Motivation and emotion/Book/2016/Water and emotion
What is the effect of water-containing (blue space) environments on emotion?
Overview[edit | edit source]
Human beings and the environment are continuously interlaced (Peng, 2016). Throughout history, human health has been influenced by both the natural environment and the built environment (Volker, 2013). These influences have provided both positive and negative outcomes on human health (Volker, 2013).
Individuals alter the environment they are reliant on, at the same time the natural environment is similarly altering humans (Hou, 2013). The natural social amenities concentrate on providing a context in understanding individuals benefits from the natural environment suggesting that nature raises positive mood and improves mental support (Peng, 2016).
Blue space environments is defined as substantial regions of natural water comprising lakes, beaches, rivers, oceans, and coastlines (Foley, 2015). It is one of the most significant appealing and eye-catching scenery which is known to compromise health and well being of individuals (Volker, 2013).
There is rising confirmation to advise that contact with the natural environment can be linked with improved mental and physical health benefits such as decreasing stress levels and increasing cognitive functions as well as preventing or decreasing health imbalances (Foley, 2015).
Nevertheless it was correspondingly clear that blue space environments had posed some very diverse risks such as drowning and having harmful algal blooms (White, 2014). However, there has been very slight understanding of exactly what benefits might be lost if individuals reduced their contact with these environments (White, 2014).Therefore, in the last few years, substantial steps onward have been made in accepting some of these issues (Unnsteinsdottis, 2016).
This book chapter will discuss how water-containing environments (blue space) affect our everyday emotions. Discussing direct health benefits of blue space, emotional benefits, restoration and recreational benefits, as well as what is happening to our brains and bodies while being surrounded by blue space, and the perception and preferences towards blue space environments
What is blue space?[edit | edit source]
Blue space is defined as a significant area of natural water comprising water front parks, harbors, marines, rivers, open streams, canals, lakes, and beaches, which are all thought to improve the quality of life and the well- being of humans (Foley, 2015).
Theories and research[edit | edit source]
There are two theoretical viewpoints. Firstly the environmental self-regulation proposition and this suggests that individuals favorite places have certain qualities that provision their self-regulation (Kjellgren, 2010). The second theory is the process model of emotion regulation, which may arise due to the initiation of emotions concentrating within phases of the situation alteration and situation selection (Kjellgren, 2010).
Psycho-evolutionary concepts have observed conclusions about the significance of the natural environment for emotion regulation states, and how human beings have developed restorative responses to nature (Volker, 2013). An exposure to nature is suggested to reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions and research supports this with being exposed to the natural environment (Bratmann, 2012). Thus, Attention Restoration Theory suggests that exposure to the natural environment will restore cognitive functions (Pearson, 2014).
Researchers have pursued both observational and experimental evidence on the relations between physical and mental health well-being and the natural environment (Huynh, 2013). Researchers have also suggested that individuals who live near by water space environments are shown to be more healthier and happier Huynh, 2013).
Why water views are better for your health[edit | edit source]
Do you feel happier, healthier, and more in harmony when viewing a rough ocean or a calm sea?. The reason for this being is that observing water and listening to the sounds of water positions loaded minds into a peaceful and mesmerizing like state (Gascon, 2015). The advantage of this being is the diverse way that our brain processes thoughts leading to more peaceful and inspiring thoughts, as well as resting the brain from over-stimulation, therefore increasing individuals overall well-being (Gascon, 2015).
A new study proposes that individuals who view water space environments are emotionally healthier then those who live without a view of blue space (green space) (Gascon, 2015). This was not found with green space environments, as it was advocated that blue space is a natural human area, though green space environments contains human made areas such as sport fields and playgrounds (Huynh, 2013).
Environmental psychologists suggest that remaining nearby water can alter our brains significantly (Johnsen, 2013). Individuals frequently account a sensation of calmness when being around water and researchers propose this is devising a positive effect on our brains (Johnsen, 2013).
The sounds of the waves have been found to modify brain wave arrays raising a meditative relaxed state (Johnsen, 2013). Even merely perceiving the movement of water causes individuals minds to calm and this has plentiful benefits in contributing to lowering stress levels and anxiety as well as supporting improved mental clarity and sleep patterns (Johnsen, 2013).
Also numerous beliefs have a notion for water such as sacredness substance, fluids making individuals feel well from illness, and the perception of cleanness and refreshment leading to a sense of reclaimed vitality, youth and health (Hou, 2013).
Direct health benefits of blue space[edit | edit source]
Blue space is displayed to improve individual's behavioral development (Johnson, 2013). Psychological measures have stated better physical and mental health of individuals who live near blue space surroundings, displaying that individuals who devote extra time in blue space environments are less expected to show signs of emotional difficulties and complications with peer associations compared with individuals who spend less time in blue space settings (Johnsen, 2013).
It is not identified precisely why this should be (Johnsen, 2013). Nevertheless it may be because blue spaces environments such as beaches and rivers offer chances to exercise, de-stress, socialize and incline to have lower levels of noise and air pollution as well as cooler temperatures (Bratmann, 2012).
The opposing temperatures warm and cold aids from both sides being that the natural cold water offers a peaceful treatment that revitalizes the human body both physically and mentally, whereas warmer warmer water can support to relax the muscles as well as relieving stress (Bratmann, 2012).
Environmental psychologists have also suggested that being nearby water space environments can be beneficial in giving individuals exposure to the sun, stress relief and more quality time and better communication with other individuals (Bratmann, 2012).
Emotional benefits of blue space[edit | edit source]
Have you ever felt at peace while walking by the ocean, a feeling of rejuvenation when standing by a waterfall, or having that wonderful fresh feeling when viewing an outstanding lake from your window? Well environmental psychologists suggest that people regularly recount feeling a sense of calm when being around water and researchers suggest this has a positive effect on our overall health and well being (Pearson, 2014).
Environmental behavior examiners have observed the association concerning social and behavioral arrangements and the physical environment (Bratmann, 2012).
The aesthetics of the environment induce feelings such as pleasure, relaxation, excitement and fear (White, 2010). Appearance of neighborhoods and the ambiances built environments impact on our emotional responses and effective responses (Volker, 2013).
Environmental psychologists have found that individuals who are exposed to water space environments reported positive feelings such as happiness, rejuvenation and refreshment as well as being stress free, whereas individuals not exposed to blue-space environments did not express such feelings (Bratmann, 2012).
The presence of water can facilitate a sense of place, emotional feelings and attachment (Hou, 2013). Water symbolizes purity and is articulated through human mental and spiritual life (Peng, 2016). The mental association and engagement water scopes can be clarified using some aspects such as attention, interest, fascination and compatibility (Huynh, 2013).
In specific studies it has been emphasized that there is strong emotional effect on exposure to water space environments, providing better positive influences on emotional states of individuals (Kjellgren, 2010). Individuals in a relaxed or happy emotional state desire water environments compared to those that are stressed suggesting that water is a favorite habitation for recreational activities, reducing stress levels and providing restorative effects (Bratmann, 2012).
This blue mind is associated to reduced cortisol levels in the blood (Hou, 2013). This means that spending around just fifteen minutes nearby water space environments can lead to a significant reduction in stress levels, therefore revitalizing our frequently overspent thoughts (Hou, 2013).
Restoration and recreational benefits[edit | edit source]
Recreational and restorative activities benefits individuals to be further active (Korpela, 2014). Coastal areas, beaches, inland water bodies are particularly important in inspiring recreational activities (Gascon, 2015). Consistent interaction with these environments can reduce health imbalances by submission of three foremost health benefits (Korpela, 2014). Firstly reducing stress levels, secondly increasing physical activity and lastly attaining a greater sense of the community (Johnsen, 2013).
These experiences can be categorized into four groupings: kinetic recreational experiences, situation-based recreational experiences, harvest experiences and substitution or aesthetic experiences (Volker, 2013).
Kinetic recreational experiences contain those with a high degree of motion of water like boating and sailing (White, 2014). Situation based recreational involvements refer to one situation of the water, which is visited numerous times for experiences such as swimming, Harvest involvements includes activities such as fishing and contemplative situation experiences emphasis on the inactive examination of blue space and cover perceptions of views or sounds (Huynh, 2013).
Kinetic and situation constructed recreational experiences are well known for the positive health benefits, comprising the prevention of cardiovascular illnesses, obesity and cancer as well as anxiety and depression (Kjellgren, 2010). Blue mind assumptions are reinforced by researchers which have found that people prefer natural scenes then built-up ones and favor prospects with water to scenes than without water (Korpela, 2014).
Individuals displayed the highest rise in happiness in an outdoor environment nearby water (Johnsen, 2013). Above a third of the world’s population selects to live along a slender fringed coastal land (Hou, 2013). Researchers have indicated that individuals testified substantial better health and mental health when living near water space environments (Hou, 2013).
Being in marine and coastal regions adds two percent to individuals happiness (Volker, 2013). Research also indicates that exercise in vicinity to water boosts both self-esteem and mood more than green space alone (White, 2010). Going for a run or walk by the lake is suggested to raise these benefits tenfold (Volker, 2013). Going for a swim or cycling along a lake trace is suggested to give individuals a better mental boost, than working out in a congested city or gym environment (Pearson, 2014). The notion is that being surrounded by water space environments generates more positive benefits to exercising, along with the intake of negative ions in our systems that is increasing (Pearson, 2014).
The reason for this being is that water contains a rich source of negative ions (Hou, 2013). The effects of negative ions on individuals well-being has been considered an accepted impact on how individuals feel (Hou, 2013). The rich amount of negative ions in the atmosphere accelerates the capability to absorb oxygen, balance levels of serotonin and contributes towards rejuvenating the mind and improving awareness and concentration (Hou, 2013). Therefore naturally being near water increases individuals sense of well being, whilst being submerged in a natural source of water such as the sea or lake revitalizes individuals bodies significantly (Hou, 2013).
Further research proposes that blue space does not only make people happy, it also silences their minds by serving to enter a mental rest period that is meditative in nature (Peng, 2016).
How blue space influences your daily emotions[edit | edit source]
When individuals are hydrated they are in a state of flow, However when individuals are dehydrated they are in a state of inactivity (Bratmann, 2012). Water rules individual’s creativity, sensuality, sense of flow and connection (Bratmann, 2012). It is simply the value of life itself (Volker, 2013).
Just as water wishes to flow, so do our sensations (Volker, 2013). The sense of obstruction or feeling trapped and irritated is regularly due to the water within us feeling trapped when individuals don’t flow or when feeling frustrated when our one role prospective and performance does not change (Pearson, 2014). When individuals feel in flow and happiness their water component is flowing easily and fully (Foley, 2015).
The human brain processes natural environments more competently then constructed environments, thus increasing the opportunity for relaxation (Unnsteinsdottis, 2016). The more blue space individuals can see is linked with lower mental distress (Unnsteinsdottis, 2016). Hence blue space environments has numerous positive effects on all individuals’ mental health (Gascon, 2015).
What is happening to our brains and bodies while being surrounded with blue space?[edit | edit source]
Water is a rich source of negative ions (Hou, 2013). The effects of positive and negative ions on individual’s well being have been considered an accepted impact on how individuals feel (Volker, 2013). Negative ions are produced by water falls, oceans, waves and thunderstorms (Hou, 2013). The rich amount of negative ions in the atmosphere accelerates the capability to absorb oxygen, balance levels of serotonin and contribute towards rejuvenating the mind and improving awareness and concentration (Hou, 2013).
Observing water and listening to the sound of water positions loaded minds into a peaceful and mesmerizing like state, with the advantage of this being a diverse way that our brain processes thoughts, leading to more peaceful and inspiring thoughts, as well as resting the brain from over stimulation, therefore increasing individuals overall well-being (Gascon, 2015).
The sound of the waves has been found to modify brain wave arrays and raising a meditative relaxed state (White, 2010). Even merely perceiving the movement of water causes individual's mind's to calm (Gascon, 2015). This has numerous benefits for contributing to lowering stress levels and anxiety as well as supporting improved mental clarity and sleep patterns (Huynh, 2013). Water raises motivation and imagination (Gascon, 2015). When individuals are nearby water their brain shift of from a busy mode to a relaxed mode (Huynj, 2013). This naturally leads our brains to open since it is not being concentrated on the loads of thoughts working around that can frequently lead to stress and anxiety (Unnsteinsdottis, 2016).
While the mind is in this comfortable state it is then open to other inspired and creative thoughts (Huynh, 2013). In essence, individuals are switching their mental ability off or giving it a rest, triggering a healthier mental environment for perception (Huynh, 2013). Water also contributes to a sense of amazement (Hou, 2013). The emotion of awe gives significantly to our happiness, because it not only permits people to be in the current moment, but it reasons them to think about the place in the world around them raising feelings of modest, feelings of connection to something away from themselves and the pure immensity of nature (Kjellgren, 2010).
Not merely does being near water raise your sense of well-being but being immersed in a natural source of water such as the sea and lake provides relaxation to the body (Bratmann, 2012). Water also rules energy motions (Pearson, 2014). Energy motions are waves of water constructed responses tiding within the human mind and the body (Pearson, 2014).
Also the opposing temperatures of water aids from both sides (Volker, 2013). The natural cold chill offers a peaceful treatment for individuals concerns, as well as revitalizes the body both mentally and physically (Unnsteinsdottis, 2016). Whereas warmer waters throughout the summers can support to relax the muscles and tensions (Volker, 2013).
This blue mind is related to reduced cortisol levels in the blood (Volker, 2013). This means that spending just around fifteen minutes in view of water can lead to an impressive reduction in a person’s real and supposed stress, as well as amplified cognitive function during the rest of the day (Hou, 2013). Time spent in blue space is time that revitalizes our frequently overspent thoughts (Johnsen, 2013).
Studies have also shown that living near blue water can be beneficial for giving individuals exposure to the sun, stress relief and more quality time and better communication with other individuals (Huynh, 2013).
Thus, if you’re looking to clear your head then search for some blue space as water has an influential effect on the brain and can help change your mental clarity, capacity happiness and overall well-being (Peng, 2016).
Perception and preference[edit | edit source]
Perception is conveyed by using individuals senses to produce feelings and attitudes concerning blue space environments (Gascon, 2015). Water space environments shows an essential role in the awareness of nature (Gascon, 2015).
The existence of bank vegetation's strongly effects optimistic perceptions (Hou, 2013). Water views are also correlated as captivating (Bratmann, 2012). In impending blue space individuals recognize a higher level of humidity, an altered nature and high multiplicity, as a result of their close affiliation concerning water and land (Korpela, 2014).
Frequently Water signifies sensual insights comprising color, clarity, sound, motion, and context of water (Unnsteinsdottis, 2016). Individuals appreciate the motion, sound and flow of water (White, 2014). Hence, blue space is related with developed preferences and optimistic personal responses (Johnsen, 2013). The content of blue space is furthermore vital in defining human awareness (Kjellgren, 2010). Visual assessments of the water is amplified if the area is associated with naturalness (White, 2010).
Individuals with water views reported a positive impression from watching the sea, whereas those without an ocean view did not express such feelings (Hou, 2013). The benefits of the ocean resonated with 'charm', 'awe', 'magnitude' and a 'peace of mind' (Hou, 2013). Purity and refreshment are also habitually connected with water and these purposes invoke emotions that communicate to recapture energy, youth and heath (Peng, 2016).
Blue space also poses some negative risks such as drowning and having harmful algal blooms (White, 2014) However, there has been very slight understanding of exactly what benefits might be lost if individuals commenced reducing their contact to these natural environments (White, 2014). Therefore in the last few year’s substantial steps onward have been made in accepting some of these issues (Korpela, 2014).
Conclusion[edit | edit source]
Blue space environments is defined as a significant section of natural water, encompassing lakes, beaches, rivers, oceans, and coastlines. It is known to be one of the greatest significant attractive scenery in the world. There is increasing confirmation suggesting that blue space environments can improve both mental and physical health of individuals, as well as improving their behavioral development. Hence, individuals who devote plenty of time in blue space environments are shown to have less expressive and social complications as well as reducing stress levels and increasing cognitive function, consequently being valuable for individuals’ health and well-being. Therefore if you’re looking to clear your head then search for some blue space as water space environments has an influential effect on the brain and can help change your mental clarity, capacity happiness and well-being.
See also[edit | edit source]
Motivation and emotion/Book/2016/Stress recovery theory (Book chapter 2016).
Motivation and emotion/Book/2016/Changing mood through colour (Book chapter 2016).
Motivation and emotion/Book/2011/Nature and psychological well-being (Book chapter 2011).
Motivation and emotion/Book/2015/Cortisol and stress (Book chapter 2016).
Motivation and emotion/Book/2016/Awe as an emotion (Book chapter 2016).
Motivation and emotion/Book/2016/Attention restoration theory (Book chapter 2016).
References[edit | edit source]
Camindie. (2014). Ocean sounds/30 minutes of calming sea beach, sounds. (You tube video). Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fV5X1xVApM0.
Church, M. (2011). Day at the beach-relaxing nurture sounds of the ocean without music-soothing. (You tube video). Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnetYj5kEqk
Foley, R. (2015).blue space geographies: enabling health in place. Journal of PubMed, 35: 157-65. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26238330.
Gascon, M. (2015). Mental health benefits of long term exposure to residential green and blue spaces: a systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12, 4354-4379. Retrieved from: Http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.
Hou, C. W. (2013). Deep ocean mineral water accelerates recovery from physical fatigue. Journal of international society of sports nutrition, 10:7. Retrieved from: Http://www.jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-10-7.
Huynh, Q. (2013). Exposure to public natural space as a protective factor for emotional well being among young people in cauda. Journal of biomed central. Retrieved from: Http:///www.bmcpublichealthbiomedicalcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-13-407.
Johnsen, S. (2013). Active use of the natural environment for emotion regulation. Ejop Europe’s journal of psychology, 9(4). Retrieved from: Http: www.ejop.pscholoen.eu/article/view/633/html.
Korpela, K. (2014). Analyzing the mediators between nature based out door recreation. Journal of environmental psychology, 37,1-7. Available from: Http:www.elseiver.com/locate/jep.
Kjellgren, A. and Buhrkall, H. (2010) A comparison of the restorative effect of a natural environment with that of a simulated natural environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 464 –472. Retrieved from: https://is.muni.cz/el/1423/jaro2014/HEN597/um/47510652/Kjellgren___Buhrkall_2010.pdf.
Liewellyn, J. (2014). 30 minutes of calming water sounds-meditation, sleep, relation, sleep, study, Zen. (You tube video). Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKGU-Q-bp9w.
MacKerron, G. (2013). Happiness is greater in natural environments. journal of in press in global environmental change, 1-24. retrieved from: http://personal.lse.ac.uk/mackerro/happy_natural_envs.pdf
Nichols, W. (2014). Why our brains love the ocean: science explains what draws humans to the sea. Journal of salon. Retrieved July 20, 2016. From: http://www.salon.com/2014/07/19/why_our_brains_love_the_ocean_science_explains_what_draws_humans_to_the_sea/,
Pearson, G. D. (2014). The great outdoors? Exploring the mental health benefits of natural environments. Journal of frontiers in psychology, 5, 1178. Retrieved from; Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article/pmc4204431/.
Peng, C. (2013). Effects of the coastal environment on well being. Journal of coastal zone management, 19:42. Doi: 10.4172/2473-3350.
Schreuder, E. (2016). Emotional responses to multisensory environmental stimuli: a conceptual framework and literature review. Journal of sage, 1-9. Available from: http://sgo.sagepub.com/content/6/1/2158244016630591.full-text.pdf+html
Unsteinsdottis, S. (2016). Environmental psychology: the effects of a scenery with water on psychological restoration with a consideration of weather conditions. Journal of bsc in pschology, 1-27. Retrieved from: http://skemman.is/stream/get/1946/25682/56731/1/BSc_Thesis_Solrun_Osk.pdf
Volker, S. (2013). The impact of blue space on human health and well being solutogenetic health effects of inland surface waters: a review. Journal of Elsevier, 214(6): 449-460. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21665536.
White, P. W. (2015). The effects of exercising in different natural environments on psycho-physical outcomes in post- menopausal women: a stimulation study. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(9): 11929-11953. Retrieved from: Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article/pmc04586716.
White, M. (2010). Blue space: the importance of water for preference, affect and restorative ratings of natural and built scenes. Journal of environmental psychology, 30(4): 482-493. Retrieved from: Http://www.citeulike.org/user/callo/article/7084986.
External Links[edit | edit source]
day at the beach- relaxing nurture sounds of the ocean(without music)-soothing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnetYj5kEqk
ocean sounds 30 minutes of calming sea,beach sounds https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fV5X1xVApM0
30 MINUTES of Calming Water Sounds - Meditation, Sleep,Relaxation,Sleep,Study,Zen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKGU-Q-bp9w
Why our brains love the ocean: Science explains what draws humans to the sea http://www.salon.com/2014/07/19/why_our_brains_love_the_ocean_science_explains_what_draws_humans_to_the_sea/
Emotional Responses to Multisensory Environmental Stimuli: A Conceptual Framework and Literature Review http://sgo.sagepub.com/content/6/1/2158244016630591
Better apartments: survey results. prepared for the department of environmental land, water and planning http://delwp.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/321375/Better-Apartments-Community-Survey-Results.pdf