Motivation and emotion/Book/2015/Paleolithic healthy food lifestyle motivation

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Paleolithic healthy food lifestyle motivation:
What motivates people to have a paleolithic healthy food lifestyle?


Research in biology, biochemistry, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and many other disciplines indicate it is our modern diet, full of refined foods, trans fats and sugar, that is at the root of degenerative diseases such as obesity, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, depression and infertility.
– Robb Wolf

The Paleolithic diet also known as the paleo diet or ‘Caveman diet’ comprises of eating foods that our ancestors would have eaten thousands and even millions of years ago. This would comprise of foods such as,[grammar?] meat, fish, vegetables and fruit, as well as nuts and seeds and some healthy fats as well such as avocado and olive oil. Therefore to be Paleo you would have to eliminate all grains, dairy, refined sugars, legumes and processed foods. These types of foods generally cause inflammation in a person’s body which is why being Paleo means that these foods should not be in your diet[factual?]. Humans started eating this Paleo way about 2.5 million years ago, and then we changed our diets around 10,000 years ago due to agriculture this is when we began cultivating grains and legumes. This amount of time doesn't allow our bodies to catch up in an evolutionary way which means our bodies have not yet adapted. Many health experts have advised that the ‘caveman diet’ through human evolution is the healthiest diet, which meets all of our nutritional needs to which we are genetically adapted to (Primal Palate, 2014). Doctors and nutritionists claim that modern humans are not properly able to metabolise or digest these new types of foods which has led to many modern day illnesses such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes and even some cancers[factual?]. There have been many different reasons as to why someone become motivated in living this way of life. The biggest motivator is that people that have been on the Paleo diet for a couple of weeks begin to see that their eczema, blood pressure and many other medicinal illnesses have either gotten[grammar?] better and that they definitely haven’t progressed anymore (Wolf, 2010).

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An Overview of What the Paleo Diet Is In Under 10min [1] .

What is a paleo diet?[edit]

[Provide more detail]


Figure 1. Food Pyramid[explain?]

The palaeolithic lifestyle and primal diets consist of real wholesome fresh foods, and cut out all the packaged foods that many people consume today out of convenience and taste. By eliminating packaged foods, we are eliminating a whole range of preservatives, hidden refined sugars, high sodium foods, nasty additives, colourings, artificial flavourings and many other toxins that can be found within processed foods. (Jonsson T, et al,2009) The Paleo diet is rich in nutrients and gives you an abundance of vitamins and minerals that you need. There is a misconception that the Paleo diet is that it is primarily protein and fat that these dieters consume,[grammar?] this is not all true (Lindeberg S, et al, 2007). It is a fact that someone on a Palaeolithic diet does consume protein and fats as a source of energy for them to keep going[factual?]. They use protein and fat rather than carbohydrates and sugar because carbohydrates and sugars give you an energy spike quickly and then there’s a quick downfall which leaves you with little energy and lethargic making your body want more carbs or sugar to refuel you and keep you going. What a lot of people don’t realise is that they use carbohydrates as ‘’fillers” where the Paleo diet supplements these carbohydrates with loads of vegetables, healthy fats, nuts, seeds and fruits which nutritionally benefit your body[factual?]. When you combine this with the improved gut health and increasing your nutrient absorption though eating this Palaeolithic way you get a balanced diet with all the nutrients and mineral that our bodies need(Osterdahl M, et al.2008) The Paleo diet provides you with lots of fibre in your diet, which together with an adequate water intake helps to decrease the bloated feeling (gas) that many people can experience on Western Diet full of processed foods. The Paleo diet also helps to improve the gut flora which is essential for our bodies to maintain a healthy digestion. The Paleo diet promotes eating healthy fats such as saturated fats found from grass fed meats, poultry, seafood, ghee and coconuts. Lots of monounsaturated fats found in olive oil, nuts and seeds and then a very small amount of polyunsaturated fats and there is no Trans fats found in the Paleo diet. Here you can see that there is a heathy ratio of Omega -3 to Omega – 6 fatty acids. The right type of fats are essential in maintaining your health. These healthy fats help with arteries, brain function, can help give you healthier skin as well as decreasing systemic inflammation in your body (L. A Frassetto et al., 2009)

Figure 2. Protein is what Palaeolithic humans consumed in order to fuel their body's[grammar?]

"Paleo Pete" Pete Evans as an Australian Motivator for the Palaeolithic Lifestyle[edit]

Pete Evans who is an Australian chef famous for his role as a judge on Channel Seven’s My Kitchen Rules. Evans who has been dedicated to a Palaeolithic healthy lifestyle for over 4 years now has become the spokesperson for the Paleo diet. Evans is also a certified health coach from the Institute of Integrative Nutrition; his latest passions are to motivate people to get healthier and to change the lives of people, beginning with food and how food is medicine. He has written several Palaeolithic recipe books, which I’m sure, will help motivate people to cook healthier and live a healthier lifestyle. If you were to visit Pete’s Facebook page where Pete Evans likes to share success stories that the general public send to him, many people would be motivated by these stories alone for them to turn to the Paleo diet. The stories that you find on this page are astonishing the transformations both physically and mentally are all seen here. People share there stories of losing weight, their health has changed for the better such as lower cholesterol, there insulin levels have become normal and even people with fibromyalgia and MS (Multiple Sclerosis) have shared stories that there conditions haven’t worsened and that the pain isn’t as bad From Pete Evan's Facebook page you are able to see many of the transformations and the wonderful benefits people are having from this diet. Pete's page is also a great way in keeping many of his followers motivated and it is great in getting others motivated.A quote from Pete Evans “Paleo is not simply a fad or a diet, he says, but a profound way of life that has brought peace, health and happiness’’. Pete cops a lot of controversy that he is spreading word about a diet that could cause you harm. What most scientist and nutritionist don’t understand is that even though Paleo does cut out a few food groups that with other foods that are included in the diet, these foods give our bodies the right amount of minerals and vitamins we need. A well-known Australian journalist interviewed Pete Evans and decided to do his The Paleo Way program which runs for 10 weeks. The journalist himself had a poor diet that revolved around sugar and he wanted to investigate and see if the claims of the Paleo diet were true or not. The results after the journalist did the 10 week challenge was that his blood pressure had lowered. His weight decreased and his chances of stroke or a heart attack lessened because his homocysteine levels became normal. The message that Pete Evans is trying to spread Australia wide is that food is medicine or it can be toxic to your health. Which is why he promotes and motivates people to change their lifestyle to a Palaeolithic lifestyle. For over 50 years Australia and many other countries have allowed major food corporations to socially engineer people and shape society and culture into eating what is socially ‘normal’ today. Things such as cereals, dairy and of course the major problem sugar! Because of Pete’s ‘celebrity’ status as a TV chef he is able to spread the word about Palaeolithic lifestyle and healthy living while being on this diet.

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Need a break?

See the results yourself here from living a Palaeolithic lifestyle, this is part 1 [2] .

Clean living: Health Benefits and The Motivation in Going Paleo[edit]

[Provide more detail]

Motivation: What is it?[edit]

motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviours. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge (Johnmarshall Reeve, Understanding Motivation and Emotion, Wiley, 2015). involves the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that activate behaviour. In everyday usage, the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something. The term motivation refers to factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behaviour... Motives are the "whys" of behaviour - the needs or wants that drive behaviour and explain what we do. We don't actually observe a motive; rather, we infer that one exists based on the behaviour we observe."(Nevid, 2013) Psychologists have proposed a number of different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory, and humanistic theory.

Figure 3 Motivation Table 2015

Components of Motivation

Anyone who has ever had a goal (like wanting to lose ten pounds or wanting to run a marathon) probably immediately realises that simply having the desire to accomplish something is not enough. Achieving such a goal requires the ability to persist through obstacles and endurance to keep going in spite of difficulties.

There are three major components to motivation: activation, persistence, and intensity. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such as taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy, and resources (Nevid, J. 2013)

Finally, intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal. For example, one student might not be involved with school activities, while another student will study regularly, participate in discussions and take advantage of research opportunities outside of class (Nevid, J. 2013)

Some Theories of Motivation

So what are the things that actually motivate us to act? Psychologists have proposed a number of different theories to explain motivation: Instincts: The instinct theory of motivation suggests that behaviours are motivated by instincts, which are fixed and inborn patterns of behaviour. Psychologists including William James, Sigmund Freud, and, William McDougal have proposed a number of basic human drives that motivate behaviour and Needs: Many of our behaviours, such as eating, drinking, and sleeping, are motivated by biology (Nevid, J. 2013).

We have a biological need for food, water, and sleep, therefore we eat, drink, and sleep. Drive theory suggests that people have basic biological drives and that our behaviours are motivated by the need to fulfil these drives (Johnmarshall Reeve, 2015). Arousal Levels: The arousal theory of motivation suggests that people are motivated to engage in behaviours that help them maintain their optimal level of arousal. A person with low arousal needs might pursue relaxing activities, while those with high arousal needs might be motivated to engage in exciting, thrill-seeking behaviours (Nevid, J. 2013).

Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated cross-word puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a problem (Nevid, J. 2013)

Weight Loss[edit]

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A great motivator for someone to choose a Palaeolithic food lifestyle is to see weight loss and generally they want to eat healthier. People see this diet as a great opportunity to lose weight because there have been so many success stories from it. It has been noted and seen that people experience weight loss and muscle growth while eating a Paleo diet and in turn they have an active lifestyle which slowly grows (Steffan Lindeberg, Loren Cordain and S. Boyd Eaton,2013). People experience better metabolic processes and gut health, better sleep patterns, better stress management and a healthy ratio of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids which all aid in burning stored fat (Pete Evens, 2014). Most of the time many people do not need to do vigorous exercise in order to lose weight. Eating this Palaeolithic way often does the job in aiding with weight loss and better health on its own. In Australia we know that obesity is only growing and people are looking for a way to lose the weight and keep it off without relapsing and putting the weight they’ve lost back on. Many people have found with the Paleo diet that they lose weight without even trying and there’s no strict physical activity you have to do to lose the weight (Primal Palate, 2014). There are no calorie counting or point counting living a Palaeolithic lifestyle. The motivation before following a Palaeolithic lifestyle is to lose weight initially or to eat a more nutritionally dense diet, and once someone starts to see results its an even greater motivator for that person to stick to this way of eating and living (Steffan Lindeberg, Loren Cordain and S. Boyd Eaton, 2010). For example, someone losing weight gradually and feeling better would want to continue to keep seeing these results. People also enjoy Paleo food a lot more than your average non-primal foods that have low quality ingredients in them that actually don’t have a great nutritional value for your body.

Figure 4 - These are the type of results that many people on the Paleo diet will experience with their weight loss

Palaeolithic foods and ingredients are easy to access now through different health food stores and supermarkets, [grammar?] this easy access will keep people motivated in them to continue there Palaeolithic lifestyle. Other reasons why people are motivated to make the change to a Palaeolithic diet is to look better and this comes from losing weight people’s confidence may grow as well. People would feel accomplishment in sticking to Paleo and this would help keep them motivated to continue this way of life. An accomplishment of such great feet of taking back your health and living a natural way will help keep that person interested and motivated not just for a month but for years to come (Pete Evens, 2014). Living a Palaeolithic lifestyle will allow you to feel better about your self physically and mentally. Many people through the Paleo diet have said that they feel less pain in their joints and their arthritis has dramatically gotten better this may be because they have lost weight and the person is putting less pressure on their joints. The problem with people not seeing a Palaeolithic lifestyle as attainable is because people may not like change and we are fed to believe that we need to have a diet that consists of everything in moderation. However these foods that we eat form our supermarket are so overly processed and not in its natural state that it isn’t doing our bodies any good but if you eat these products you are actually doing it harm. The cognitive evaluation theory suggests that there are two motivation systems: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivators are achievement, responsibility and competence. A motivator that comes from the actual performance of the task or job (Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Deci, 1999)[grammar?]. Extrinsic motivators are pay, promotion, feedback, working conditions. All things that come from a person’s environment, controlled by others not the self[grammar?]. (Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Dei[spelling?], 1999) Motivators are used by people who change to the Paleo diet because they have intrinsic motivation which is achieving their weight loss goal for example and they have extrinsic motivation which could be someone giving you feedback and complimenting how amazing you look lately.


Diabetes world map - 2000 - Figure 5 The Prevalence of Diabetes Worldwide in 2000 (per 1000 inhabitants)

The study, Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decrease pancreas and liver triglycerides, (2010) was well conducted. The findings they had from this study was that a dramatic diet change (high protein, low glycemic load, plant based diet could help reverse many features of diabetes within 1 week and almost all features by week 8 of consuming a diet plan like this[what?]. Consuming a Palaeolithic diet like this could potentially reverse diabetes. This is more than enough reason for someone to be motivated to change their lifestyle to a Paleo lifestyle (Mark Hyman, Research finds diabetes can be reversed, 2011). With further research on this topic we would have a further understanding of how changing your diet to a Palaeolithic lifestyle could help potentially reverse someone’s diabetes and there symptoms. Many people who have diabetes would be very interested in this sort of method for them to get motivated to change their lives. If a diabetic could simply change their diet to a Palaeolithic lifestyle and know that their diabetes could potentially be good forever or lessen eh symptoms of it then I’m sure many more people would follow a Palaeolithic lifestyle.A person with diabetes and who may also be overweight would most probably be on different medications and when these wouldn’t work they would need to inject insulin into their system to control there glucose (sugar levels). This occurs to around 80% of people that have type 2 diabetes (Ryberg, et al.,2013) Living with this on a daily basis would be very tiring, and debilitating depending on the person. With a change in diet however a lot of this could change dramatically. Simply by cutting out processed foods, refined sugars, processed grains, dairy and even legumes could boost your health and a sick person’s health much more than any medication could help you. Nourishing your body with fresh produce of vegetables fruit and organic meats and fish along with nuts and seeds will help feed your body the vital minerals and vitamins your body needs to function.


Question dropshade.svg

How much do you already know


What foods do we not eliminate on a Palaeolithic Diet

none of the above


The Paleo Diet is a new type of diet?



What does the Paleo Diet exclude from their diet?

All of the above


People tend to lose weight on the Paleo Diet?


Social Learning Theory[edit]

The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. While the behavioral theories of learning suggested that all learning was the result of associations formed by conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment, Bandura's social learning theory proposed that learning can also occur simply by observing the actions of others (Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). The Social Learning Theory is able to explain why people turn to a Palaeolithic Diet. From The Social Learning Theory it is suggest[grammar?] that people behave in a particular way because it is what is expected of them through society. So we can understand that people may follow a Palaeolithic Diet because they may believe that other expect them to behave in this manner and join in on what a majority of society are doing now.

Drive Theory

What Is[grammar?] the drive reduction Theory of Motivation? Are you hungry right now? Maybe you should go get a snack. Thirsty? Go get a drink of water. If your chair is uncomfortable and causing you pain, you'll need to find a new chair. When your body tells you that you 'need something,' or that you need to 'change something,' this is your body giving you a drive (Johnmarshall Reeve, 2015) Drive reduction theory of motivation can be simply described as you don't want to be hungry, thirsty, in pain, or horny. If your body wants something, that want is the drive. You are motivated to reduce the drive. This theory can help explain the motivation behind rolling a Palaeolithic lifestyle. If someone for example is overweight and they are in a negative state of mind, the drive need will motivate you to change this for a positive state. A person will then attempt to lose weight somehow and a person may choose the Palaeolithic Diet in order for them to lose the weight and return their body to a harmonious state.

Darwin's Evolutionary Theory

The theory of evolution by natural selection, first formulated in Darwin's book "On the Origin of Species" in 1859, is the process by which organisms change over time as a result of changes in heritable physical or behavioral traits (Charles Darwin, 1859). From an Evolutionary perspective this relates to the Palaeolithic Diet because our ancestors ate this way for millions of years prior to agriculture. Therefore from our evolution we are going back to basics[grammar?]. this motivation to step back and eat what our ancestors would have eaten is more than enough to motivate people day to become healthier and more happy in life[factual?].

Studies on a Palaeolithic Lifestyle[edit]

Lindeberg S, et al. A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Diabetologia, 2007.

Lindeberg et al., had 29 men with heart disease and elevated blood sugars or type 2 diabetes, and were randomised to either a Palaeolithic diet (n=14) or a Mediterranean-like diet (n=15). Neither group was calorie restricted. The main outcomes measured were glucose tolerance, insulin levels, weight and waist circumference. This study went on for 12 weeks (Lindeberg et al., 2007) Glucose Tolerance: The glucose tolerance test measures how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood. It is a marker for insulin resistance and diabetes. This [which?] graph shows the difference between groups. The solid dots are the baseline, the open dots are after 12 weeks on the diet. Paleo group is on the left, control group on the right (Lindeberg et al., 2007). As you can see from the graphs, the paleo diet group saw a significant improvement in glucose tolerance (Lindeberg et al., 2007)

Weight Loss: Both groups lost a significant amount of weight, 5 kg (11 lbs) in the paleo group and 3.8 kg (8.4 lbs) in the control group. However, the difference was not statistically significant between groups (Lindeberg et al., 2007). The paleo diet group had a 5.6 cm (2.2 inches) reduction in waist circumference, compared to 2.9 cm (1.1 inches) in the control group. The difference was statistically significant.A few important points:The 2-hour Area Under the Curve (AUC) for blood glucose went down by 36% in the paleo group, compared to 7% in the control group.Every patient in the paleo group ended up having normal blood sugars, compared to 7 of 15 patients in the control group.The paleo group ended up eating 451 fewer calories per day (1344 compared to 1795) without intentionally restricting calories or portions (Lindeberg et al., 2007). Conclusion: A Palaeolithic diet lead to greater improvements in waist circumference and glycemic control, compared to a Mediterranean-like diet.

Osterdahl M, et al. Effects of a short-term intervention with a paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008.

Osterdahl M, et al., (2008) had 14 healthy medical students (5 male, 9 female) were instructed to eat a Palaeolithic diet for 3 weeks. There was no control group. Weight Loss: Weight decreased by 2.3 kg (5 lbs), body mass index decreased by 0.8 and waist circumference went down by 1.5 cm (0.6 inches). Other Markers: Systolic blood pressure went down by 3 mmHg. Conclusion: The individuals lost weight and had a mild reduction in waist circumference and systolic blood pressure.

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Need a break?

See part 2 of the results yourself here from living a Palaeolithic lifestyle [3] .

Jonsson T, et al. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 2009.

Jonsson T., et al., (2009) had 13 individuals with type 2 diabetes were placed on either a Palaeolithic diet or a typical Diabetes diet in a cross-over study. They were on each diet for 3 months at a time. Weight Loss: On the paleo diet, the participants lost 3 kg (6.6 lbs) and lost 4 cm (1.6 inches) more off of their waistlines, compared to the Diabetes diet (Jonsson T, et al., 2009) Other Markers: HbA1c (a marker for 3-month blood sugar levels) decreased by 0,4% more on the paleo diet. HDL increased by 3 mg/dL (0.08 mmol/L) on the paleo diet compared to the Diabetes diet. Triglycerides went down by 35 mg/dL (0.4 mmol/L) on the paleo diet compared to the Diabetes diet. In conclusion the paleo diet caused more weight loss and several improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, compared to a Diabetes diet.

Frassetto, et al. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009.

9 healthy individuals consumed a Palaeolithic diet for 10 days. Calories were controlled to ensure that they wouldn’t lose weight. There was no control group. Health Effects: Total Cholesterol went down by 16%. LDL Cholesterol went down by 22%. Triglycerides went down by 35%. Insulin AUC went down by 39%. Diastolic Blood Pressure went down by 3.4 mmHg.

Ryberg, et al. A Palaeolithic-type diet causes strong tissue-specific effects on ectopic fat deposition in obese postmenopausal women, Journal of internal medicine, 2013.

10 healthy women with a BMI over 27 consumed a modified Palaeolithic diet for 5 weeks. There was no control group. Main outcomes measured were liver fat, muscle cell fat and insulin sensitivity. Weight Loss: The women lost an average of 4.5 kg (9.9 lbs) and had an 8 cm (3.1 inches) reduction in waist circumference. Liver and Muscle Fat: The fat content of liver and muscle cells are a risk factor for metabolic disease. In this study, the women had an average reduction in liver fat of 49%, but no significant effect on the fat content of muscle cells. Other health effects were that their blood pressure went down from an average of 125/82 mmHg to 115/75 mmHg, although it was only statistically significant for diastolic blood pressure (the lower number). Fasting blood sugars decreased by 6.35 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L) and fasting insulin levels decreased by 19%. Total cholesterol decreased by 33 mg/dL (0.85 mmol/L). Triglycerides went down by 35 mg/dL (0.39 mmol/L). LDL cholesterol went down by 25 mg/dL (0.65 mmol/L). HDL cholesterol decreased by 7 mg/dL (0.18 mmol/L). ApoB decreased by 129 mg/L (14.3%). we saw as the 5 week trial went on, the women lost weight and had major reductions in liver fat. They also had improvements in several other important health areas in their bodies.


The point of living a Palaeolithic lifestyle is to eat wholesome fresh foods that are naturally derived and not at all processed. A major motivation to change to a Palaeolithic diet is people that are concerned with their health and a motivation for people to change from their unhealthy and poor diets to overcome this poor diet and evolve into eating nutritionally dense foods that fuel your body with minerals and vitamins. The key motivation that people have when they do change their lifestyle to a Palaeolithic one is changing their health overall. Whether this be a skin condition, they want to get off their medication that has not been working, such as medication for High Blood Pressure, Diabetes and even for allergies such as hay-fever. Eating nutrient based foods such as foods on the Paleo diet will help feed your brain the types of foods it needs, which will help make you feel better mentally. People have shown that being on the Paleo diet after only just a few weeks or months that they are able to go off their meds that they could have been on for cholesterol blood pressure and even diabetes. Parents with a Palaeolithic lifestyle are able to communicate and be a role model for healthy living. Parents are able to teach their children about natural food that will give them the vitamins and minerals that they need to grow and hopefully the children adapt this way and continue it throughout their lives. It is the change that we need in our lives in order for humans to continue to thrive, otherwise these Western foods are slowly starting to kill us slowly. These foods are giving us cancers, cardiovascular disease and many more. The reason why many people are motivated in changing there diet to a Palaeolithic lifestyle is that it is clear that by cutting out processed foods and foods that our body can not digest, after these are all taken out of diets then we are able to see phenomenal health results. There are a lot of misconceptions on how are food these days are being made and processed. Many people are on diets that seems as though they are being healthy however there are no diets quite like the Palaeolithic way of living. People who are sick with high blood pressure or are overweight will see phenomenal results after eating a Paleo diet for a couple of weeks. For someone who has an illness and they have been battling with this illness for months or possibly years would be highly motivated in something that is so simple as changing your diet for the better and retrieving your life back.

See also[edit]


1 Brand Miller, Neil Mann and Loren Cordain, Paleolithic nutrition: what did our ancestors eat?, 2009.}}

2 Tommy Johnson et al, Biomed central, Cardiovascular Diabetology, 2009}}



5 Steffan Lindeberg, loren cordain and s. boyd eaton, Biological and Clinical Potential of a paleolithic diet, taylor and francis, pp 149 – 160, 2003

6 Manolis M Georgiadis, Stuart JH Biddle And Nektarios A Stavrou, Motivation for weight-loss diets: A clustering, longitudinal field study using self-esteem and self-determination theory perspectives, 2008.

7 Geoffrey C, Williams, Zachary R, Freedman, Edward, L Deci, Supporting autonomy to motivate patients with diabetes for glucose control, 2014.

8 2014.

9 2010.

10 Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Deci, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions, 1999.

11 L. A Frassetto et al., Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a Paleolithic, hunter- gatherer type diet, 2009.

12 Ryberg, et al. A Palaeolithic-type diet causes strong tissue-specific effects on ectopic fat deposition in obese postmenopausal women. Journal of Internal Medicine, 2013.

13 Frassetto, et al. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009.

14 Jonsson T, et al. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 2009.

15 Osterdahl M, et al. Effects of a short-term intervention with a paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008.

16 Lindeberg S, et al. A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Diabetologia, 2007.

17 Nevid, J. (2013). Psychology: Concepts and applications. Belmont, CA: Wadworth.

18 Johnmarshall Reeve, Understanding Motivation and Emotion, Wiley, 2015.

19 Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Psychology, 53 (1), 27. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall.

20 Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory (1971). Stanford University, Library of Congress Catalogue.

External Links[edit]