Motivation and emotion/Book/2016/Physical literacy and affect

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Physical literacy and affect:
What are the affective aspects of physical literacy?

Overview[edit | edit source]

Case Study

Tom is a five year-old boy who has just started soccer. Over the past few months, he has learned many new skills, such as kicking the ball, passing to team mates and scoring. Every time he learns a new skill, he feels pride and satisfaction. Tom also enjoys the time he can spend with his friends, who are also on his soccer team.

Tom also takes swimming lessons. However, Tom feels that he is not naturally good at swimming. He has noticed that others in his class are much better than him and feels embarrassed about his failure to master skills. As a result, Tom dreads his once weekly lesson and has asked his parents if he could drop out. He has been invited to a pool party, but Tom has decided he won’t go.

Physical literacy describes the motion, confidence, competence and knowledge to engage in physical exercise throughout one's lifetime. Physical literacy is a holistic concept, as it considers physical exercise to be connected [missing something?] emotion and cognition, not just to the physical body. The degree to which someone experiences positive emotions impacts the likelihood that they will become motivated to physically exercise and life satisfaction. Positive experiences include those that satisfy competence, mastery, self-confidence and relatedness. Children who do not [what?], may become unmotivated and unlikely to physically exercise throughout their lifetime. Children who experience positive emotions during physical exercise are likely to develop intrinsic motivation. How intrinsic motivation can be developed can be explained using self-determination theory. Research on intrinsic motivation reveals what factors need to be present for intrinsic motivation to occur.

Physical literacy[edit | edit source]

Physical literacy is a far broader concept than just physically executing physical movements. It involves the individual being able to "read" their environment and strategically respond with imagination. Someone who is physically literate is able to execute physical movements with confidence and with ease in a range of different settings (Whitehead, 2001). They [who?] have both skills, knowledge and attitudes that enable lifelong participation (Mandigo, Francis, Lodwyk & Lopez, 2009). It [what?] is also concerned with developing motivation to maintain physical fitness (Whitehead, 2007). Physically literate individuals should be able to [Be more specific] act creatively and with confidence and competence. It [what?] is something that all [who?] should be able to achieve, regardless of ability, and is more concerned with achieving an individual’s optimal [what?] performance, rather than just one single standard (Whitehead, 2007). Whitehead (2001) also specifies that it [what?] does not involve smaller movements, such as playing an instrument, it refers only to movements that require large muscle groups, like physical exercise. Particular expression of physical literacy will look different depending on the culture (Whitehead, 2007).

Philosophical Concepts[edit | edit source]

Figure 1. One of the main goals of physical literacy is lifetime participation in physical activity.

To first understand physical literacy, it is important to understand the complex philosophical concepts underpinning it.

Margaret Whitehead (2007) builds upon the philosophy of intellectuals like Sarte and Merleau-Ponty who write about how our physical bodies contribute immensely to a consciousness, that it contributes to things like perceptiveness and emotion, self-realization and helps develop language. For instance, Merleau-Ponty (1962 as cited in Whitehead, 2007) describes how there is an underlying relationship between perception and movement. He explains ‘neither the body nor existence can be regarded as the original of human being since they presuppose each other, and because the body is solidified and generalized existence, and existence is perpetual incarnation’ (Merleau-Ponty 1968, 166, as cited in Whitehead, 2007). Humans[grammar?] existence comes to be defined by acting or doing, as Sartre writes ‘for human reality, to be is to act’ (Sartre 1957, 476, as cited in Whitehead, 2007).  Gill (2000, as cited in Whitehead, 2007) challenges the notion that humans even have a body, rather, humans function as ‘embodied beings’, not a body, a concept that Whitehead refers to explain the holistic component of physical literacy. Burkitt (1999, as cited in Whitehead, 2007) also argues that our physical embodiment "is an integral part of emotion itself" (Whitehead, 2007. Burkitt (1999, p 12, as cited in Whitehead) goes further to say our intellect or consciousness is only the result of our bodies, as they allow humans to have “potential to be active and animate within the world, exploring, touching, seeing, hearing, wondering, explaining”.

Physical literacy rejects the concept of dualism, which considers the human individual is made up of two distinct parts, the mind and the body. According to this view, the body is seen as inferior, and is only a tool for the mind and prime purpose is to sustain the mind (Whitehead, 2010, p. 22). Physical literacy, instead, has a monism approach to humans. It sees [missing something?] body as a whole, and human experiences do not occur on purely a physical or cognitive level, rather, they rather they operate as one (Whitehead 2010, p. 22). As a result of this dualism, physical education is often neglected in schools in favor of academic subjects, and when taught it is only done so for the purpose of physical exercise. However, some like Whitehead (2007) argue that physical experience is tied to a person’s intellectual experience as well.

Building off others, Whitehead (2001) argues that individuals are also made up of their different interactions of their environment and humans tend to do this as often as possible so that they can have richer experiences. A person’s physical body is used to be able to have these interactions. Through these interactions, the self is made. The body is referred to by Whitehead (2001) as the embodied dimension and these interactions enable the self to learn more about their embodied dimension, such as their physical abilities and capacities to master aspects of their environment. The more one interacts with the world, the more likely they can realize their full potential. Clearly, the pursuit of physical literacy is not only for physical exercise’s sake.  

Movement Capacities[edit | edit source]

To efficiently operate in their environment, one must have the skills of balance, co-ordination, control, dexterity, stamina and being able to move through sprints and over a long length of time (Whitehead, 2001). They [who?] must also have the skills of rhythm, hand/eye and foot coordination and spatial awareness (Whitehead, 2007).

Interacting with the Environment[edit | edit source]

A person should be able to interact and operate in a range of environments (Mandigo et al., 2009). The first of these situations are natural, such as swimming in water, and climbing hills and trees. To be able to operate effectively in the modern world, these also include man-made situations, such as riding bikes and less physically demanding, such as riding a car. They must also be able to participate in man-made physical challenges whose purpose is simply to provide a challenge or chance to physically exercise, such as sport (Whitehead, 2001).

In these situations, the purpose is not simply to physically exercise, but to develop knowledge of the environment. Humans should also develop in these situations their self-expression and communication with others, verbal and non-verbal, as working with others can be a crucial component to optimally functioning in some challenging situations (Whitehead, 2001). 

Reading the Environments[edit | edit source]

A physically literate {{missing]} must be able to ‘read’ their environment. Similar to how one reads a passage or book, a person reads their environment. An individual takes in information from the environment, who processes this with their past knowledge and experience to make a strategic decision how to next interact with the environment. For instance, should they sprint ahead, or slow down? These situations then give the person knowledge of the world to be able to move throughout their environment with intelligence (Whitehead, 2001). 

Health Related Behaviors[edit | edit source]

A physically literate individual should know and want to participate in other health behaviors that help to ensure a healthy existence, like proper sleep, hygiene and nutrition (Mandigo et al, 2009). [Provide more detail]

Embodiment[edit | edit source]

A physically literate individual should have ‘a well-established sense of self as embodied in the world’ (Whitehead, 2007). This means that they can sensitively interact with their environment, have self-confidence, self-esteem, and through attentiveness of their embodiment selves they are able to express themselves to others through non-verbal communication and are empathetic.

Greater self-confidence in children can be achieved through increased mastery over one’s physical movement, positively impacting other aspects in a child’s performance in school, which supports previous monist’s theory concerning the embodied self and Whitehead’s assertion that physical literacy results in a general greater enhancement of life (Whitehead, 2007). Greater mastery in physical domains results in what Whitehead refers to [missing something?] an ‘all-round blossoming of an individual’ (Whitehead, 2007).

Figure 2. Through interacting with the environment, an individual develops their sense of self.

Gallagher (2005) contends in infancy that development of motor capabilities has a crucial role in the development of the embodied self and agency. In infancy, a child also has what Gallagher refers to a ‘proprioceptive self’, which is ‘sense of his/her own motor possibilities’ (as cited in Whitehead, 2007). A child’s early experiences and interactions with the world help to develop the identity of a child, going as far to say, ‘it may even be possible to say that bodily movement, transformed onto the level of action, is the very thing that constitutes the self’ (Gallagher 2005, 9). According to this theory, how positively or negatively physical experiences, such as exercise or physical mastery, occur influences a child body image or embodied self, which then influences how they perceive and interact with their world in turn, for example, how they perceive others. Those who successfully master physical experiences achieve greater self-esteem, resulting in positive attitude towards their embodiment[factual?].

Universality[edit | edit source]

Whitehead argues that physical literacy is universal, due to the development of our embodiment occurring for all humans.

Burkitt (1999, as cited in Whitehead, 2007) argues that embodiment is different in every culture. Physical experiences in every part of the world would have different interactions with their environment. For example, someone growing up in a developed country might need to develop the ability to use technology such as computers and cars. There are also different cultural practices and behaviors which individuals must follow, or not do, in order to competently function in that society. Acknowledging this, Sheets-Johnstone (1994, as cited in Whitehead, 2007) also argues that a large part of our embodiment remains the same through humanities common biology.

Using the above arguments, Whitehead (2007) argues that physical literacy has both common characteristics, but also differences due to cultural experience and the individuals experience and unique physical potential. 

Affective Aspects of Physical Literacy[edit | edit source]

Due to physical literacy's holistic philosophy, it is considered to be heavily linked with a person's affect. Physical literacy has many affective components, such as confidence, interest and self-esteem.  

How Physical Literacy Improves Quality of Life[edit | edit source]

Through physical literacy, individuals can develop their potential and human nature through interacting with their environment. Whitehead (2010) describes these experiences as ‘self-affirming, intrinsically satisfying and rewarding’ (p. 33). Being able to explore our human potential and capabilities, such as playing a sport or drawing a picture, helps humans to develop their identity and has ‘positive feedback’ (Whitehead, 2010, p. 33). Developing this sense of self helps provide humans with self-esteem and self-confidence. Mastering skills and the environment in which humans live in leads to a sense of fulfillment and independence (Whitehead, 2010, p. 34). Challenges also help to develop self-esteem, as being able to overcome them evokes positive emotions of competence and satisfaction (Whitehead, 2010, p. 58).  

In addition, developing physical literacy and one’s potential for movement can lead to other benefits such as decreasing likelihood of obesity. Exercise can help lead to the release of endorphins in the body that help the body to ‘relax and energize state of being’ (Whitehead, 2010, p. 33). It can help the body to fight the effects of stress and contribute to physical well-being. Physical exercise can help improve the mental health of an individual, through the enjoyment that occurs through exercising (Grogan, 2008, as cited in Whitehead, 2010, p. 58).  

The Importance of Positive Experiences[edit | edit source]

Figure 3. To develop physical literacy, a child needs positive experiences with physical exercise.

Physical literacy should help to develop confidence and competence in all, regardless of abilities. Sport, physical activity, even the concept of physical literacy, is considered by some to be attainable only by a gifted few. Those who are not as physically gifted becoming self-deprecating in their abilities (Whitehead, 2010, p 37), harming their degree of confidence and competence[grammar?]. Whitehead (2010, p. 38) partly blames this on the western media’s focus on only the elite level of sport and sporting stars. Witnessing this high level of performance, many are put off, viewing sport and physical activity with negative emotions.

Developing physical literacy should also be included for the physically disabled and elderly. Physical literacy will look different for everyone. Even simply, basic skills that help develop an individual’s capacity for movement in a mild degree, are still considered important as they are associated with positive emotion and can help increase independence and self-confidence. Even the smallest improvements and mastery that some might take for granted, such dressing one’s self and walking up the stairs, helps to increase feelings of achievement (Whitehead, 2010, p. 39, 58). Physical literacy can be developed in those with disabilities by setting realistic goals, learning challenges and ensuring positive experiences with physical exercise (Vickerman and DePauw, 2010, p. 135). 

If children have negative experiences, they may as a result have an incompetent and negative sense of embodiment which then impacts how they interact with the world. Tremberly, Inman, Willms (2000) report those children who struggle to be involved in school physical activities [awkward expression?] results in feelings of exclusion, have a lower self-esteem and even impacts the rest of their performance in school. Clearly, there is a link between physical literacy, and children’s affect. Lower [what?] performance results in a negative emotional experience, which in turn decreases their likelihood of further participating in physical activity, resulting in a cycle of negative affect and physical literacy.

Emotional Expression and Relatedness[edit | edit source]

As physical literacy takes a holistic view of the human body, it states that physical exercise therefore helps cognition and emotional expression in humans. Emotion and physical movement are intimately tied together. Emotion is primarily expressed through human movement. Whitehead goes further to state that movement does not only help to express emotion, but they are the same, that movement is an aspect of emotion. Burkett (1999, as cited in Whitehead, 2010, p. 36) says that emotion is developed ‘from our interactions with others and our response to the situations that we find ourselves’. He further argues that while there are universal basic emotions, how they are expressed depends on the culture one belongs to, and therefore experience is essential to human embodiment, as it teaches individual’s how to effectively interact with others, both how to act and how to perceive the motions of others, and therefore how to interact with their environment. 

Whitehead (2010, p. 36) argues that physical literate individual’s[grammar?], those who have developed competence, and confidence from interacting with their environment, should have enhanced emotional regulation, emotion perception, and effective emotional expressiveness to others and therefore should have better interactions and relationships with others. Physically literate individuals have an intimate understanding of their physical embodiment, and consequently have a non-self-conscious, confident self-presentation (Whitehead, 2010, p. 60). Their self-assurance enables [missing something?] to effectively communicate with others without anxiety, for instance, with eye-contact, hand gestures and posture (Whitehead, 2010, p. 61). 

Team work and affiliation is also an important source of enjoyment. Physical activity can provide children with the opportunity to interact and socialize with their peers. In a study by MacPhail Gorely, Kirk and Kinchin (2008) children enjoyed the [what?] task more if they knew their team mates then[grammar?] if they did not. The study hypothesized that the teamwork among friends was more enjoyable as their[grammar?] was an increase in communication and helped certain students more involved than they had been previously. Children in the study were noted to also be inclusive of students and accommodating for varying abilities, benefiting those with lower skills. Children also felt more responsibility for the activity. 

Autonomy[edit | edit source]

Learning and improving skills, and task mastery are important sources of enjoyment (Whitehead, 2007). In an experiment by MacPhail et al. (2008) children tended to enjoy the task more if given leadership roles in activities and given more autonomy. Mastery experiences also help an individual to develop a sense of autonomy and ownership of success. This helps them to feel that they have control over their fate and life (Fox, 2010, p. 81).

Physical Education[edit | edit source]

Play is a crucial aspect to developing physical literacy in a child. Play helps a child to develop creativity and problem solving (Singer, 2006, as cited in Maude, 2010, p. 111). Many crucial components of physical literacy first develop through play, such as motivation, developing motor abilities and capabilities, intrinsic motivation and self-expression (Maude, 2010, p. 111). Physical literacy can be enhanced through play, especially if a child has access to a supportive environment, a range of different situations and is able to interact with both their peers and adults (Maude, 2010, p. 111). It is especially important that children have access to outside environments, where they can develop large movements such as running and jumping. Children should be encouraged to participate in a range of different styles of physical activity, from free play to highly structured games (Whitehead, 210, p. 159).  

In early learning experiences, adults, such as teachers and parents should be careful about negative comments, which may detrimentally diminish a child’s motivation to participate in physical activities. They must also be supportive of developing a child’s physical literacy by making sure that children have positive experiences through encouragement, ‘show excitement in response to progress and effort, and give positive feedback’ (Whitehead, 2010, p. 159). Adults should ensure that children feel safe to explore their environment, should be careful not to convey danger or possibility of failure to children, to safeguard against developing wariness and decrease in motivation to engage in physical exercise in children (Whitehead, 2010, p. 159, 161). 

Many critique modern physical education as having too many rules and that the strictness involved can ruin the children’s ability to use their movement creatively. Instead, participants should be encouraged to creatively engage with their environment and explore their capacity and potential for movement. Their progress should be tracked, in order for children to witness their developing skills and should not be measured against one another. Instead, they should be free to develop their skills free of assessment. The main goal is to develop intrinsic value to physical tasks and develop their physical skills at their own pace. Discipline from teachers and instructors can get in the way of this task (Tremblay & Lloyd, 2010). 

Theory[edit | edit source]

Motivation is considered a crucial component of physical literacy. One of physical literacy’s key goals is to develop the motivation within individuals to participate in sport willingly, on their own and throughout their lifetime (Whitehead, 2007). How this achieved is through intrinsic motivation, where an individual is motivated simply through pleasure of completing the task or engaging in the activity (Mandigo et al. 2009) 

Competence[edit | edit source]

To develop intrinsic motivation, competence and self-confidence is a must. Through mastering different parts of physical movement, an individual develops a greater sense of self-esteem (Mandigo et al., 2009). Competence must also be classified in terms of being able to transfer learned skills into practical situations (Mandigo et al., 2009).

According to Stodden, Goodway, Langendorfer, Roberton, Rudisill, Garcia, and Garcia (2008), self-perceived competence and fitness in early childhood impacts their future obesity and physical health. Children who have better skills are intrinsically motivated to continue physical exercise as they consider it to be more enjoyable. Those who are perceived to have a lower ability will not. The differences between the two groups, competent and not competent, will grow bigger in adolescence, with those with higher abilities continuing to exercise and maintain a healthy lifestyle, as they have achieved attaching personal value to the act of physical activity. 

Self-Determination Theory[edit | edit source]

Figure 4. Mastery experiences help an individual to become competent.

When people participate in sport, they are motivated by certain goals. According to self-determination theory, these goals arise due to three psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness. Competence is the need to master and effectively handle their environments, autonomy is the need to control one’s actions and movements, and relatedness is the need to connect to others (Deci & Ryan, 1985, as cited in Vallerand & Losier, 1999).  

Individuals are motivated to fulfill these needs and gravitate towards situations that do so as they help the individuals to grow as a person and self-actualization. Individuals therefore find these situations, such as sport and physical exercise, highly motivating. Researchers have used this theory to identify what situations do individuals find to be highly motivating (Vallerand & Losier, 1999).   

Similar to Whitehead’s definition of physical literacy, an individuals’[grammar?] perception is an important element in this theory. An individual’s perception of whether a situation or environment will support their needs competence, autonomy and relatedness will affect their motivation in that situation. How an individual comes to perceive whether their needs will be supported or not, is due to experience. An individual that[grammar?] has negative experiences may come to the conclusion that situations are not supportive and those with positive are (Vallerand & Losier, 1999). This follows a model of “Social Factors - Psychological Mediators - Types of Motivation - Consequences” (Vallerand, 1997, as cited in Vallerand & Losier, 1999). Social factors may include experiences where an individual successful or unsuccessful or socially rejected. Social factors have an effect on psychological mediators, which are the individual’s perception of how their needs of competence, autonomy and relatedness are fulfilled in those circumstances. This then impacts of the individual’s type of motivation in that situation, intrinsic or extrinsic, which then ultimately decides the consequences, such as their affect and persistence in that situation.

Social Factors[edit | edit source]

Research has supported the theory that experiencing success in a situation, will make that individual more likely to be intrinsically motivated in that situation, firstly in general, such as  Bandura and Schunk, (1981, as cited in Vallerand & Losier, 1999) and more specifically in sport by Thill and Moumanda (1990) and Vallerand (1983, as cited in Vallerand & Losier, 1999). Other research has found that perceived competence largely accounts for any changes in intrinsic motivation (Vallerand & Reid, 1984, as cited in Vallerand & Losier, 1999).  

Psychological Mediators[edit | edit source]

Researched has been limited to perceptions of competence, research on perceptions of autonomy and relatedness has been lacking (Vallerand & Losier, 1999). However, there is some research investigating all three needs. In a study by Blanchard and Vallerand (1996, cited in Vallerand and Losier), perceptions of autonomy and relatedness had a bigger effect on motivation than competence.

Types of Motivation[edit | edit source]

Deci and Ryan (1985) argue that competitiveness should undermine intrinsic motivation, as the focus is less on the task itself, but is instead motivated by external sources, like the performance of others, resulting in a decrease in autonomy. This is due to the locus on causality becoming external rather than internal. Research supports this hypothesis (Deci, Betley, Kahle, Abrams, & Porac, 1981, as cited in Vallerand & Losier, 1999). This can be explained as competitive situations can increase the likelihood of failure, inducing negative feelings, however, positive feelings induced by success by increase intrinsic motivation (McAuley & Tammen, 1989 as cited in Vallernad & Losier, 1999). By comparison, cooperative environments increase intrinsic motivation (Vollerand & Losier, 1999).

Self-determination theory proposes that there are three types of intrinsic motivation: intrinsic motivation towards knowledge, where an individual feels pleasure for attaining knowledge in a certain task or subject, toward accomplishment, where an individual receives pleasure and satisfaction from experiencing success or completion, and toward experiencing stimulation, where an individual feels pleasure from the sensations of the task.

Consequences[edit | edit source]

Figure 4. According to self-determination theory, a person's perception of their competence, autonomy and relatedness in a situation will determine if they develop intrinsic or external motivation.

Vallerand (1997, as cited in Vallerand and Lorien, 1999)’s model, there are three types of [what?] consequences, cognitive, affective ad[spelling?] behavioural. Most researched has been the affective component, examining interest, satisfaction, positive emotions, mood, and anxiety (Vallerand & Lorien, 1999).

Their [who?] affective experience during a task is determined by the individual’s experience with the task. Those with positive emotions are more likely to have intrinsic motivations, and those with negative have external motivation. This theory has been upheld in research, for instance, Briere, Vallerand, Blais and Pelletier (1995, as citied in Vallerand & Lorien, 1999) found a correlation between positive emotions with intrinsic motivation and negative with extrinsic motivation.   

Activity.
Think back to the case study at the beginning of this chapter. Using, research and theory discussed, can you think why Tom enjoys, or doesn't enjoy, the two form of physical exercise he is involved in?

Quiz[edit | edit source]

Which of the following is NOT a factor in developing a positive experience in physical exercise

Running.
Autonomy.
Self-confidence.
Competence.


To develop physical literacy, an individual needs intrinsic motivation to exercise

True.
False.


Conclusion[edit | edit source]

To develop physical literacy is[grammar?] children, affective as well as physical components need to be taken into account. Greater physical literacy can result in a greater life satisfaction, producing greater confidence and self-esteem. However, negative emotional experiences with physical activity can hamper the development of physical literacy in children. To ensure that children develop physical literacy, adults should focus on making exercising intrinsically motivating. Physical literacy can become intrinsically motivating through mastery experiences. Self-determination theory explains how intrinsic motivation occurs in more detail, and can help adults understand how it make it occur in children.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Fox, K. (2010). The physical self and physical literacy. In M. Whitehead (Ed.) Physical literacy throughout the lifecourse (71-82). Oxon: Routledge.

MacPhail, A., Gorely, T., Kirk, D., & Kinchin, G. (2008). Children's experiences of fun and enjoyment during a season of sport education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,79(3), 344-355.

Mandigo, J., Francis, N., Lodewyk, K., & Lopez, R. (2009). Physical literacy for educators. Physical & Health Education Journal, 75(3), 27.

Maude, P. (2010). Physical literacy and the young child. In M. Whitehead (Ed.) Physical literacy throughout the lifecourse (100-115). Oxon: Routledge.

Stodden, D. F., Goodway, J. D., Langendorfer, S. J., Roberton, M. A., Rudisill, M. E., Garcia, C., & Garcia, L. E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 60(2), 290-306. doi:10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582

Tremblay, M. S., Inman, W. & Willms, J. D. (2000). The relationship between physical activity, self-esteem, and academic achievement in 12-year-old children. Paediatric Exercise Scimce, 12(3). 312-323.

Tremblay, M. & Lloyd, M. (2010). Physical literacy measurement - the missing piece. Physical Health Education Journal, 76(1), 26-30.

Vallerand, R. J., & Losier, G. F. (1999). An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11(1), 142-169. doi:10.1080/10413209908402956

Vickerman, P. and DePauw, K., (2010). Physical literacy and individuals with a disability. In M. Whitehead (Ed.) Physical literacy throughout the lifecourse (130-141). Oxon: Routledge.

Whitehead, M. (2001). The concept of physical literacy. European Journal of Physical Education, 6(2), 127-138. doi:10.1080/1740898010060205

Whitehead, M. (2007). Physical literacy: Philosophical considerations in relation to developing a sense of self, universality and propositional knowledge. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 1(3), 281-298. doi:10.1080/17511320701676916

Whitehead, M., (2010). The philosophical underpinning of the concept of physical literacy. In M. Whitehead (Ed.) Physical literacy throughout the lifecourse (21-29). Oxon: Routledge.

Whitehead, M., (2010). Motivation and the significance of physical literacy for every individual. In M. Whitehead (Ed.) Physical literacy throughout the lifecourse (30-43). Oxon: Routledge.

Whitehead, M., (2010). Physical literacy, the sense of self, relationship with others and the place of knowledge and understanding others. In M. Whitehead (Ed.) Physical literacy throughout the lifecourse (56-68). Oxon: Routledge.

Whitehead, M., (2010). Promoting physical literacy within and beyond the school curriculum. In M. Whitehead (Ed.) Physical literacy throughout the lifecourse (157-164). Oxon: Routledge.

External links[edit | edit source]