needs becomes primary, obsessive focus (Winston, 2016).

Belonging & Social Needs[edit | edit source]

  • Social needs, specifically the sense of belonging, are considered an essential part of survival.
  • Need for affiliation – desire to establish & maintain rewarding interpersonal relationships.
  • ‘People have social motives as a result of our socially-grounded evolutionary past’ (Stevens & Fiske, 1995).

Relationship Theories[edit | edit source]

  • Note: key relationship theories here

When needs are not met[edit | edit source]

  • Deprivation of social needs & behaviours that are motivated from this deprivation.
  • Without socialisation/relationships: Infancy/childhood – less cognitively advanced, causes apathy and depression
  • Higher rate of mortality (Holt-Lunstad, Smith & Layton, 2010)

Self-identity & Self-fulfillment[edit | edit source]

  • People are generally motivated to maintain and/or enhance feelings of self-esteem, continuity, distinctiveness, belonging, efficacy, and meaning within their identities (Vignoles, et, al. 2006).
  • Interrelatedness of self-esteem and behaviour motivation

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Table 1.

Example of a Table with an APA Style Caption

Children Gather Round
Mary had a
little lamb it's
fleece was white

Table 2.

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Nursery Rhyme Time
Incy Wincy spider
climbed up the
water spout down

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Fruit Price/kg Popularity
Tomatoes $6.00 1st
Bananas $5.00 2nd
Watermelon $2.99 3rd
Oranges $3.85 4th
Apples $4.95 5th
Grapes $9.50 6th
Mangoes $12.00 7th
Avocados $12.00 8th

Quizzes[edit | edit source]

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Conclusion[edit | edit source]

The Conclusion is arguably the most important section. It should be possible for someone to read only the Overview and the Conclusion and still get a good idea of the topic.

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Suggestions for this section:

  • What is the answer to the question in the sub-title (based on psychological theory and research)?
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See also[edit | edit source]

In this section, provide up to half-a-dozen internal (wiki) links to relevant Wikiversity pages (esp. related motivation and emotion book chapters) and Wikipedia articles. For example:

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  • Present in alphabetical order.
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References[edit | edit source]

Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine, 7(7), e1000316–e1000316.

Stevens, L. E., & Fiske, S. T. (1995). Motivation and Cognition in Social Life: A Social Survival Perspective. Social Cognition, 13(3), 189–214.

Vignoles, V. L., Regalia, C., Manzi, C., Golledge, J., & Scabini, E. (2006). Beyond Self-Esteem: Influence of Multiple Motives on Identity Construction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(2), 308–333.

Winston, C. N. (2016). An Existential-Humanistic-Positive Theory of Human Motivation. The Humanistic Psychologist, 44(2), 142–163.

Zheng, Z., Gu, S., Lei, Y., Lu, S., Wang, W., Li, Y., & Wang, F. (2016). Safety Needs Mediate Stressful Events Induced Mental Disorders. Neural Plasticity, 2016, 8058093–8058096.

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External links[edit | edit source]

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