Motivation and emotion/Book/2020/Hypomania and motivation
What are the motivational characteristics of hypomania?
Overview-[edit | edit source]
“What is hypomania” is a common question that many people query about in our world today. This question will be discussed throughout this chapter, bringing to life the motivational characteristics and psychological theoretical explanations that come along side of it.
Knowing the answer to this question may be beneficial to you, or a loved one, now or in the future. It is important to treat hypomania as it can have negative, crucial long term effects, for example if you or a loved one experienced the motivational characteristic hypersexuality, it may result in sexually transmitted infections (Kusumakar, 2009).
What is hypomania?[edit | edit source]
Hypomania is a mood state that can be characterized by its abnormally revved-up state of mind that can influence an individual’s mood, thoughts, and behavior. Hypomania is often defined as a condition that is similar to mania; but less severe. Hypomania can be separated from mania as a condition as when as individual experiences hypomania there is no great functional impairment whereas, when an individual experiences mania, there is great potential for a significant functional impairment (Benazzi, 2017). The DSM-5criteria suggests that the typical hypomania period is four days or longer and that, on the days that hypomania is occurring, it is typical for the elevated mood to be portrayed the majority of time for this period (Benazzi, 2017)
"It’s racing thoughts, it’s tossing and turning in your bed. It’s ripping your room apart at 1 in the morning"
"Hypomania feels like you are in a room full of people, and every single one of them is trying to communicate to you"
"It’s like having 10,000 web browsers open at once"
What are the co-occurring disorders of hypomania?[edit | edit source]
Firstly, a co-occurring disorder that is brought to life through hypomania is bipolar II and bipolar I disorder. When an individual is diagnosed with bipolar disorder, they often experience hypomanic as well as manic episodes. Patterns of hypomania can be seen present in bipolar I disorder when an individual’s mood is shifting between a normal state of mood and a mania state of mood (Kusumakar, 2009). Hypomania can also be experienced if an individual is holding a mania state of mood and this mood advances downwards to a normal state of mood.
In addition to this, hypomania is also an aspect of the disorder; Cyclothymia. Cyclothymia, or sometimes called; cyclothymic disorder, is an uncommon mood disorder. An individual with cyclothymia may experience both depression and emotional ups and downs that can affect their wellbeing but is not as severe as those in bipolar I or II disorder (Kusumakar, 2009). An individual with cyclothymia is not experiences a fluctuating mood state it is quite common for them to feel stable and well .
Lastly, there is a range of conditions that co-occur with bipolar disorder, hence may be experiences with hypomania, for example,
· Anxiety disorders
· Eating disorders
· Heart disease
· Obesity (Kusumakar, 2009).
What are the causes of hypomania?[edit | edit source]
Firstly, alcohol and drug substance abuse can be a motivational causation of hypomania, in the majority of cases the hypomania can be terminated by lowering the amount of medication dosage given to the individual, and further withdrawing the drug completely (Goldberg, 2010).
Secondly, another non-clinical motivational causation of hypomania is changes in an individual’s sleep patterns, whether it’s the case that the individual is sleeping too much, battling insomnia, or experiencing sleeplessness (Kusumakar, 2009).
Thirdly, another non-clinical motivational causation of hypomania is depression. Hypomania is a significant motivational symptom of depression as it is a great part of the cycle of an individuals highs and lows that further often making it a struggle for them to do the things they need or want to do (Goldberg, 2010).
Lastly, the intake of caffeine has been evidently proven to be a motivational causation of hypomania (MD, 2015). Individuals with disorders such as bipolar are a lot more delicate to any substance that imitates that of an amphetamine, it encourages high levels of dopamine in the brain, which then encourages restlessness and anxiety, and finally influencing hypomania or mania (MD, 2015).
Sarah is a 42-year-old married woman who has a long history of both depressive and hypomanic episodes. Across the years she has beenvariable diagnoses as having major depression, borderline personality disorder, and most recently, bipolar disorder. Review of symptoms indicates that she indeed have multiple episodes of depression beginning in her late teens, but that clear hypomanic episodes later emerged. Her elevated interpersonal conflict, hyper-sexuality and alcohol use during her hypomanic episodes led to the provisional borderline diagnosis, but in the context of her full history, bipolar disorder appears the best diagnosis. Sarah notes that she is not currently in a relationship and that she feels alienated from her family. She has been taking mood stabilizers for the last year, but continues to have low level symptoms of depression. In the past, she has gone off her medication multiple times, but at present she says she is “tired of being in trouble all the time” and wants to try individual psychotherapy.
SYMPTOMS: Alcohol Use Depression Elevated Mood Impulsivity Mania/Hypomania Mood Cycles Risky Behaviors
What are the treatments used for hypomania?[edit | edit source]
There is a significant range of treatments that are available in order to aid in reducing experiences of hypomania.
1. Medication and counselling, that provides individuals with coping strategies and mechanisms to be able to recognise hypomania prompts before they begin (Benazzi, 2017).
2. Mood-stabilizing medications such as Antipsychotics, Benzodiazepines, Lithium and Valproic acid. These mood stabilizing medications aid reducing mood swings and normalizing brain activity (Shaw, 2017).
In addition to these above effective treatments, there is also many holistic ways to go about treating hypomania.
1. Getting an efficient amount of sleep each night (7-8 hours)
2. Avoiding negative stimulants (caffeine) (MD, 2015)
3. Taking part in daily exercise
4. Having a balanced nutritional diet (Benazzi, 2017).
What are the motivational characteristics of hypomania?[edit | edit source]
Confidence: when an individual experiences hypomania they may have an inflated self-esteem and regard themselves quite highly. An example of this could be, telling friends or family how great they are or possibleasking for a pay raise in work even when it might not be granted (Stanton, 2018).
Decreased need for sleep: this is when three hours of sleep may seem reasonable, influenced by uncontrolled restlessness (Goldberg, 2010).
Racing thoughts/ talkativeness: an in individual in a hypomania episode may not be able to help but think about a million things at once, they may struggle to communicate with others as they may be talking to fast or jumping from one subject to the other (Stanton, 2018).
Overindulgent participation in pleasurable activities: often during hypomania experiences an individual may be hypersexual or may take part in impulse activities such as spending excessive amount of money on a shopping spree.
Distractible/ill-tempered: during a hypomanic episode, an individual may struggle to pay attention and to prioritize correctly. They may also have a shorter temper fuse than usual; belligerence may be experienced (Stanton, 2018).
Hypomania: Theoretical basis[edit | edit source]
A theoretical basis is crucial in understanding both the cause of hypomania and the motivational characteristics that surround it. Numerous theories have been offered to aid in justifying the motivational characteristics that are brought to life during a hypomania episode.
Theory of mind[edit | edit source]
The theory of mind explores the ability to comprehend your own mental wellbeing and the mental states of others around you and also the capacity to recognize those mental states of others that may diverge from your own (SarahTerriena, 2014). Another one’s state of mind may consist of their intentions, aspirations, emotions, knowledge, and principles. There are many benefits that surround this theory,it develops social skills, encourages problem/conflict solving and aids in rationally predicting the behaviour of those around us (SarahTerriena, 2014). During a hypomanic episode alteration of social relationship can be clarified by the impairment of the functioning of theory of mind. Scarcity in theory of mind could be a significant motivational characteristic marker of a hypomanic episode (SarahTerriena, 2014).
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory[edit | edit source]
The reinforcement sensitivity theory offers three brain-behavioral systems,these brain-behavioral systems motivate individual differences in sensitivity to three factors; reward, punishment, and motivation (Kasey Stanton, 2018). The reinforcement sensitivity theory has been depicted to analyze and forecast anxiety, impulsivity, and extraversion (Kristy-Elizabeth M. Parker, 2007).
As discussed above, when an individual experiences hypomania, along with many of the motivational characteristics, distractible/ill-tempered is a significant factor often. This may involve the individual having a shorter temper fuse and becoming aggressive easily (Kasey Stanton, 2018). The reinforcement sensitivity theory in relation to this motivational characteristic depicts that upbeat and involuntary aggression experienced by an individual is motivated by a sequence of anxiety and rapid, approach-motivational personality traits (Kristy-Elizabeth M. Parker, 2007).
Cognitive Behavioral Theory[edit | edit source]
Cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of psychological treatment,it has been evidently portrayed to be significantly effective when trying to treat a wide variety of conditions, disorders and mental illnesses, for example depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug use problems, marital problems, eating disorders and severe mental illness (Kaplan, 2013). It converges on altering dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and thoughts by cross examining gloomy or irrational beliefs. This therapy highly regards the idea that an individuals thoughts and insights encourages their behavior (Kaplan, 2013).
Sleep disturbance and restlessness is a major motivational characteristic of hypomania experiences. Findings have indicated that both stimulus control and sleep restriction are highly persuasive and are often depicted through cognitive behavioral therapy,this further presents regularizing bedtimes and rise times often are sufficient to bring about improvements in sleep (Kaplan, 2013).
Quiz[edit | edit source]
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Conclusion[edit | edit source]
Hypomania is a mood state that can be characterized by its abnormally revved-up state of mind that can influence an individual’s mood, thoughts, and behavior. It is important to treat hypomania as it can have negative, crucial long term effects. There are many co occurring disorders, most commonly Bipolar II and Cyclothymia. Many psychological theories are brought to life through this condition; Theory of mind and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.
References[edit | edit source]
Kaplan, K. A. (2013). Behavioral treatment of insomnia in bipolar disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 107(17), 716-720.
Kasey Stanton, D. W. (2018, Decemeber). Unique and Transdiagnostic Symptoms of Hypomania/Mania and Unipolar Depression. Clinical Psychological Science, 7(3), 471-487.
Kristy-Elizabeth M. Parker, N. F. (2007, August). The Impact of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory on Aggressive Behavior. The Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
Kusumakar, V. D. (2009). Bipolar disorder: A clinician's guide to treatment management. In D. J. Bond, Bipolar disorder: A clinician's guide to treatment management (pp. 1-17).
Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
MD, J. T. (2015, June). Caffeine‐induced mania in a patient with caffeine use disorder: A case report. The American Journal of Addictions, 24(4), 289-291.
SarahTerriena, N. S. (2014, March). Theory of mind and hypomanic traits in general population. Psychiatry Research, 215(3), 694-699.
Shaw, D. M. (2017). Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypomania and Mania. Psychiatric Annals, 17(5), 316-323.
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