Motivation and emotion/Book/2016/Australian Indigenous language revival motivation
What motivates revival of Indigenous languages?
What motivates the revival of Australian Indigenous languages? The revival of languages is primarily about connections, self-assurance, and acknowledgment as opposed to fluency of linguistics (Hobson, Lowe, Poetsch & Walsh, 2010). Indigenous language revival can strengthen people's self-esteem and protect health and well-being through enhancing social identity and connection to others, thus resulting in a sense of belonging and 'oneness' (Haslam, Jetten, Postmes, & Haslam, 2009). Lavarch (1997) noted that the effects of past Australian government policies in which children were taken from their families had resulted in the loss of language, identity, and culture, loss of social identity, disconnection and inter-generational grief and trauma. Thus, knowledge of self and identity is crucial for Indigenous people's sense of self, health and well-being (Lavarch, 1997).
This chapter will acknowledge past histories and initiatives, present and future. It will also explore the motivational aspectsof reviving Indigenous languages incorporating personal experiences and motivations to revive Indigenous languages .
Extinction of Indigenous languages
Policies of past governments attributed to the loss of language, identity, and culture (Lavarch, 1997). If you were a child of Aboriginal descent in 1844, then the government had the power to force you to do an apprenticeship until you had reached the age of 21 (South Australia, 1844). The government then enacted the Aboriginal Protection to control persons of Aboriginal descent in the Aboriginal Protection Act 1886 (Vic), Aboriginals Protection and Restriction of Sale of Opium Act 1901 (QLD), Aborigines Act 1905 (WA), Aborigines Protection Act 1909 (NSW) and The Northern Territory Aboriginals Act 1910 (NT), whilst the Aborigines Protection Amending Act 1915 (NSW) gave powers to remove children of Aboriginal descent at any age. These powers were removed by the Aborigines Act 1969 (NSW). The dispossession and forced assimilation of Indigenous peoples of Australia led to the loss of language, identity, and culture, loss of social identity, resulting in inter-generational grief and trauma (Lavarch, 1997).
Before colonisation of Australia, it is estimated that there were 250 language groups consisting of 600 to 700 dialects (AIATSIS, n.d.). Now only 120 Indigenous languages are spoken, to which 100 of them are in danger of extinction although 30 or more are being spoken in larger numbers which may be due to the revival of language initiatives (Marmion, Obata & Troy, 2014; Romaine, 2014). It should also be noted that all Indigenous languages are in danger of extinction even if they appear to be 'strong'(Marmion et al., 2014; Romaine, 2002).
Preservation and revival
Lavarch (1997) and Nicholls (2016) noted that in the past Indigenous peoples were punished if they spoke their mother tongue, thus they were conditioned to lose their knowledge of their language. The dismissal of past government policies and implementation of the Aborigines Act 1969 (NSW), resulted in the Northern Territory Bilingual Program being implemented (Nicholls, 2016). Simpson, Caffery and McConvell (2009) indicated bilingual education promotes pride and belief in self whilst Hobson et al. (2010) notes both pride and strength to take control of oneself as opposed to helplessness. Vass, Mitchell and Dhurray (2011) attributes links between illness and wellness to social identity and inner-self whilst Lavarch (1997) noted the importance of knowledge of self to both identify and well-being. Learning one's language can alleviate the loss of identity and assist in the healing process (Hobson et al., 2010).
Nicholls (2016) noted bilingual education in the Northern Territory at the Hermansburg Lutheran mission from 1896 - 1970s, the Northern Territory Bilingual Program from 1973 - 1998 and the Pitjantjatjara settlement 1940 - 1992, the most successful. The reasoning behind abandoning bilingual programs in 1998 was based on results from tests that were written in English only even though it was not their first language (Nicholls, 2016). In 2000 the Two Ways Learning Program was implemented in the Northern Territory (Nicholls, 2016).
Wiradjuri language was documented in the late 1800s to early 1900s by linguists such as Günther, Mitchell and Mathews (Grant & Rudder, 2010). In 1997 a community project was implemented using both previous documentations of Wiradjuri and collective communities and their knowledge to create a dictionary and future resources (Grant & Rudder, 2010). Figure 1. Map of Wiradjuri and other Indigenous nations in NSW shows the vast area of Wiradjuri covers in NSW and some of the other Indigenous nations in Australia. An introduction to Wiradjuri language was later implemented in Parkes, 2004 (Hobson et al., 2010). It is now possible to study Wiradjuri at Charles Sturt University, whilst both Wiradjuri and other Indigenous languages may be studied at TAFE and or University of Sydney.
Study of Wiradjuri language at Charles Sturt University engages students with both language, culture, nation building principles and communities within the real world. What motivates participants to engage in reviving an Indigenous language? Participant motivations are generally not primarily focused on the acquisition of language itself, but to promote pride within the community and internally to connect with others.
Motivations for reviving IL
What is motivation? Ryan and Deci (2000) defines motivation as the energy that drives a person to act or not act. What are the needs? It appears as though the motivation for reviving Indigenous languages are the need to belong, kinship, connection to others, belief in self, pride, perception of control, health and well-being, social identity, and knowledge of identity (Ashford & Mael, 1989; Brown, 2000; Haslam et al., 2009; Hobson et al., 2010; Kaye & Pennington, 2015; Lavarch, 1997) as opposed to fluency (Hobson et al., 2010).
Social identity is defined as the inter-relationship of identity, emphasising collective group of persons, perception of belonging or ‘oneness’, alignment of acceptance, building self-esteem, health and prosperity (Ashford & Mael, 1989; Brown, 2000; Kaye & Pennington, 2015). It is noted both social identity and inner-self, that there is a correlation between illness and well-being (Vass et al., 2011) , whilst both identity and well-being interlink the importance to have knowledge of self (Lavarch, 1997) .
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is divided into 5 basic goals, physiological, security, social needs, esteem and self-actualisation, as noted in Figure 2 Maslow and Table 1. Maslow's hierarchy of needs and motivation (Maslow, 1943). Physical motivation relates to needs to nourish the body on the most basic levels, if we are not well nourished, have shelter, etc., than we cannot function if these needs are not met just as the next level, the need to feel safe (Maslow, 1943). Maslow (1943) argues that if as an example the need for safety has been met than a new need arises, social and so on whilst Haslam et al., (2009) acknowledges that sense of belonging and 'oneness' or awareness of self and connection to one's social identity strengthens self-esteem and protects health and well-being.
What does it mean to feel a sense of belonging? According to Baumeister and Leary (1995), the need for belonging is a human necessity, not a luxury. It is the connectedness in which bonds are formed and maintained with other humans thus strengthening self-esteem (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Evidence shows that the absence of connectedness is a cause for many health and well-being issues (Barmeister & Leary, 1995). What is esteem? Crocker and Luhtanen (1992) notes two parts to esteem, the self and social. Self-esteem focuses on the individual's concept of self-worth, whilst social-esteem focuses on the concept of one's self-worth within a collective group (Crocker & Luhtanen, 1992).
Table 1. Maslow's hierarchy of needs and motivation
|Physical needs||Security needs||Social needs||Esteem needs||Self-actualization|
|Basic needs for food, water, sleep and breathe. What we need in order to survive (Maslow, 1943).
||The need to feel safe and predictability of events or actions. Having a sense of control or empowerment (Maslow, 1943).
||The need to belong and communicate with others, connection and socialize (Maslow, 1943).
||What others think of you and what you think of yourself (Maslow, 1943).
||The need to improve oneself (Maslow, 1943).
ERGis divided into 3 principles of motivation, existence, relatedness and growth (Anonymous, 2012). Although the ERG theory is primarily based on Maslow's principles of motivational needs, it does not function in any particular order as opposed to Maslow's hierarchy (Anonymous, 2012). According to Maslow (1943), satisfaction of one need must be attained before another may be pursued whilst the ERG theory that if a need is not met, it is possible to move on and fulfill another need (Anonymous, 2012). Table 2. ERG demonstrates the correlation between ERG and Maslow's theory. Existence encompasses Maslow's physical and security needs, relatedness encompasses social needs, and Growth encompasses esteem and self-actualization (Anonymous, 2012).
Table 2. ERG
|Physical and security needs (Anonymous, 2012).||Social needs (Anonymous, 2012).||Esteem and self-actualization (Anonymous, 2012).|
The theory of self-determination identifies autonomy, competence and relatedness as motivational needs everyone has (Gagné & Deci, 2005; Reeves, 2015; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Ryan and Deci (2000) noted both internal and external influences that determine self-regulation and differentiation between the individual's value of what others think of you and what you think of yourself (Maslow, 1943). Table 3. Self-determinism demonstrates the principles of self-determination theory, autonomy, competence and relatedness (Gagné & Deci, 2005; Reeves, 2015; Ryan & Deci, 2000).
Table 3. Self-determinism
|The need to self-regulate own behaviors (Reeve, 2015).
||The need to engage proficiently (Reeve, 2015).
||The need to form emotional connections with others (Reeve, 2015).
Although Indigenous languages are being revived, they are still in danger of extinction (Marmion et al., 2014: Romaine, 2002). Bilingual education promotes pride (Hobson et al., 2010; Simpson et al., 2009). The loss of identity can be alleviated through learning one's language and assist in the healing process (Hobson et al., 2010). Knowing one's self is importanceCharles Sturt University, whilst both Wiradjuri and other Indigenous languages may be studied at TAFE and or University of Sydney . The study of Wiradjuri language at Charles Sturt University engages the students with language, culture, nation building principles and communities within the real world.to both identify and well-being (Lavarch, 1997). Links between illness and wellness to social identity and inner-self have been noted (Vass et al., 2011). Bilingual education is noted to have been most successful at the Pitjantjatjara settlement whilst bilingual programs in 1998 were abandoned (Nicholls, 2016). In 2000 the Two Ways Learning Program was implemented in the Northern Territory (Nicholls, 2016). Languages such as Wiradjuri language were documented in the late 1800s to early 1900s (Grant & Rudder, 2010). Community project were implemented in areas such as Parkes (Hobson et al., 2010). It is now possible to study Wiradjuri at
Motivations for revival of Indigenous languages include the need to belong, kinship, connection to others, belief in self, pride, perception of control, health and well-being, social identity, and knowledge of identity (Ashford & Mael, 1989; Brown, 2000; Haslam et al., 2009; Hobson et al., 2010; Kaye & Pennington, 2015; Lavarch, 1997) as opposed to fluency (Hobson et al., 2010). Motivation theories focused on social identity Ashford & Mael, 1989; Brown, 2000; Kaye & Pennington, 2015; Vass et al. , 2011), Maslow's hierarchy of needs (Maslow, 1943), ERG (Anomynous, 2012), and self-determination (Gagné & Deci, 2005; Reeve, 2015; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Whilst each theory of motivation had it's merits, the most relevant theory is self-determination due to its effectiveness in relating to the needs and self-regulation giving control back to the people (Gagné & Deci, 2005; Reeves, 2015; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Future could be directed into the correlation between self-worth, kinship and language.
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