Motivation and emotion/Book/2021/Leadership and morale

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Leadership and morale:
How does leadership affect morale?

Overview[edit | edit source]

Figure 1. The different models of leadership.
  • Define leadership, and describe its characteristics and its importance (Hogan & Kaiser, 2005).
  • Introduce and provide an overview of the main theories of leadership (contingency model, transactional, transformational leadership; Figure; Kassin et al., 2015).
  • Introduce and provide an overview of the styles of leadership (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire).
  • Provide an overview of how these theories can inform understanding of leadership, and lead to more effective outcomes (Hogan et al., 1994).
  • Introduce the potential consequences on performance for teams, groups and companies etc, of good and bad leadership, and its effect on morale (Day & Lord, 1988; Hogan et al., 1994).

Focus questions:

  • What are the characteristics of good leadership?
  • What are the characteristics of bad leadership?
  • What are the different theories of leadership?
  • What are the effects of good and bad leadership on morale?

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This template provides tips for topic development. Gradually remove these suggestions as you develop the chapter. Also consult the author guidelines.

At the top of the chapter, the title and sub-title should match the exact wording and casing as shown in the book chapter table of contents. The sub-titles all end with a question mark.

This Overview section should be concise but consist of several paragraphs which serve to engage the reader, illustrate the problem, and outline how psychological science can help.

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Suggestions for this section:

  • What is the problem? Why is it important?
  • How can specific motivation and/or emotion theories and research help?
  • Provide an example or case study.
  • Conclude with Focus questions to guide the chapter.

Defining leadership[edit | edit source]

[Provide more detail]

What are the traits and behaviours of good leaders?[edit | edit source]

  • Discuss the personality traits and attributes that are related to good leadership (Hogan et al., 1994; Derue et al., 2011).
  • Discuss the behavioural traits that are exhibited by good leaders and the competencies that facilitate good leadership (Hogan & Kaiser, 2005; Yukl, 2012)

What are the traits and behaviours of bad leaders?[edit | edit source]

  • Discuss the personality traits that are related to bad leadership (Hogan et al., 1994).
  • Discuss the behavioural traits and deficiencies that are exhibited by bad leaders and lead to poor leadership qualities (Leslie & Van Velsor, 1996)

How you are going to structure the chapter? Aim for three to six main headings between the Overview and Conclusion.

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Suggestions for this section:

  • For the topic development, provide at least 3 bullet-points about key content per section. Include key citations.
  • For the book chapter, expand the bullet points into paragraphs.
  • If a section has a lot of content, arrange it into two to five sub-headings such as in the interactive learning features section. Avoid having sections with only one sub-heading.

Leadership theories[edit | edit source]

[Provide more detail]

Contingency model of leadership[edit | edit source]

  • Task oriented leadership and its characteristics (Derue et al., 2011; Kassin et al., 2015).
  • Related task oriented behaviours (Derue et al., 2011).
  • Relations oriented leadership and its characteristics (Derue et al., 2011; Kassin et al., 2015).
  • Related relations oriented behaviours (Derue et al., 2011).

Transactional leadership[edit | edit source]

  • Define transactional leadership and its three dimensions (Judge & Piccolo, 2004).
  • Describe the common behavioural aspects related to transactional leadership (Derue et al., 2011).

Transformational leadership[edit | edit source]

  • Define transformational leadership and its four dimensions (Judge & Piccolo, 2004).
  • Describe the change-oriented behaviours related to transformational leadership (Derue et al., 2011).

Styles of leadership[edit | edit source]

  • Define and describe autocratic leadership and its characteristics (De Hoog et al., 2015)
  • Define and describe democratic leadership and its characteristics (Warrick, 1981; Van Vugt et al., 2004)
  • Define and describe laissez-faire leadership and its characteristics, including passive leadership behaviours (Derue et al., 2011).

What is morale?[edit | edit source]

  • Define morale and its role as a mediating variable between leadership styles and practices and the performance of employees, staff, and subordinates (Noor & Ampornstira, 2019).
  • Morale comprises of the two primary attitudes, job satisfaction and affective organisational commitment (Jackson et al., 2012).

The relationship between leadership and morale[edit | edit source]

[Provide more detail]

What is the effect of bad leadership on morale?[edit | edit source]

  • The effect of autocratic leadership on psychological safety and morale (De Hoog et al., 2015).
  • The limiting of group control over decision making and the effect it has on increased group turnover rates (Van Vugt et al., 2004).
  • The consequences of laissez-faire leadership on performance, health, wellbeing, morale and workplace engagement (Erskine & Georgiou, 2018).

What is the effect of good leadership on morale?[edit | edit source]

  • The effect of good communication relationship building, visibility, approachability, open-mindedness and the provision of recognition on morale (Stewart-Banks et al., 2015).
  • Leaders who are high in agreeableness increase the level of morale in subordinates (Hogan et al., 1994).
  • Relational and transformational leadership styles and their positive effects on productivity, employee engagement, wellbeing, stress, absenteeism and morale (Erskine & Georgiou, 2018).

Interactive learning features[edit | edit source]

What brings an online book chapter to life, compared to an essay, are its interactive learning features. Case studies, feature boxes, figures, links, tables, and quiz questions can be used throughout the chapter.

Case studies[edit | edit source]

Case studies describe real-world examples of concepts in action. Case studies can be real or fictional. A case could be used multiple times during a chapter to illustrate different theories or stages. It is often helpful to present case studies using feature boxes.

Feature boxes[edit | edit source]

Feature boxes can be used to highlight content, but don't overuse them. There are many different ways of creating feature boxes (e.g., see Pretty boxes). Possible uses include:

  • Focus questions
  • Case studies or examples
  • Quiz questions
  • Take-home messages
Feature box example
  • Shaded background
  • Coloured border

Figures[edit | edit source]

Figure 1. Example image with descriptive caption.

Use figures to illustrate concepts, add interest, and provide examples. Figures can be used to show photographs, drawings, diagrams, graphs, etcetera. Figures can be embedded throughout the chapter, starting with the Overview section. Figures should be captioned (using a number and a description) in order to explain their relevance to the text. Possible images can be found at Wikimedia Commons. Images can also be uploaded if they are licensed for re-use or if you created the image. Each figure should be referred to at least once in the main text (e.g., see Figure 1).

Links[edit | edit source]

Where key words are first used, make them into interwiki links such as Wikipedia links to articles about famous people (e.g., Sigmund Freud and key concepts (e.g., dreams) and links to book chapters about related topics (e.g., would you like to learn about how to overcome writer's block?).

Tables[edit | edit source]

Tables can be an effective way to organise and summarise information. Tables should be captioned (using APA style) to explain their relevance to the text. Plus each table should be referred to at least once in the main text (e.g., see Table 1 and Table 2).

Here are some example 3 x 3 tables which could be adapted:

Table 1.

Example of a Table with an APA Style Caption

Children Gather Round
Mary had a
little lamb it's
fleece was white

Table 2.

Another Example of a Table with an APA Style Caption

Nursery Rhyme Time
Incy Wincy spider
climbed up the
water spout down

Table 3.

Example of a Sortable Table with an APA Style Caption

Fruit Price/kg Popularity
Tomatoes $6.00 1st
Bananas $5.00 2nd
Watermelon $2.99 3rd
Oranges $3.85 4th
Apples $4.95 5th
Grapes $9.50 6th
Mangoes $12.00 7th
Avocados $12.00 8th

Quizzes[edit | edit source]

Quizzes are a direct way to engage readers. But don't make quizzes too hard or long. It is better to have one or two review questions per major section than a long quiz at the end. Try to quiz conceptual understanding, rather than trivia.

Here are some simple quiz questions which could be adapted. Choose the correct answers and click "Submit":

1 Quizzes are an interactive learning feature:


2 Long quizzes are a good idea:


To learn about different types of quiz questions, see Quiz.

Working notes[edit | edit source]

It could be useful to have a temporary section for working notes during the topic development and chapter drafting. This section will be ignored when the topic development is marked, but remove it before finalising the book chapter.

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

  • Summarise key points from the different headings and subheadings, focusing on finalising answers to the focus questions.
  • Provide the take home message that the pertinent psychological theories and research can greatly inform us of more effective ways to engage in leadership behaviour to secure more positive outcomes in many different areas.

The Conclusion is arguably the most important section. It should be possible for someone to read only the Overview and the Conclusion and still get a good idea of the topic.

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Suggestions for this section:

  • What is the answer to the question in the sub-title (based on psychological theory and research)?
  • What are the answers to the focus questions?
  • What are the practical, take-home messages?

See also[edit | edit source]

In this section, provide up to half-a-dozen internal (wiki) links to relevant Wikiversity pages (esp. related motivation and emotion book chapters) and Wikipedia articles. For example:

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Suggestions for this section:

  • Present in alphabetical order.
  • Include the source in parentheses.

References[edit | edit source]

In this section, list the cited references in APA style (7th ed.). For example:

Day, D., & Lord, R. (1988), Executive leadership and organizational performance: Suggestions for a new theory and methodology. Journal of Management, 14(3), 453-464.

De Hoog, A., Greer, L., & Den Hartog, D. (2015). Diabolical dictators or capable commanders? An investigation of the differential effects of autocratic leadership on team performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 26, 687-701.

Derue, D., Nahrgang, J., Wellman, N., & Humphrey, S. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology, 11(64), 7-52.

Erskine, J., & Georgiou, G. (2018). Leadership styles: employee stress, well-being, productivity, turnover and absenteeism.

Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. (2005). What we know about leadership. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 169-180.

Hogan, R., Curphy, G., & Hogan, J. (1994). What we know about leadership: Effectiveness and personality. American Psychologist, 49(6), 493-504.

Jackson, E., Rossi, M., Rickamer, Hoover, E., & Johnson, R. (2012). Relationships of leader reward behavior with employee behavior: Fairness and morale as key mediators. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(7), 646-661.

Judge, T., & Piccolo, R. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 755-768.

Kassin, S., Fein, S., Markus., McBain, K., & Williams, L. (2015). Social Psychology. Cengage Learning Australia.

Leslie, J., & Van Velsor, E. (1996). A look at derailment today: North America and Europe. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.

Noor, A., & Ampornstira, F. (2019). Effects of leadership on employee morale in higher education. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 10(7), 141-144.

Sewart-Banks, B., Kuofie, M., Hakim, A., & Branch, R. (2015). Education leadership styles impact on work performance and morale of staff. Journal of Marketing and Management, 6(2), 87-105.

Van Vugt, M., Jepson, A., Hart, C., & De Cremer, D. (2004). Autocratic leadership in social dilemmas: A threat to group stability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 1-13.

Warrick, D. (1981). Leadership styles and their consequences. Journal of Experiential Learning and Simulation, 3(4), 155-172.

Yukl, L. (2012). Effective leadership behavior: what we know and what questions need more attention. Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(4), 66-85.

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Suggestions for this section:

  • Important aspects include:
    • Wrap the set of references in the hanging indent template. Using "Edit source": {{Hanging indent|1= the full list of references}}
    • Author surname, followed by a comma, then author initials separated by full stops and spaces
    • Year of publication in parentheses
    • Title of work in lower case except first letter and proper names, ending in a full-stop.
    • Journal title in italics, volume number in italics, issue number in parentheses, first and last page numbers separated by a en-dash(–), followed by a full-stop.
    • Provide the full doi as a URL and working hyperlink
  • Common mistakes include:
    • incorrect capitalisation
    • incorrect italicisation
    • providing a "retrieved from" date (not part of APA 7th ed. style).
    • citing sources that weren't actually read or consulted

External links[edit | edit source]

In this section, provide up to half-a-dozen External links to relevant Wikiversity pages (esp. related motivation and emotion book chapters) and Wikipedia articles. For example:

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Suggestions for this section:

  • Only select links to major external resources about the topic
  • Present in alphabetical order
  • Include the source in parentheses after the link