Motivation and emotion/Book/2021/Amusement

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What is amusement, what causes it, what are its consequences, and how can it be fostered?

Overview[edit | edit source]

  • Discuss how previous research has focused on happiness as a whole, however, amusement is it's[grammar?] own positive emotional state
  • Introduction to amusement and all aspects considered in the subtitle

What is amusement?[edit | edit source]

Figure 1. Laughter is a direct expression of amusement that transcends language and culture. The exhale that occurs through laughing relaxes the muscles which adds to sensations of enjoyment and pleasure.
  • "a pleasant perception of incongruity" (Roberts, 1988)
  • Amusement based on an individuals[grammar?] perception of the environment interacting with their preconceived beliefs (Roberts, 1988)
  • Amusement is essentially the experience of humour and/or entertainment - will act as sub headings to be discussed

What causes amusement?[edit | edit source]

  • Levels of amusement are increased during periods of stress, and controlled to achieve social desires (Giuliani et al., 2008)
  • Amusement and mutually exclusive negative emotions (such as disgust) can be experienced at the same time as long as the individual is not directly effected by the event that triggers a negative emotion. By watching somebody else experience a disgusting event, there is higher potential for amusement. By experiencing that same disgusting event personally, the individual can not be amused as they automatically focus on the consequences (Hemenover & Schimmack)
  • Play causes amusement in mammals, and it provides individuals with the ability to learn in a complex environment that is not at risk of serious consequences (Shiota et al., 2014)

Consequences of amusement[edit | edit source]

  • Amusement as a positive emotion can serve as a powerful tool for relationship development and maintenance (Herring et al., 2011)
  • Physiological consequences of amusement - positive facial expressions and laughter, less heart-rate deceleration, increase in respiratory amplitude (Herring et al., 2011)
  • These physiological responses cause further positive psychological consequences, more responses found by Giuliani et al. (2008)

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

  • Summary of what amusement is, causes of amusement, and consequences of amusement
  • Implications of research and future recommendations

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Giuliani, N., McRae, K., Gross, J., & Phelps, E. (2008). The up- and down-regulation of amusement: Experiential, behavioral, and autonomic consequences. Emotion, Vol.8 (5), p.714-719. DOI: 10.1037/a0013236

Hemenover, S., & Schimmack, U. (2007). That's disgusting! …, but very amusing: Mixed feelings of amusement and disgust. Cognition and emotion, Vol.21 (5), p.1102-1113. DOI: 10.1080/02699930601057037

Herring, D., Burleson, M., Roberts, N., & Devine, M. (2011). Coherent with laughter: Subjective experience, behavior, and physiological responses during amusement and joy. International journal of psychophysiology, Vol.79 (2), p.211-218. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2010.10.007

Roberts, R. (1988). Is amusement an emotion? American philosophical quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 269-274.

Shiota, M., Neufeld, S., Danvers, A., Osborne, E., Sng, O., & Yee, C. (2014). Positive emotion differentiation: a functional approach: Positive emotion differentiation. Social and personality psychology compass, Vol.8 (3), p.104-117. DOI: 10.1111/spc3.12092

External links[edit | edit source]