Motivation and emotion/Book/2020/TV binge-watching motivation

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TV binge-watching motivation:
What motivates TV binge-watching?


Overview[edit | edit source]

Figure 1. Binge Watching[Provide more detail]

With the advancement of modern technology we are now afforded the luxury of being able to watch television on demand. This allows us to watch an entire series at one time or what is also known as binge watching. This new technology which encapsulates us for hours at a time even is detrimental to our over health which could lead to obesity, binge eating as well other significant health (diabetes, heart disease) or mental issues (hedonic adaptation)[factual?].

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the role of health due to binge-watching TV disorder and the relationship between behavioral phenomenon and health implications. With modern technology, today's human population can watch, digital stream or use video-on-demand multiple hours or marathons of uninterrupted television that is unprecedented amounts[Repeated info from 1st paragraph]. As a direct consequence of this new comprehensive spread consumption pattern of habitually digital streaming our 21st century media consumption is a direct correlation between various health implications, sedentary behaviors, and morbid obesity to name a few[Repeated info from 1st paragraph].  The necessity for this study is to recognize the health risk and global behaviors associated with Binge Television Watching on many age groups or a period that can be a result of or lead to health implications that affect all generations. To bring awareness of the dangers and side effects of long-term binge tv watching on the human brain, human body and overall mental health dealing with the media-ideal internalization of self-worth, self-objectification and self-value today[grammar?]. "Most people would rather ‘bingeable' texts also legitimize the viewing practice, and thus the medium: if viewers stand to earn valued cultural capital, it is socially acceptable to binge, rather than watch several hours of scheduled television (Jenner, 2015)".

If you Binge Watching Television, it will directly affect your overall health[factual?]. If different age groups are more susceptible to the effects of binge-watching television[grammar?]. Does binge-watching tv have any adverse impact on the human brain, body and mental health over all of today's humans[awkward expression?]? "As such, the ‘norm' and ‘excess' are difficult to pin down, but what can be established is that the excess of a binge exceeds the ‘ration' scheduled television offers by far, furthermore, a binge suggests the consecutive watching of several episodes of one series, uninterrupted by the flow of television, which includes advertising breaks and a variety of programmes (Jenner, 2015)". "This implies an intense – or ‘excessively' close – relationship with a text. It highlights that binge-watching is decidedly different from following television flow where more than one programme is watched. In the case of DVD box sets, an important factor in determining excess may also be anticipation and monetary value of the commodity about the time needed to consume it (Jenner, 2015)".

This chapter addresses the following focus questions.

Focus questions
  • Does binge-watching tv have any adverse impact on the human brain, body and mental health over all of today's humans?
  • Is TV binge watching good for you?
  • To what extent does Binge-watching affect a viewer's reception towards a show?
  • To what extent does Binge-watching affect a viewer's gratifications obtained?
  • To what extent does binge-watching affect a viewer's reception of an individual episode?

Review of the literature[edit | edit source]

"With the emergence of online streaming television services, watching television has never been so easy and a new Behavioral phenomenon has arisen: television binge-watching, that is, viewing multiple episodes of the same television show in the same sitting (Walton-Pattison et al., 2016)". This has led to an alarming rise or increase in the crisis on human health. In the areas of alcohol consumption while binge-watching, cardiovascular disease, as well as many other major life-altering issues due to the increase rate of sedentary behaviors associated with marathons of digital streaming of long periods of time.  "Binge-watching serves the interests of the emerging VOD industry and particularly the producers and distributors of original content, Netflix, Amazon and, in the US market, Hulu, have been exploring the ‘binge model' as a way to publish content and bind customers (Jenner, 2015)"

Descriptions of the terms used[edit | edit source]

Template:Epxand

VOD (video-on-demand)[edit | edit source]

A system in which viewers choose their own filmed entertainment, using a PC or interactive TV system, from a wide selection. (www.dictionary.com)

Sedentary behavior: "Sedentary behavior is any waking behavior characterized by an    energy expenditure ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents (METs), while in a sitting, reclining or  lying posture, this means that any time a person is sitting or lying down, they are  engaging in sedentary behavior" (www.sedentarybehaviour.org/)

Binge watching[edit | edit source]

The practice of watching multiple episodes of a television program in rapid  succession, typically using DVDs or digital streaming. (www.dictionary.com)

Morbid obesity[edit | edit source]

Morbid Obesity is a Serious Health Condition. An individual is considered  morbidly obese if he or she is 100 pounds over his/her ideal body weight, has a BMI of 40 or more, or 35 or more and experiencing obesity-related health conditions, such as  high blood pressure or diabetes. (https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/.aspx)

Digital streaming[edit | edit source]

Streaming media is video or audio content sent in compressed form over the Internet and played immediately, rather than being saved to the hard drive, with streaming media, a user does not have to wait to download a file to play it. Because the media is sent in a continuous stream of data, it can play as it arrives. (www.whatis.techtarget.com)

Gastric bypass[edit | edit source]

A surgical bypass operation that typically involves reducing the size of the stomach and reconnecting the smaller stomach to bypass the first portion of the small intestine to restrict food intake and reduce caloric absorption in cases of severe obesity (https://www.merriam-webster.com)

Rationale for conducting the study[edit | edit source]

  1. The increase of digital platforms that allow the ease and usage of binge-watching tv in today's society.
  2. The short-term and long-term effect of binge-watching tv on the human body, brain, and social isolation skills.
  3. The development effects of media-ideal internalization and self-objectification as a result of binge tv (Ahmed, 2017).

Assumptions[edit | edit source]

Some of the assumptions that are assumed to be true about binge-watching are: It will lead to unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical exercise; increase chance of aggression; social isolation and repression from social activities with others; increase amount of sleep deprivation, and overall shorten your lifespan due to increasing the chance of significant health issues like diabetes. "According to a new study published in JAMA Psychiatry, young adults who sat watching TV for more than three hours per day were more likely to have poor cognitive performance than those who did not spend as much time in front of the television (Wall St., 2015)".

Research methods and procedures[edit | edit source]

Case studies, surveys, self-Report, and interview[edit | edit source]

Population Describe the population sample to be studied: ages 18 to 98 with access to television in their home, smartphones, and tables with internet connects
Procedure Discuss how the study will be carried out. For this study, we will use an online survey emailed to everyone who purchased television, smartphone, or tablet within the last 90 days for a major big box store. Each member will have ten days to compete for the online survey and email it back.
Instruments Describe the specific measurements (devices) to be used to test each hypothesis (research question).
Sample(N=100) will consist of 100 people (50 boys/men; 50 girls/women) at various age ranges (18-98).  Participants were selected randomly from purchased they made at a big box store. Informed consent will be part of the email survey mailed to person for their participation. To ensure confidentiality, participant names and email address will be removed before data entry on spreadsheets, and they will be addressed by numbers only (Flayelle et al., 2019).
Data Analysis Describe the procedures you intend to use to analyze the data produced from your instruments, and how that would answer the hypotheses (research questions).

Procedure[edit | edit source]

An initial interview will take place over the internet in the form of an online survey. Each purchaser will be emailed an online survey. They will have about 90 questions each to answer and email back the results. They will only be allowed one chance to answer questions that ask about the amount of time spent watching tv programs that are classified as binge-watching, video on demand as well as their television consumption of long periods of time. They will end the survey with questions that ask them about their overall health issues before and after watching bulk hours of television. The family history of significant health risk is some of the online survey questions. "Sitting on the couch for hours on end isn't good for you as everyone knows that being a couch potato creates a greater risk of obesity and heart disease, but as it turns out it also harms your brain function (Wall St., 2015)".

Measures[edit | edit source]

All of the actions will be counted from numbers 1-99 in the order they are received, and the data will be logged onto a spreadsheet using a F=SUM formula. The results will be mapped using a bar graph as well as a pie chart for percentages. This test can be repeated as much as needed. Adjustment can be made to limit the study to children, of women of specific age groups or higher risk populations. The measure, as well as the method, can be changed to target school-aged children and they would be asked to self-report (Krstić, 2018).

Cognitive and psychological effects of TV binge watching[edit | edit source]

Lander says there's nothing inherently wrong with the occasional TV fuss. "There are some positive psychological effects on TV," he says. "The problem is when you're overdone," Lander says, the length of screen time varies by people, depending on "genetics, mental state, age, personal characteristics, etc.", but there are still many ways to set limits to avoid vintage watching. the greatest health risk First of all, Don-chan's fuss should not last for hours without any movement. "I take regular stretch breaks," says Lander. "It's best to move around every 30 minutes. Or, look at some of them as you stand." Tolliver proposes to incorporate physical activity into your streaming schedule and plan it later. "Take a break," she says. "Don't be afraid to do anything else by pressing the pause button. She starts or finishes washing, burns, walks the dog, goes to the restroom, "After the Vines, walking and jogging are the best way to go," she says. "Balance is the key." And she says, plan your snacks. Prepare health food suitable for vintage watching, such as cut vegetables and air popcorn. Lander is also easy to stay on the sofa when you're hooked on great shows, so it's recommended that you turn off the TV after a specified amount of time. "Many TVs have a turnoff timer." Also, be careful not to stream episodes one after another just before going to bed or disrupt your sleep cycle.

"The best sleep routine does not use the screen hours before going to bed, but it is at least one to two hours," Chervin suggests. "Don't expose yourself to the blue light. Let's calm down to a nice and relaxing routine that brushes your teeth, wears pajamas, reads books and goes to bed by the appointed time. It is important to have a very periodic schedule. People believe that sleep is spongy (and it can be compensated), but it is really difficult to recover." Finally, it's best to be binge-watching with other people, rather than making it an isolated habit that could burden your relationships. "Make fun activities with your partners and friends," says Tolliver. "After each episode, I talk about what I like and what I don't like."

Binge watching is dangerous to your health[edit | edit source]

The common practice of watching many episodes of a television in a single sitting is referred to as binge-watching which has gained popularity in the recent years with the rise of streaming entertainment services that tend to release entire TV series or season that are not interrupted by advertisements. A lot of people embrace the convenience of digital streaming of binge-watching their favorite television series. Researchers are interested in examining how the new way of TV watching may impact the overall health of individuals. Following their research, there is a chemical that is released in the brain that makes people feel good after watching their TV series. The chemical is referred to as dopamine which is responsible for the feeling of happiness that comes from doing something pleasant to the body. Notably, binge-watching has been seen to be dangerous to people’s health after countable episodes of watching (Mikos, 2016).

Figure 2. Netflix streaming

Some researchers agree that there is nothing drastically wrong with binge-watching[factual?]. Still, others suggest that binge-watching should be done in moderation to avoid any side effects associated with it the viewing[factual?]. The cheap availability of streaming content and the growth of broadband together with lightning-fast mobile connections have facilitated the practice of binge-watching. Binge-watching is tied to feelings of loneliness and depression and those who binge-viewers lack self-regulation to stop since binge-watching is an addictive behavior and they cannot stop watching the TV series[factual?]. Watching TV series makes the viewers relaxed and when they stop watching their stress level increases, and it makes them have more belief that without watching their series they cannot survive (Merikivi et al., pg.415).  After the end of several shows, the viewers still want to continue watching television which helps them maintain their current state of mind[factual?]. When an individual is bitten by life, traumatized or isolated, they opt for getting something that will offer them a sense of relief[factual?].

A close attachment to the characters in the TV series makes the viewers addicted to binge-watching[factual?]. The habit overcomes people’s physical, social and mental well-being[factual?]. It has become a culture and a norm to watch an episode after episode leading to a series in one sitting[factual?]. The cost of watching channels and catch-up facilities have become affordable than ever making binge-watching a modern epidemic[factual?]. According to research, most people are suffering physical effect since they have become more glued to the sofa[factual?]. The greatest snatcher of good health today is sitting still that is brought about by binge-watching[factual?]. Sitting for a long time creates compression in the glutes, the discs and hip flexors that leads to lower back pain and problems with the spinal muscles that are associated with maintaining posture (Sung et al., pg 412)  Parts like the neck, chest and shoulders suffer causing some chronic pain and headaches[factual?].

Impact on social life[edit | edit source]

Binge-watching has impacted on the social life of people such as going for a walk or dinner[factual?]. The fact with binge-watching is that people do not feel much better or different concerning their excuses for depression or feeling anxious[factual?]. Most binge-watchers report that the series makes them go to sleep later than intended[factual?]. The situation also makes them avoid work tasks, domestic responsibilities and also avoiding family and friends, giving them a peaceful environment of watching the TV series[factual?]. Children are seen to be the most addicted individuals who get hooked with on the content they consume from several episodes[factual?]. The situation makes their executive functions to be less developed, and they become weak as time goes on (Flayelle et al., pg 116). It becomes difficult for them to be controlled and be reminded of the consequences since they have been addicted to the watching habit[factual?]. They highly defend their behavior and desire to watch since they are not able to see the dangers of being addicted and withdrawing themselves from their friends and family[factual?].

The gradual reduction in the time spent while watching the TV series is the only solution to this kind of addiction[factual?].  As children maintain the behavior, it may be the example of their parents who need to change and improve their habits that provides them with the best model[factual?]. Most children have been detected with nutrition and sleep problem since they have the habit of watching streamed series before their bedtime (Shim et al., pg.1973). Researchers have reported a lot of challenges associated with binge-watching such as less sleep, low sleep quality, tiredness during the day, and higher body mass index among the individuals just before they go to sleep[factual?]. All the hours that should be devoted to socializing, sleeping and fitness are utilized in binge-watching, and the potential health implications of binge-watching are becoming more apparent, and this makes experts across the world get worried in the future of their people[factual?].

Among the health risks caused by binge-watching include physical inactivity, which leads to poor outcomes such as obesity, depression, heart disease and diabetes[factual?]. Binge-watching is associated with non-active sitting, which leads to a higher per cent of body mass index and increases the percentage of body fats[factual?]. Binge viewing also leads to inadequate dietary intake and snacking, which creates an imbalanced calories rate ratio[factual?]. The situation is associated with more food taking that leads to increased weight. Foods taken during watching series are not the best (Vaterlaus et al., pg.475). According to research, daily engagement becomes a substitute for companionship regardless of the many TV series that are available for watching[factual?]. As long as bingeing is done in moderation, it becomes a good strategy for de-stressing. When bingeing becomes social, it brings a unique kind of pleasure that strengthens relationships, mostly when watching is done with family members[factual?].

Consequences[edit | edit source]

Figure 3. Antecedents andConsequences

Binge-watching leads to sleep disturbances and low sleep quality[factual?]. Sleep plays an essential role in mental and physical health and quality of life[factual?]. It helps the brain function properly, and the emotional well-being is broadly supported[factual?]. Good health is promoted, and healthy hormonal balance is maintained together with repair and healing of blood vessel[factual?]s. The overall sleep quality is positively affected by binge-watching since it interferes with the ability of the brain shutting off (Sung et al., pg 417) It takes a long time for one to fall in sleep and especially when the series goes up to the morning[factual?]. Behavioural addiction is another side effect of binge viewing whereby the brain pleasure centre is trickled due to the addictive habit[factual?].

When people indulge often, the side effects of binge-watching can lead to harmful brain and body changes[factual?]. However, one does not need to stop immediately but rather use several ways that help in warding off the adverse effects of binge-watching[factual?]. First, one should ensure that watching does not prevent them from getting enough sleep[factual?]. One should determine the right time to go to bed and get enough sleep, and this is helped through setting a bedtime alarm so that one may not lose track of time hence ending up sleeping at the wrong time[factual?].  Exercise is the primary key to brain development since it generates new cells and connections through a process called neurogenesis (Shim et al., pg.1975). Taking a walking and giving a break of five minutes after every episode of binge-watching makes the body and the brain active[factual?].

The more the time one spends in binge-watching, the higher the rate of depression and mental health issues[factual?].  Therefore one needs to balance between friends and the binge-viewing, and it would be better if an individual involves some of the friends during the watching time[factual?].  To avoid isolation, one has to balance the time they spent alone and the time they have to watch with friends[factual?]. Healthy choices should be made on the kind of snacks to be taken while watching the TV series[factual?]. Fruits and vegetables are the best snacks one can use if there is a craving for something to eat while bingeing (Vaterlaus et al., pg.478). Individuals should stay away from eating salty and fatty foods[factual?]. When all these tips are incorporated in the bingeing routine one can create lasting and healthy habits and still enjoy the binge-watching sessions without the damage of the brain[factual?].

Conclusively, it is essential to consider the addictive nature of television which may lead to prolonged adverse effects[factual?]. Viewers are seen to spend most of their time in viewing while forgetting other important issues to handle[factual?]. Different strategies and measures should be set to reduce the binge-watching duration, such as having impulsive behaviours.[factual?] Most researchers suggest the viewers have an app that controls them from excess watching[factual?]. There is also a need to have more solutions, and this should be done through data-driven research that should be conducted on binge viewing (Wise, 2018).

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

The principal goal or purpose of this research proposal was to provide the public with the significance or consequences of the effects of binge-watching tv on the human brain, body, and mental health overall. In and impact to encourage people that the approaches used in the research proposal study are adequate as well as viable to shed some insight on the binge-consuming high technology society we live in today[grammar?].

The anticipated project will try and target momentous and noteworthy contributions, both to a human society, hypothetical understanding of human eating patterns towards health and the process and medical support processes that could significantly impact humanity, by providing required information on a social and educational level of the global effect of binge-watching tv on adults, plus children and adolescents.  When we encounter a global epidemic on this scale, it imposes immediate danger to humans overall health. With the ability to order food at the same rate as you can watch tv it makes eating unhealthily as well as social isolation emitted. This also applies to family members struggling with health issues as well as depression or other stressors.

This research proposal touched three aspects of the effects of binge-watching tv—which aimed to shed light on new compulsions in today's society.  To advance the field this proposal will improve the overall lifespan as well as enhance induvial[spelling?] health while limiting the amount of binge-watching television. "Binge watching television has been described as a "drug" and as addictive behavior, one with the potential to displace activities such as sleeping, exercising and even housework and personal upkeep (Riddle, 2017)".

See also[edit | edit source]

[See other chapters for examples of how to format these external links links - was also covered in Tutorial 1]

  • Eating motivation (here)
  • Motivations for binge watching (here)
  • Binge watching (here)
  • TV consumption (here)
  • Hunger Motivation (here)

References[edit | edit source]

Ahmed, A. (2017). A New Era of TV-Watching Behavior: Binge Watching and its Psychological Effects. Media Watch, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.15655/mw/2017/v8i2/49006

Flagella, Maèva, Pierre Maurage, and Joël Billieux. "Toward a qualitative understanding of binge-watching behaviors: A focus group approach." Journal of behavioral addictions 6.4 (2017): 457-471.

Flayelle, M., Canale, N., Vögele, C., Karila, L., Maurage, P., & Billieux, J. (2019). Assessing binge-watching behaviors: Development and validation of the “Watching TV Series Motives” and “Binge-watching Engagement and Symptoms” questionnaires. Computers In Human Behavior, 90, 26-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.022

Jenner, M. (2015). Binge-watching: Video-on-demand, quality TV and mainstreaming fandom. International Journal Of Cultural Studies, 20(3), 304-320. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877915606485

Krstić, S. (2018). “Binge-Watching”: The New Way of Watching TV Series. AM Journal Of Art And Media Studies, (17), 15. https://doi.org/10.25038/am.v0i17.266

Merikivi, Jani et al. "On the way to understanding binge watching behavior: the over-estimated role of involvement." Electronic Markets 28.1 (2018): 111-122.

Mikos, L. (2016). Digital Media Platforms and the Use of TV Content: Binge Watching and Video-on-Demand in Germany. Media And Communication, 4(3), 154-161. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v4i3.542

Shim, Hongjin, et al. "I hate binge-watching but I can’t help doing it: The moderating effect of immediate gratification and need for cognition on binge-watching attitude-behavior relation." Telematics and Informatics 35.7 (2018): 1971-1979.

Sung, Yoon Hi, Eun Yeon Kang, and Wei-Na Lee. "Why do we indulge? Exploring motivations for binge watching." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 62.3 (2018): 408-426.

Vaterlaus, J. Mitchell, et al. "College student television binge watching: Conceptualization, gratifications, and perceived consequences." The Social Science Journal 56.4 (2019): 470-479.

Wise, J. (2018). Binge watching TV linked to increased colon cancer risk. BMJ, k1130. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k1130

External links[edit | edit source]

[See other chapters for examples of how to format these external links links - was also covered in Tutorial 1]